How to Trip Rapid Review

Step 1: Select articles relevant to your search (remember the system is only optimised for single intervention studies)

Step 2: press

Step 3: review the result, and maybe amend the or if you know better! If we're unsure of the overall sentiment of the trial we will display the conclusion under the article title. We then require you to tell us what the correct sentiment is.

224 results for

Fractional Excretion of Bicarbonate

by
...
Alerts

Export results

Use check boxes to select individual results below

SmartSearch available

Trip's SmartSearch engine has discovered connected searches & results. Click to show

21. Sodium and Potassium Intake: Effects on Chronic Disease Outcomes and Risks

is unclear regarding the effect of reducing sodium intake on the incidence of hypertension (because of the small number of trials). Prospective cohort studies suggest an association between lower urinary sodium excretion and reduced risk for hypertension (low SoE because of high RoB and lack of consistency). viii Only a small number of RCTs assessed the effects of sodium reduction on longer term chronic disease outcomes: Sodium reduction decreased the risk for the combined outcome of CVD mortality (...) cardiovascular disease event in sodium reduction trials (as reported by the study authors) 66 Figure 23. Relative risk for combined CVD morbidity and mortality 66 Figure 24. Categorical analysis of the association between urinary sodium levels and total mortality outcome in generally healthy populations (data from studies rated low or moderate RoB). 71 Panel a. 24-hour urinary excretion measures 71 Panel b. Dietary sodium intake measures 71 Figure 25. Random-effects model meta-analysis of adjusted relative

2018 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

22. When and how to treat hyponatremia in the ED

- or hypervolemia. Edema, ascites, pulmonary effusion Investigations Urine sodium excretion (<20-30 mmol/L), fractional excretion of uric acid, trial of volume expansion Urine sodium excretion (>20-30 mmol/L), trial of volume expansion Urine sodium excretion (<20-30 mmol/L), Elevated BUN Notes on Treatment Correction of volume deficit, treatment of underlying disease, avoiding over-rapid correction. In case of cerebral salt wasting, do NOT restrict fluids See guidelines for recommended treatment by specific (...) /L, bicarbonate 24 mmol/L Glucose : 4.3 mmol/L CBC : Normal TSH : Normal Urinalysis : Normal Troponin I: Normal CXR : Normal ECG : Normal Definition, classification, and causes of hyponatremia Hyponatremia occurs when there is an excess of water relative to sodium, defined as a serum sodium concentration below 135 mmol/L. Specific cut-offs can vary between guidelines and other sources 1–4 Mild – 130-135 mmol/L Moderate – 120-129 mmol/L Profound/Severe – <120 mmol/L Hyponatremia can also

2018 CandiEM

24. Diagnosis and Treatment of Peripheral Arterial Diseases

in the case of CKD, with precautions in case of allergies. Nephrotoxicity can be limited by minimizing contrast agent volume and ensuring adequate hydration before and after imaging. The benefit of acetyl-cysteine to limit nephrotoxicity is uncertain. , Recent studies have suggested that statins or sodium bicarbonate could prevent contrast agent nephrotoxicity. , Further research is required. 4.1.4.5 Magnetic resonance angiography MRA is used for peripheral artery imaging using contrast (i.e. gadolinium

2017 European Society of Cardiology

25. Patiromer (Veltassa) - hyperkalaemia

mortality risk. While rare in the healthy individuals with normal renal function, the prevalence of hyperkalaemia in patients with renal insufficiency or chronic kidney disease (CKD) ranges from 5% to 50% and increases as renal function declines. Thus, patients most at risk of hyperkalaemia are those with compromised renal excretion of potassium, primarily patients with CKD and/or patients being treated with drugs that inhibit renal potassium excretion, including renin angiotensin aldosterone system (...) , potassium is at high concentration relative to other cations. In CKD, urinary excretion of potassium decreases and colonic secretion of potassium increases substantially. Hyperkalaemia can present as a consequence of a number of acute clinical conditions that occur in a hospital setting. Based on literature data, approximately 14% of patients experienced a hyperkaliaemic event and the rate was higher in patients with CKD than in those without CKD. Acute clinical conditions such as tumour lysis syndrome

2017 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

26. Effects of Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intake on Chronic Disease Outcomes and Risks

is unclear regarding the effect of reducing sodium intake on the incidence of hypertension (because of the small number of trials). Prospective cohort studies suggest an association between lower urinary sodium excretion and reduced risk for hypertension (low SoE because of high RoB and lack of consistency). viii Only a small number of RCTs assessed the effects of sodium reduction on longer term chronic disease outcomes: Sodium reduction decreased the risk for the combined outcome of CVD mortality (...) cardiovascular disease event in sodium reduction trials (as reported by the study authors) 66 Figure 23. Relative risk for combined CVD morbidity and mortality 66 Figure 24. Categorical analysis of the association between urinary sodium levels and total mortality outcome in generally healthy populations (data from studies rated low or moderate RoB). 71 Panel a. 24-hour urinary excretion measures 71 Panel b. Dietary sodium intake measures 71 Figure 25. Random-effects model meta-analysis of adjusted relative

2018 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

27. CRACKCast E144 – High Altitude Medicine

in the gradual return of the resting heart rate to near sea-level values. Continued resting tachycardia is evidence of poor acclimatization. 1.3 Release of erythropoietin (in hours: but the response is delayed) Leading to new circulatory red blood cells in 4 or 5 days. During the next 2 months, red blood cell mass increases in proportion to the degree of hypoxemia. Delayed (days to weeks) Renal excretion of bicarbonate to adapt to the respiratory alkalotic state induced by the HVR, Maximum rate/amount by 6-8 (...) who ascend to moderate altitudes do not appear to have an increased incidence of AMS. Travelers with mild stable CAD should be advised to ascend gradually, to limit activity especially in the first few days at elevation, and to continue anti-anginal and antihypertensive medications. Individuals who have more severe, symptomatic coronary disease or those in a high-risk group (low ejection fraction, abnormal stress test results, and high-grade ventricular ectopy) should avoid travel to high

2018 CandiEM

28. Guidelines for the Provision and Assessment of Nutrition Support Therapy in the Pediatric Critically Ill Patient

were <30 d old Urinary urea nitrogen excretion may underestimate total nitrogen excretion. Mehta et al Prospective cohort; single center To examine if a model for targeting IC measurements to a select group of PICU patients by a dedicated nutrition team could prevent unintended excesses or deficits in energy balance n = 14 Critically ill children 50% postoperative Mean age (range): 11.2 y (1.6 mo to 32 y) Altered metabolism: 13 of 14 subjects, 15 of 16 measurements (94%) Average daily energy (...) . The metabolic state did not correlate with standard clinical characteristics and therefore could not be accurately predicted. Limitations: small sample size. Sy et al Prospective cohort; single center To estimate MREE with bicarbonate kinetics and to compare bicarbonate kinetics with MREE estimated via FAO/WHO/UNU and Schofield equations in 3 groups: 1 receiving PN, 1 receiving EN, and 1 receiving glucose‐electrolytes n = 31 Critically ill children Mean age (SD), PN group (n = 12): 7.8 y (7.4 y) EN group (n

2017 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition

29. Avibactam sodium / ceftazidime (Avycaz)

diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting). All BL-BLI combinations are primarily excreted through the kidneys and require dosage adjustment with impaired renal function. Table 7: Currently Approved ß-lactam/ß-lactamase Inhibitor Combinations Generic name Trade name Year of approval Amoxicillin clavulanate Augmentin 1984 Ticarcillin clavulanate Timentin 1985 Ampicillin-sulbactam Unasyn 1986 Piperacillin-tazobactam Zosyn 1993 Ceftolozane-tazobactam Zerbaxa 2014 ZERBAXA ? , a combination of ceftolozane (a semi

2015 FDA - Drug Approval Package

30. Fexeric - ferric citrate coordination complex

with phosphate in the presence of HCl. 2.3. Non-clinical aspects 2.3.1. Introduction Fexeric (ferric citrate coordination complex, also referred to as KRX-0502, ferric citrate or JTT-751) is an oral iron-based phosphate binder. KRX-0502 reduces intestinal absorption of phosphate as ferric [Fe 3+ ] iron reacts with ingested phosphate to form an insoluble ferric phosphate complex in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which is excreted in the stool. As Fexeric is an iron-based phosphate binder, a small fraction (...) opinion and Assessment Report were adopted by the CHMP on 30 July 2015 in order to reflect the NAS status and conduct of PASS. 2. Scientific discussion 2.1. Introduction Hyperphosphataemia (HP) is an electrolyte disturbance characterised by increased serum phosphorus, related to imbalance in the dietary phosphate intake and excretion in the urine. Increased serum phosphorus levels results in: Stimulation of parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion and parathyroid gland hyperplasia, with the development

2015 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

31. Ravicti - glycerol phenylbutyrate

at steady state C min minimum plasma concentration CNS central nervous system CoA coenzyme A CPS carbamoyl phosphate synthetase CSR clinical study report CYP cytochrome P450 e.g. for example ECAC executive carcinogenicity assessment committee ECG electrocardiogram EMA European Medicines Agency EOP2 end of phase 2 EU European Union FDA Food and Drug Administration Fe fraction excreted in urine GCP good clinical practices GD gestation day GLP Good Laboratory Practice GPB glycerol phenylbutyrate GPB (...) organ class SPA special Protocol Assessment TEAE treatment-emergent adverse event TESAE treatment-emergent serious adverse event TID three times daily Tmax time to maximum plasma concentration UCD urea cycle disorder ULN upper limit of normal U-PAGN urinary PAGN U-PAGN 0-24 urinary phenylacetylglutamine excreted from 0–24 h US United States WASI ® Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence WHO world health organization Assessment report EMA/676925/2015 Page 7/89 1. Background information

2015 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

33. Gastrointestinal Complications (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

. Stimulant laxatives Stimulant laxatives increase motor activity of the bowels by direct action on the intestines. Onset: 6 to 10 hours. Caution: Prolonged use of these drugs causes laxative dependency and loss of normal bowel function. Prolonged use of danthron discolors rectal mucosa and discolors alkaline urine red. Bisacodyl must be excreted in bile to be active and is not effective with biliary obstruction or diversion. Avoid bisacodyl with known or suspected ulcerative lesions of the colon (...) glycol (227.1 g), sodium chloride (5.53 g), potassium chloride (2.82 g), sodium bicarbonate (6.36 g), and sodium sulfate (anhydrous, 21.5 g). Do not add flavorings. Serve chilled to improve palatability. Can be stored up to 48 hours in the refrigerator. Use: To clear bowel with minimal water and sodium loss or gain. Opioid antagonists (naloxone, methylnaltrexone, naldemedine) Caution: Administer only if other drugs have failed. Subcutaneous methylnaltrexone, 0.15 mg per kilogram of body weight, can

2018 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

34. Palliative care - oral

cause oral discomfort and pain and poor nutrition, and can lead to hospitalization and interruption of treatment. Some people may have life-threatening infection (septicaemia) [ ]. A systematic review aimed to determine the incidence and associated outcomes of mucositis [ ]: Three studies (n = 700) reported hospitalization rates of 15% overall and 32% in people who received altered fractionated radiotherapy. Five studies (n = 1267) reported that 11% of radiotherapy regimens were interrupted (...) for long-term use: Effervescent ascorbic acid solution is widely used, but citric acid can damage tooth enamel, and high sugar levels can promote fungal growth [ ]. These preparations should therefore be avoided in people who have their own teeth. Sodium bicarbonate 1% mouthwash is used by some, but it has an unpleasant taste, and higher concentrations can irritate the oral mucosa [ ]. Hydrogen peroxide 1.5% mouthwash is also used because its foaming action helps to remove debris. However, many people

2018 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

35. The Treatment of Central Sleep Apnea Syndromes in Adults: Practice Parameters with an Evidence-Based Literature Review and Meta-Analyses

ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF =45%) using ASV for treatment of CSAS are at an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. The updated recommendation is an essential supplement to the practice parameter document: Aurora RN, Bista SR, Casey KR, Chowdhuri S, Kristo DA, Mallea JM, Ramar K, Rowley JA, Zak RS, Heald JL. Updated adaptive servo-ventilation recommendations for the 2012 AASM guideline: “The Treatment of Central Sleep Apnea Syndromes in Adults: Practice Parameters with an Evidence-Based (...) for the treatment of primary CSAS. (OPTION) • Acetazolamide has limited supporting evidence but may be considered for the treatment of primary CSAS. (OPTION) • The use of zolpidem and triazolam may be considered for the treatment of primary CSAS only if the patient does not have underlying risk factors for respiratory depression. (OPTION) • The following possible treatment options for CSAS related to end-stage renal disease may be considered: CPAP, supplemental oxygen, bicarbonate buffer use during dialysis

2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

36. Salt Sensitivity of Blood Pressure (Full text)

influence of age and baseline BP level. Physiology of SSBP Research into the possible physiological mechanisms determining SSBP has been driven mostly by a conceptual framework derived from the work of Guyton and coworkers. The major tenet of such framework is that 1 or many mechanisms that normally regulate the adaptation of the cardiovascular system to a salt load must be impaired in SSBP. This somehow leads to the need for the whole animal to raise BP to excrete the salt load via pressure natriuresis (...) . The result is that an SS animal or human being will be able to maintain a normal salt balance at the expense of developing hypertension, the main feature of SSBP. Obviously, the putative defect can involve a variety of mechanisms. Activation of a natriuretic system required to excrete a salt load (eg, natriuretic peptides, renal eicosanoids) may be impaired, or conversely, lack of physiological suppression of an antinatriuretic system in response to a salt load (eg, mineralocorticoid or renal transport

2016 American Heart Association

37. Drugs That May Cause or Exacerbate Heart Failure (Full text)

Moderate C Terazosin x Moderate C Abl indicates Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene; AMP-kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase; AV, atrioventricular; c-kit, tyrosine protein kinase kit; COX-2, cyclooxygenase-2; Erb-B2, Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2; 5-FU, 5-fluorouracil; Flt-3, Fms-like tyrosine kinase; HF, heart failure; IgE, immunoglobulin E; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; NSAID, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; NYHA, New York Heart Association; PD, phosphodiesterase; PDGFR (...) patient had a 50% decrease in heart rate compared with baseline in the first 3 hours of infusion. In neurocritical care patients, dexmedetomidine exhibited similar incidences of severe hypotension (mean arterial pressure <60 mm Hg) and bradycardia (heart rate <50 bpm) compared with propofol. Antidiabetic Medications Biguanides Metformin is a biguanide insulin sensitizer that reduces hepatic gluconeogenesis. Ninety percent of the drug is eliminated by renal excretion. Although considered a first-line

2016 American Heart Association

39. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) for gastrointestinal surgery, part 2: consensus statement for anaesthesia practice

. Therefore, one of the highest priorities of the anaesthesiologist is to try to ensure a patient does not become hypoxic to avoid interruption of cellular metabolism. Oxygen is widely available in anaesthesia and has traditionally been added to increase the inspired fraction of oxygen above 21% to overcome hypoxia under anaesthesia caused by physiological changes such as pulmonary shunt. Although increasing the FiO 2 is necessary to overcome hypoxia there has been increasing recognition that hyperoxia (...) concentrations (60%; 80%; 100%) of oxygen for 5 min prior to the induction of anaesthesia. Computed tomography showed an increase in atelectasis in the 100% inspired oxygen group although patients took longer to desaturate. The use of 80% oxygen in a subgroup of the PROXI study and in a recent meta‐analysis also did not demonstrate any increased risk of pulmonary complications. , Summary and recommendations The inspired fractional concentration of oxygen should be titrated to produce normal arterial oxygen

2015 ERAS Society

40. Cardiac Arrest in Pregnancy

respiratory alkalosis with compensatory renal excretion of bicarbonate, resulting in an arterial carbon dioxide pressure of ≈28 to 32 mm Hg (3.7–4.3 kPa) and a plasma bicarbonate level of 18 to 21 mEq/L. Oxygen consumption increases because of the demands of the fetus and maternal metabolic processes, reaching a level 20% to 33% above baseline by the third trimester. The reduced functional residual capacity reservoir and increased consumption of oxygen are responsible for the rapid development (...) age. As a result, the supine position, which is most favorable for resuscitation, can lead to hypotension. , A magnetic resonance imaging study comparing the maternal hemodynamics in the left lateral position with those in the supine position was performed. This study found that at 20 weeks of gestational age, there was a significant increase in ejection fraction of 8% and stroke volume of 27% in the left lateral position. At 32 weeks, there was a significant increase in ejection fraction of 11

2015 American Heart Association

To help you find the content you need quickly, you can filter your results via the categories on the right-hand side >>>>