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223 results for

Fractional Excretion of Bicarbonate

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201. Effect of dietary cation-anion difference and dietary crude protein on milk yield, acid-base chemistry, and rumen fermentation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

with high CP. Serum bicarbonate concentration, urinary bicarbonate excretion, blood pH, and serum Na were elevated for high DCAD compared with low DCAD. Fractional excretion of Na, K, Cl, and Ca increased for high DCAD. Blood urea N and urinary urea N were greater for high than for low CP diets. No differences due to DCAD were observed for these parameters. Results of this study suggest that, in early lactation cows, blood acid-base chemistry is altered by differences in DCAD that range between the high (...) in a randomized complete block design to provide 15 or 17% CP and DCAD of 25 or 50 mEq (Na + K - Cl)/100 g of feed dry matter [15 or 39 mEq (Na + K) - (Cl + S)/100 g of feed dry matter]. High DCAD improved dry matter intake, milk yield, and concentrations of milk fat and protein. An interaction of DCAD and CP was observed for uric acid excretion, an indicator of microbial protein yield. Uric acid excretion was higher for high DCAD than for low DCAD in low CP diets and was similar for low and high DCAD

2007 Journal of dairy science Controlled trial quality: uncertain

202. Familial pure proximal renal tubular acidosis a clinical and genetic study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

in the proximal tubule. The genes studied were as follows: CA II, CA IV, CA XIV, NCB1, Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE)-3, NHE-8, the regulatory proteins of NHE3, NHRF1 and NHRF2 and the Cl(-)/HCO(-)(3) exchanger, SLC26A6.The father and all four children had RTA with blood HCO(-)(3) levels of 11-14 meq/l and urine pH of 5.3-5.4. Increased HCO(-)(3) fractional excretion after bicarbonate loading to 40-60% confirmed the diagnosis pRTA. No other tubular dysfunction was found, and no organ system dysfunction

2007 Transplantation

203. Biochemical and stone-risk profiles with topiramate treatment. (Abstract)

-treated subjects and 50 healthy volunteers participated in a cross-sectional study in which serum chemistry test and 24-hour urine collection results were evaluated for stone risk. Furthermore, a short-term longitudinal study was conducted in 7 patients to assess stone risk before and 3 months after topiramate treatment.Serum bicarbonate levels were lower with topiramate treatment. Urinary pH, urinary bicarbonate excretion, and fractional excretion of bicarbonate increased, whereas urinary citrate (...) excretion was significantly lower (737 +/- 329 versus 278 +/- 226 mg/d; P < 0.001). Net acid excretion did not change. The relative saturation ratio for brushite increased with topiramate treatment (3.14 +/- 1.69 versus 1.27 +/- 1.26; P < 0.001) because of urinary alkalinization and decreased urinary citrate levels. Urinary saturation of undissociated uric acid decreased (41 +/- 52 versus 76 +/- 60 mg/d; P < 0.001).Treatment with topiramate causes systemic metabolic acidosis, markedly lower urinary

2006 American Journal of Kidney Diseases

204. Complete renal tubular acidosis late after kidney transplantation. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Complete renal tubular acidosis late after kidney transplantation. Neither the prevalence nor the associated risk factors of late post-transplant renal tubular acidosis (RTA) are known.We conducted a cross-sectional study with 576 patients for more than 12 months after kidney transplantation, and a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) >40 ml/min. RTA was diagnosed by measurement of the urine anionic gap, urine pH and plasma potassium during acidosis, and fractional bicarbonate excretion after (...) bicarbonate loading. Uni- and multi-variable analysis were used to isolate factors associated with post-transplant RTA, and with the different RTA subtypes.All patients (n = 76) had distal post-transplant RTA. A significant association with the presence of RTA was found for the intake of tacrolimus or renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockers, the Parathyroid hormone level and the GFR. Type Ia (classic, distal), type Ib (hyperkalaemic, voltage-dependent), rate-limited and type IV RTA were present in 37, 14

2006 Transplantation

205. Isolation of Intact Chloroplasts from Dunaliella tertiolecta Full Text available with Trip Pro

chloroplasts with 10 millimolar bicarbonate evolved 24 micromoles of O(2) and fixed 21 micromoles of CO(2) per hour per milligram of chlorophyll, which rates were about one-third of those by whole cells. The inhibition of oxygen evolution by 10 millimolar phosphate was reversed by P-glycerate. Whole chloroplasts were also isolated from cells adapted to low CO(2) in air for 24 hours. On low CO(2) the cells excreted more gelatinous material, which had to be removed with additional washing of the cells (...) to 50% yield based on chlorophyll and were stable to washing with buffered medium. Isolated chloroplast yield and purity was dependent on cell culture condition; a cycle of 16 hours light and 8 hours dark with continuous high CO(2) was optimum. Isolated chloroplasts were about 90% intact by microscopic examination, ferricyanide-dependent O(2) evolution, and the distribution of four stromal enzymes. Enzymes associated with glycolate metabolism were not in the chloroplast fraction. The isolated

1988 Plant physiology

206. Effect of oral charcoal and urine pH on dextropropoxyphene pharmacokinetics. (Abstract)

Effect of oral charcoal and urine pH on dextropropoxyphene pharmacokinetics. The effects of orally given activated charcoal, sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride on the pharmacokinetics of dextropropoxyphene were studied in six volunteers in a randomized, cross-over study. Serum and urine concentrations of dextropropoxyphene and norpropoxyphene were determined by GLC up to 72 h. Activated charcoal (50 g) given 5 min after dextropropoxyphene hydrochloride (130 mg), reduced its absorption (...) by 97-99%. When given in repeated doses from 6 h on, 50 g followed by 12.5 g at 6 h intervals, charcoal significantly shortened the terminal serum half-life of dextropropoxyphene from 31.1 +/- 4.2 h to 21.2 +/- 3.1 h (p less than 0.05) and that of norpropoxyphene from 34.4 +/- 2.5 h to 19.8 +/- 3.4 h (p less than 0.001), and reduced their excretion into urine. The cumulative urinary excretion of unchanged dextropropoxyphene was increased 6-fold by acidification and reduced to 1/20 by alkalinization

1985 International journal of clinical pharmacology, therapy, and toxicology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

207. Pharmacokinetics of amitriptyline influenced by oral charcoal and urine pH. (Abstract)

Pharmacokinetics of amitriptyline influenced by oral charcoal and urine pH. The effects of orally given activated charcoal, sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride on the pharmacokinetics of amitriptyline were studied in 6 volunteers in a randomized, cross-over study. The serum and urine concentrations of amitriptyline and nortriptyline were determined by HPLC for up to 72 h. Activated charcoal (50 g), given within 5 min of the amitriptyline hydrochloride dose (75 mg), reduced its absorption (...) by 99%. When given in repeated doses from 6 h on, 50 g followed by 12.5 g at 6-h intervals, charcoal shortened the serum half-life of amitriptyline by 20% and that of nortriptyline by 35% (p less than 0.05). The renal excretions of amitriptyline and nortriptyline increased 1000-fold by the acidification of urine pH to 4. However, the cumulative excretion of amitriptyline and nortriptyline even into acidic urine only accounted for up to 5% of the dose during 72 h. Since urinary pH has a great

1986 International journal of clinical pharmacology, therapy, and toxicology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

208. Functional role of endogenous adenosine in human chronic renal disease. (Abstract)

and plasma renin concentrations were assessed at baseline and after the dose on each study day. There were no significant changes in mean arterial blood pressure, effective renal plasma flow (clearance of 125I-hippuran) or glomerular filtration rate (clearance of 51Cr-EDTA) in response to FK453 in either group. In contrast, there were statistically significant increases in urine flow rate and osmolar clearance, as well as absolute and fractional sodium, phosphate, bicarbonate, lithium, uric acid (...) , magnesium and chloride excretion in response to FK453 in both groups of patients. There was, in addition, a significant increase in the plasma renin concentration in response to FK453 in both groups. These data would be consistent with a regulatory role for adenosine in chronic renal disease in the control of tubular function, especially proximal, as well as plasma renin release by activation of the A1 receptor.

1996 Experimental nephrology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

209. Distal tubular acidosis induced by FK506. (Abstract)

as compared to 58 +/- 6 mL in group 2. Plasma renin activity (0.6 +/- 0.4 ng/mL vs 2.3 +/- 3; p < 0.01) and aldosterone (69 +/- 17 vs 157 +/- 28.2 pg/mL; p < 0.05) were significantly decreased during treatment with FK506. Fractional HCO3 excretion was low in both groups, indicating that bicarbonate reabsorption in the proximal nephron was unimpaired. Distal renal tubular acidosis was demonstrated in 4 patients of group 1 but in only 1 of group 2. Potassium levels were slightly increased in patients

1998 Clinical transplantation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

210. Ammonium Handling by Superficial and Juxtamedullary Nephrons in the Rat: EVIDENCE FOR AN AMMONIA SHUNT BETWEEN THE LOOP OF HENLE AND THE COLLECTING DUCT Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ammonium Handling by Superficial and Juxtamedullary Nephrons in the Rat: EVIDENCE FOR AN AMMONIA SHUNT BETWEEN THE LOOP OF HENLE AND THE COLLECTING DUCT Papillary and surface micropuncture was used to assess the effects of a chronic metabolic acidosis on the renal tubular handling of ammonium by surface nephrons, juxtamedullary nephrons, and the terminal segment of collecting duct. Rats chronically fed ammonium chloride had an expected decline in arterial pH and bicarbonate concentration (...) associated with a doubling in the amount of ammonium excreted and a decline in urine pH. The glomerular filtration rate and absolute delivery of water and sodium to micropuncture sites of surface and deep nephrons was not measurably altered. Ammonium delivery to the end of the proximal tubule increased from 853+/-102% to 1,197+/-142% (SE) of the filtered load of ammonium after the induction of metabolic acidosis. This increase was due to a rise in tubular fluid ammonium content from 2.31+/-0.23 to 4.06

1982 Journal of Clinical Investigation

211. Segmental chloride and fluid handling during correction of chloride-depletion alkalosis without volume expansion in the rat. Full Text available with Trip Pro

solutions containing the same Cl and total CO2 (tCO2) concentrations as in postdialysis plasma at rates shown to be associated with slight but stable volume contraction. During the subsequent 6 h, serum Cl and tCO2 concentrations remained stable and normal in CON and corrected towards normal in CDA; urinary chloride excretion was less and bicarbonate excretion greater than those in CON during this period. Micropuncture and microinjection studies were performed in the 3rd h after dialysis. Plasma volumes (...) determined by 125I-albumin were not different. Inulin clearance and fractional chloride excretion were lower (P less than 0.05) in CDA. Superficial nephron glomerular filtration rate determined from distal puncture sites was lower (P less than 0.02) in CDA (27.9 +/- 2.3 nl/min) compared with that in CON (37.9 +/- 2.6). Fractional fluid and chloride reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubule and within the loop segment did not differ. Fractional chloride delivery to the early distal convolution did

1984 Journal of Clinical Investigation

212. Effect of acute hypercapnia on renal and proximal tubular total carbon dioxide reabsorption in the acetazolamide-treated rat. Full Text available with Trip Pro

hypercapnia (arterial PCO2, 120 mmHg; blood pH, 7.02) was induced by ventilation with a 10% CO2-90% O2 gas mixture. Control rats (PCO2, 49.5 mmHg, pH 7.34) were ventilated with room air. The renal fractional excretion of tCO2 was approximately 20% lower in the hypercapnic group compared with the rats given acetazolamide alone. Acute hypercapnia reduced the fractional delivery of tCO2 to the late proximal tubule by a comparable amount. The absolute proximal reabsorption of tCO2 was increased by hypercapnia (...) during acute hypercapnia, but absolute and fractional proximal tCO2 reabsorption remained elevated in comparison to denervated controls. The concentration of H2CO3 in the late proximal tubule, calculated from the measured luminal pH and bicarbonate concentration and the estimated cortical PCO2, was higher in the hypercapnic group, which was a finding compatible with H2CO3 cycling from lumen into proximal tubular cell, which provided a source of hydrogen ions for secretion.

1986 Journal of Clinical Investigation

213. Effect of Reduced Renal Mass on Ammonium Handling and Net Acid Formation by the Superficial and Juxtamedullary Nephron of the Rat: EVIDENCE FOR IMPAIRED REENTRAPMENT RATHER THAN DECREASED PRODUCTION OF AMMONIUM IN THE ACIDOSIS OF UREMIA Full Text available with Trip Pro

. In both groups FD(NH+4) to the base of the CD was greater than to the end of the distal tubule. However, the increase was the same. On the other hand, the increase in the net acid index between the end of the distal tubule and the base of the CD was profoundly greater in rats with an RK. This difference was primarily due to bicarbonate reabsorption rather than enhanced ammonium reentry. Indeed, >400% of the fractional ammonium delivered to the end of the proximal tubule was lost from the tubule fluid (...) Effect of Reduced Renal Mass on Ammonium Handling and Net Acid Formation by the Superficial and Juxtamedullary Nephron of the Rat: EVIDENCE FOR IMPAIRED REENTRAPMENT RATHER THAN DECREASED PRODUCTION OF AMMONIUM IN THE ACIDOSIS OF UREMIA Papillary and surface micropuncture were used to study the handling of ammonium and the formation of net acid by surface nephrons, deep nephrons, and the terminal segment of collecting duct (CD) after renal mass was reduced by two-thirds. Net acid excretion

1983 Journal of Clinical Investigation

214. A potential role for endogenous adenosine in control of human glomerular and tubular function. (Abstract)

of 51Cr-labeled EDTA) rose by 18.0%, 3 h after the administration of 100 mg of FK-453 and by 18.3% and 23.5%, 2 and 3 h, respectively, after the 200-mg dose, which was significantly different from the changes following placebo. There were no significant changes in mean arterial blood pressure or effective renal plasma flow (clearance of 125I-Hippuran). In contrast there were statistically significant increases in urine flow rate and osmolar clearance, as well as absolute and fractional excretions (...) of sodium, phosphate, bicarbonate, chloride, magnesium, and uric acid in response to FK-453. No glycosuria or aminoaciduria was detected on urinalysis. There was, in addition, a marked increase in PRC in response to FK-453.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

1993 The American journal of physiology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

215. A Study to Evaluate the Effects of SB-751689 or rhPTH(1-34) on Excretion of Calcium and Phosphate in Women

100 mg Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : renal fractional clearance of calcium and phosphate [ Time Frame: over 1 month ] Secondary Outcome Measures : renal fraction clearance of electrolytes, cAMP, safety measures, and serum biomarkers [ Time Frame: over 1 month ] urinary excretion of sodium, magnesium, potassium, bicarbonate, and chloride Albumin-adjusted serum calcium levels Vitamin D and P1NP levels Plasma levels of SB-751689 and rhPTH(1-34) Plasma PTH Adverse event reports, 12 (...) of SB-751689 (400 mg or 100 mg) or rhPTH(1-34) on the Fractional Renal Excretion of Calcium and Phosphate in Healthy Postmenopausal Females. Study Start Date : August 2007 Actual Primary Completion Date : January 2008 Actual Study Completion Date : January 2008 Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine related topics: available for: Arms and Interventions Go to Intervention Details: Drug: rhPTH(1-34) Drug: SB-751689 100 mg Drug: SB-751689 400 mg Other Names: rhPTH(1-34) SB-751689

2007 Clinical Trials

216. Hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of manganese in the little skate, Leucoraja erinacea Full Text available with Trip Pro

Hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of manganese in the little skate, Leucoraja erinacea The liver is a major organ involved in regulating whole body manganese (Mn) homeostasis; however, the mechanisms of Mn transport across the hepatocyte basolateral and canalicular membranes remain poorly defined. To gain insight into these transport steps, the present study measured hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of Mn in an evolutionarily primitive marine vertebrate, the elasmobranch Leucoraja (...) erinacea, the little skate. Mn was rapidly removed from the recirculating perfusate of isolated perfused skate livers in a dose-dependent fashion; however, only a small fraction was released into bile (<2% in 6 h). Mn was also rapidly taken up by freshly isolated skate hepatocytes in culture. Mn uptake was inhibited by a variety of divalent metals, but not by cesium. Analysis of the concentration-dependence of Mn uptake revealed of two components, with apparent K(m) values 1.1+/-0.1 microM and 112+/-29

2008 Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Toxicology & pharmacology : CBP

217. Effect of beta-hydroxybutyrate on whole-body leucine kinetics and fractional mixed skeletal muscle protein synthesis in humans. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effect of beta-hydroxybutyrate on whole-body leucine kinetics and fractional mixed skeletal muscle protein synthesis in humans. Because intravenous infusion of beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB) has been reported to decrease urinary nitrogen excretion, we investigated in vivo metabolism of leucine, an essential amino acid, using L-[1-13C]leucine as a tracer during beta-OHB infusion. Leucine flux during beta-OHB infusion did not differ from leucine flux during normal saline infusion in nine normal (...) subjects, whereas leucine oxidation decreased 18-41% (mean = 30%) from 18.1 +/- 1.1 mumol.kg-1.h-1 (P less than 0.01), and incorporation of leucine into skeletal muscle protein increased 5-17% (mean = 10%) from 0.048 + 0.003%/h (P less than 0.02). Since blood pH during beta-OHB infusion was higher than the pH during saline infusion, we performed separate experiments to study the effect of increased blood pH on leucine kinetics by infusing sodium bicarbonate intravenously. Blood pH during sodium

1988 Journal of Clinical Investigation

218. Effects of antidiuretic hormone on urinary acidification and on tubular handling of bicarbonate in the rat. Full Text available with Trip Pro

pH and bicarbonate excretion. Net acid excretion almost doubled in intact rats. We conclude that (a) antidiuretic hormone (ADH) inhibits fractional bicarbonate absorption in the thick ascending limb while stimulating that of chloride at least in TPTX somatostatin-infused rats, and (b) ADH stimulates proton secretion (or inhibits bicarbonate secretion) in the distal tubule and cortical collecting ducts, which leads to enhanced urinary acidification. (...) Effects of antidiuretic hormone on urinary acidification and on tubular handling of bicarbonate in the rat. Paired micropuncture experiments were carried out in plasma-replete volume-expanded rats to examine the acute effects of 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (dDAVP) on urinary acidification and tubular handling of bicarbonate and chloride. No effect was detected on the fractional absorption of water, total CO2, and chloride at end-proximal and early distal sites of superficial nephrons

1987 Journal of Clinical Investigation

219. Internephron heterogeneity for carbonic anhydrase-independent bicarbonate reabsorption in the rat. Full Text available with Trip Pro

administration of acetazolamide (727 +/- 82 vs. 346 +/- 126 pmol/min; P less than 0.05). The infusion of amiloride (2.5 mg/kg bw/h) to acetazolamide-treated rats increased the fractional excretion of bicarbonate as compared with animals treated with acetazolamide alone (34.9 +/- 1.9 vs. 42.9 +/- 2.1%; P less than 0.01), and induced net addition of bicarbonate between the superficial early distal tubule and the final urine (34.8 +/- 3.0 vs. 42.9 +/- 2.1%; P less than 0.05). Amiloride at this dose did (...) , induced significant internephron heterogeneity for bicarbonate reabsorption, with superficial nephrons reabsorbing a higher fractional and absolute load of bicarbonate than juxtamedullary nephrons. We think that the net addition of bicarbonate induced by amiloride is secondary to inhibition of voltage-dependent, carbonic anhydrase-independent bicarbonate reabsorption at the level of the collecting duct, which uncovers a greater delivery of carbonate from deeper nephrons to the collecting duct. Finally

1984 Journal of Clinical Investigation

220. Effects of chloride and extracellular fluid volume on bicarbonate reabsorption along the nephron in metabolic alkalosis in the rat. Reassessment of the classical hypothesis of the pathogenesis of metabolic alkalosis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Effects of chloride and extracellular fluid volume on bicarbonate reabsorption along the nephron in metabolic alkalosis in the rat. Reassessment of the classical hypothesis of the pathogenesis of metabolic alkalosis. Volume expansion has been considered essential for the correction of chloride-depletion metabolic alkalosis (CDA). To examine the predictions of this hypothesis, rats dialyzed against 0.15 M NaHCO3 to produce CDA and controls, CON, dialyzed against Ringer-HCO3 were infused (...) with either 6% albumin (VE) or 80 mM non-sodium chloride salts (CC) added to 5% dextrose (DX) and studied by micropuncture. CDA was maintained in rats infused with DX. VE expanded plasma volume (25%), maintained glomerular filtration rate (GFR), but did not correct CDA despite increased fractional delivery of total CO2 (tCO2) out of the proximal tubule (36 +/- 2%) as compared with VE/CON (24 +/- 4%; P less than 0.05). In contrast, CC corrected CDA despite volume contraction (-16%) and lower GFR than CC

1987 Journal of Clinical Investigation

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