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Fractional Excretion of Potassium

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1. Fractional Excretion of Potassium

Fractional Excretion of Potassium Fractional Excretion of Potassium Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Fractional (...) Excretion of Potassium Fractional Excretion of Potassium Aka: Fractional Excretion of Potassium , FEK II. Indications III. Precautions Results altered by Obtain lab sample prior to intervention if possible Do not delay treatment in emergent IV. Labs and Spot urine for and V. Formula FEK = ( Excretion x 100)/(total filtered load) (K+) Excretion = ( +) / ( +) Total Load = ( ) / ( ) FEK = (uK x sCr x 100) / (sK x uCr) VI. Interpretation of Fractional Excretion of Potassium FEK <10%: Renal cause of FEK >10

2018 FP Notebook

2. Changes in urinary potassium excretion in patients with chronic kidney disease (PubMed)

, the value of fractional excretion of potassium at CKD G5 was significantly higher than that at the other stages (30.63 ± 0.93%, P < 0.001). Multivariable linear regression analysis revealed that urinary potassium excretion was independently associated with urinary sodium excretion (standardized coefficient, 0.499), the estimated glomerular filtration rate (0.281), and serum chloride concentration (-0.086).This study demonstrated that urinary potassium excretion decreased with reductions in renal (...) Changes in urinary potassium excretion in patients with chronic kidney disease Hyperkalemia is one of the more serious complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and the cause of potassium retention is a reduction in urinary potassium excretion. However, few studies have examined the extent of the decrease of urinary potassium excretion in detail with respect to decreased renal function.Nine hundred eighty-nine patients with CKD (CKD stages G1 and G2 combined: 135; G3a: 107; G3b: 170; G4

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2016 Kidney research and clinical practice

3. Effects of Dietary Sodium and Potassium Intake on Chronic Disease Outcomes and Risks

risks of total mortality per 50 mmol/d (1,150 mg/d) increase in urinary sodium excretion in generally healthy populations. 76 Figure 26. Categorical analysis of the association between levels of sodium to potassium ratio and total mortality outcome in generally healthy populations (data from studies rated low or moderate RoB). 79 Panel a. 24-hour urinary excretion measures 79 Panel b. Dietary sodium intake measures 79 Figure 27. Categorical analysis of the association between sodium levels and CVD (...) and systematic error. More accurate but still error prone methods include 24- to 72-hour food diaries or recall assessment or 8-hour (overnight) urine assays. The most accurate method of assessing sodium intake in observational studies, particularly decreases in sodium intake, is the repeated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion with validation. 19, 20 In light of the limitations of the existing observational studies, the current state of knowledge needs to be reconsidered. Potassium DRIs The 2005 IOM committee

2018 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

4. Sodium and Potassium Intake: Effects on Chronic Disease Outcomes and Risks

risks of total mortality per 50 mmol/d (1,150 mg/d) increase in urinary sodium excretion in generally healthy populations. 76 Figure 26. Categorical analysis of the association between levels of sodium to potassium ratio and total mortality outcome in generally healthy populations (data from studies rated low or moderate RoB). 79 Panel a. 24-hour urinary excretion measures 79 Panel b. Dietary sodium intake measures 79 Figure 27. Categorical analysis of the association between sodium levels and CVD (...) and systematic error. More accurate but still error prone methods include 24- to 72-hour food diaries or recall assessment or 8-hour (overnight) urine assays. The most accurate method of assessing sodium intake in observational studies, particularly decreases in sodium intake, is the repeated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion with validation. 19, 20 In light of the limitations of the existing observational studies, the current state of knowledge needs to be reconsidered. Potassium DRIs The 2005 IOM committee

2018 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

5. Fractional Excretion of Potassium

Fractional Excretion of Potassium Fractional Excretion of Potassium Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Fractional (...) Excretion of Potassium Fractional Excretion of Potassium Aka: Fractional Excretion of Potassium , FEK II. Indications III. Precautions Results altered by Obtain lab sample prior to intervention if possible Do not delay treatment in emergent IV. Labs and Spot urine for and V. Formula FEK = ( Excretion x 100)/(total filtered load) (K+) Excretion = ( +) / ( +) Total Load = ( ) / ( ) FEK = (uK x sCr x 100) / (sK x uCr) VI. Interpretation of Fractional Excretion of Potassium FEK <10%: Renal cause of FEK >10

2015 FP Notebook

6. The relationship between estimated sodium and potassium excretion and subsequent renal outcomes. (PubMed)

outcomes were eGFR decline of 40% or more or chronic dialysis, doubling of serum creatinine or chronic dialysis, an over 5%/year loss of eGFR, progression of albuminuria, and hyperkalemia. Multinomial logit regression with multivariable fractional polynomials, adjusted for confounders, determined the association between urinary sodium and potassium excretion and renal outcomes, with death as a competing risk. The primary outcome occurred in 2,052 (7.6%) patients. There was no significant association (...) The relationship between estimated sodium and potassium excretion and subsequent renal outcomes. Patients are often advised to reduce sodium and potassium intake, but supporting evidence is limited. To help provide such evidence we estimated 24 h urinary sodium and potassium excretion in 28,879 participants at high cardiovascular risk who were followed for a mean of 4.5 years in the ONTARGET and TRANSCEND trials. The primary outcome was eGFR decline of 30% or more or chronic dialysis. Secondary

2014 Kidney International

7. The Short-Term Effects of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass on Renal Excretion of Sodium and Its Association with Blood Pressure. (PubMed)

with body mass index (BMI) of 44.54 ± 7.81 kg/m2 who underwent gastric bypass. Before surgery and at the third and sixth months after gastric bypass, blood pressure, urinary sodium concentration, 24-hour (24-h) urinary sodium excretion, and fractional excretion of sodium were evaluated. In addition, serum sodium and potassium levels were determined. Nonparametric tests were used to analyze the data.Blood pressure decreased after surgery and remained at low levels over the 3- and 6-month periods (...) The Short-Term Effects of Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass on Renal Excretion of Sodium and Its Association with Blood Pressure. Bariatric surgery has been shown to be effective in reducing weight and has benefits, such as lowering blood pressure. An increase in urinary sodium excretion has been suggested as a possible mechanism. This study explored changes in sodium excretion and their correlation with blood pressure after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.This study was conducted on 28 obese participants

2019 Obesity Surgery

8. Nephrotic syndrome is associated with increased plasma K<sup>+</sup> concentration, intestinal K<sup>+</sup> losses and attenuated urinary K<sup>+</sup> excretion - studies in rats and humans. (PubMed)

and elevated plasma K+ concentration, while fractional K+ excretion did not differ. Acute NS is associated with less cumulated K+ in a rat model while acute NS-patients have elevated p-potassium and normal renal fractional K+ excretion. In NS rats, K+ balance is not coupled to ENaC activity but results from opposite changes in renal and fecal K+ excretion with contribution from corticosteroid-MR driven colonic secretion. (...) Nephrotic syndrome is associated with increased plasma K+ concentration, intestinal K+ losses and attenuated urinary K+ excretion - studies in rats and humans. The present study tested the hypotheses that nephrotic syndrome (NS) leads to renal K+ loss due to augmented ENaC activity followed by down-regulation of renal K+- secretory pathways by suppressed aldosterone. The hypotheses were addressed by determining K+-balance and kidney abundance of K+- and Na

2019 American Journal of Physiology. Renal physiology

9. Vanadate-Induced Renal cAMP and Malondialdehyde Accumulation Suppresses Alpha 1 Sodium Potassium Adenosine Triphosphatase Protein Levels (PubMed)

, and hypophosphatemia. Fractional excretions of all studied electrolytes were increased with vanadate administration. These in vivo findings demonstrate that vanadate might suppress renal α1-Na, K-ATPase protein functionally by enhancing cAMP and structurally by augmenting lipid peroxidation. (...) Vanadate-Induced Renal cAMP and Malondialdehyde Accumulation Suppresses Alpha 1 Sodium Potassium Adenosine Triphosphatase Protein Levels It has been demonstrated that vanadate causes nephrotoxicity. Vanadate inhibits renal sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na, K-ATPase) activity and this is more pronounced in injured renal tissues. Cardiac cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is enhanced by vanadate, while increased cAMP suppresses Na, K-ATPase action in renal tubular cells

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2018 Toxicological research

10. Clinical Efficacy of Potassium Canrenoate in Sinus Rhythm Restoration Among Patients With Atrial Fibrillation.

diuresis and is classified as a diuretic. It decreases urinary elimination of potassium and increases urinary excretion of calcium. Canrenone is used for the treatment of primary or secondary hyperaldosteronism, edema and ascites of congestive heart failure and cirrhosis, and in the treatment of the arterial hypertension. Current evidence supports renin-angiotensin-alodsterone (RAAS) inhibition: angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) or, potentially (...) Clinical Efficacy of Potassium Canrenoate in Sinus Rhythm Restoration Among Patients With Atrial Fibrillation. Clinical Efficacy of Potassium Canrenoate in Sinus Rhythm Restoration Among Patients With Atrial Fibrillation. - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved

2018 Clinical Trials

11. Regulation mechanism of Dioscin on uric acid excretion. (PubMed)

the mechanism of its antihyperuricemic activity.After oral administration of Dioscin in potassium oxonate (PO) induced hyperuricemia rats and adenine-PO induced hyperuricemia mice models, serum uric acid and creatinine levels, clearance of uric acid and creatinine, fractional excretion of uric acid, and renal pathological lesions were determined were used to evaluate the antihyperuricemic effects. Renal glucose transporter-9 (GLUT-9) and organic anion transporter-1 (OAT-1) expressions were analyzed (...) clearance of uric acid and creatinine, increased fractional excretion of uric acid, and reduced renal pathological lesions caused by hyperuricemia. In addition, renal GLUT -9 was significantly down-regulated and OAT-1 was up-regulated in Dioscin treated hyperuricemia mice. Dioscin's metabolite Tigogenin significantly inhibited uric acid re-absorption via URAT1 from 10 to 100μM. Diosgenin and Tigogenin increased uric acid excretion via ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2).Decreasing effect

2017 Journal of Ethnopharmacology

12. Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper protein regulates sodium and potassium balance in the distal nephron. (PubMed)

and potassium excretion by regulating the sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) activity in the distal nephron. Gilz-/- mice have a higher plasma potassium concentration and lower fractional excretion of potassium than wild type mice. Furthermore, knockout mice are more sensitive to NCC inhibition by thiazides than are the wild type mice, and their phosphorylated NCC expression is higher. Despite increased NCC activity, knockout mice do not have higher blood pressure than wild type mice. However, during (...) Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper protein regulates sodium and potassium balance in the distal nephron. Glucocorticoid induced leucine zipper protein (GILZ) is an aldosterone-regulated protein that controls sodium transport in cultured kidney epithelial cells. Mice lacking GILZ have been reported previously to have electrolyte abnormalities. However, the mechanistic basis has not been explored. Here we provide evidence supporting a role for GILZ in modulating the balance of renal sodium

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2017 Kidney International

13. A Phase 1 (Ph1), Single Dose (SD), GSK961081 Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Study in Healthy Subjects

A Phase 1 (Ph1), Single Dose (SD), GSK961081 Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Study in Healthy Subjects A Phase 1 (Ph1), Single Dose (SD), GSK961081 Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Study in Healthy Subjects - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have (...) reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. A Phase 1 (Ph1), Single Dose (SD), GSK961081 Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) Study in Healthy Subjects The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02663089 Recruitment

2016 Clinical Trials

14. A Case of Hypophosphatemia with Increased Urinary Excretion of Phosphorus Associated with Ibrutinib (PubMed)

/dl) and potassium (reaching a peak of 6.5 mEq/l). Uric acid and calcium levels were normal. The patient developed hypophosphatemia (prior to initiation of therapy the serum phosphorus was 2.9 mg/dl). No metabolic acidosis was noted. Urinalysis showed no glucosuria or proteinuria. Urinary fraction of excretion of phosphate was found to be 345% (normal <5%). Because of these changes, ibrutinib was held, and the patient was given kayexalate. Serum potassium normalized. Serum phosphorus was checked (...) A Case of Hypophosphatemia with Increased Urinary Excretion of Phosphorus Associated with Ibrutinib Ibrutinib, an irreversible oral inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase, has been used in the treatment of patients with multiple hematologic malignancies. A 59-year-old male with chronic lymphocytic leukemia was treated with 420 mg/day of ibrutinib. No evidence of bruising or diarrhea was noted. The treatment was complicated by a transient increase in creatinine (from a baseline of 1.2 to 1.5 mg

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2016 Case reports in oncology

15. The effect of tolvaptan on renal excretion of electrolytes and urea nitrogen in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. (PubMed)

of electrolytes and urea nitrogen in cardiac surgery patients.Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery were randomized to receive conventional loop diuretics (Group C, n = 30) or conventional loop diuretic therapy plus tolvaptan (Group T, n = 27). Fractional excretions of sodium (FENA), potassium (FEK) and urea nitrogen (FEUN) were measured in both groups during post-surgical hospitalization.Urine output was greater with tolvaptan (Group T) than without it (Group C), and some patients in Group C (...) groups, but it remained higher than its preoperative value only in Group C (all p < 0.01). Group T showed an initial increase in BUN, which peaked and then returned to its preoperative value within a week. The FEUN increased postoperatively in both groups, but the change was more pronounced in Group T (POD7, 52.7 ± 9.3 vs. 58.2 ± 6.5 %, p = 0.025).Renal excretion of sodium and potassium reflects the changes in serum concentration in patients treated with tolvaptan. Patients treated only with loop

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2016 BMC Cardiovascular Disorders Controlled trial quality: uncertain

16. Role of the renal sympathetic nerves in renal sodium/potassium handling and renal damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats (PubMed)

). The RDNX group excreted significantly more sodium than the sham group during the 2-week observation period (P<0.05). Following bilateral renal denervation, the fractional lithium excretion was elevated in the RDNX group compared with the sham group, but no significant effect was observed of renal denervation on the fractional distal reabsorption rate of sodium or the fractional excretion of potassium. Furthermore, the glomerular injury score and the wall-to-lumen ratio of the interlobular artery were (...) Role of the renal sympathetic nerves in renal sodium/potassium handling and renal damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats Renal sympathetic nerve activity has an important role in renal disease-associated hypertension and in the modulation of fluid homeostasis. In the present study, changes in renal function and renal sodium/potassium handling were investigated in groups of 12-week-old male, spontaneously hypertensive rats with renal denervation (RDNX group) or sham denervation (sham group

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2016 Experimental and therapeutic medicine

17. Transtubular Potassium Gradient

Gradient Transtubular Potassium Gradient Aka: Transtubular Potassium Gradient II. Indications III. Precautions Results altered by Obtain lab sample prior to intervention if possible Do not delay treatment in emergent IV. Labs and Spot urine for and V. Calculation: Transtubular Potassium Gradient (TTPG) TTPG = ( + x Serum Osm)/( + x Urine Osm) Where K+ is and Osm is Osmolality VI. Interpretation: Fractional Excretion of Potassium TTPG <6-8%: Renal cause of Hypoaldeosteronism suggested by very low TTPG (...) Transtubular Potassium Gradient Transtubular Potassium Gradient Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Transtubular Potassium

2018 FP Notebook

18. Dutrebis - lamivudine / raltegravir potassium

Dutrebis - lamivudine / raltegravir potassium 30 Churchill Place ? Canary Wharf ? London E14 5EU ? United Kingdom An agency of the European Union Telephone +44 (0)20 3660 6000 Facsimile +44 (0)20 3660 5520 Send a question via our website www.ema.europa.eu/contact © European Medicines Agency, 2015. Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged 22 January 2015 EMA/154027/2015 Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) Assessment report DUTREBIS International non (...) -proprietary name: lamivudine / raltegravir potassium Procedure No. EMEA/H/C/003823/0000 Note Assessment report as adopted by the CHMP with all information of a commercially confidential nature deleted. Medicinal product no longer authorised EMA/154027/2015 Page 2/72 Table of contents 1. Background information on the procedure 6 1.1. Submission of the dossier 6 1.2. Manufacturers 7 1.3. Steps taken for the assessment of the product 7 2. Scientific discussion 8 2.1. Introduction 8 2.2. Quality aspects 9

2015 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

19. Absorption, Metabolism, Excretion and Pharmacokinetics of a Single Dose [14C]AZD2014 Followed by a Multiple Dose Phase

Absorption, Metabolism, Excretion and Pharmacokinetics of a Single Dose [14C]AZD2014 Followed by a Multiple Dose Phase Absorption, Metabolism, Excretion and Pharmacokinetics of a Single Dose [14C]AZD2014 Followed by a Multiple Dose Phase - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum (...) number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Absorption, Metabolism, Excretion and Pharmacokinetics of a Single Dose [14C]AZD2014 Followed by a Multiple Dose Phase (14C) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02640755 Recruitment Status : Completed

2015 Clinical Trials

20. Vasopressin regulates renal calcium excretion in humans (PubMed)

Vasopressin regulates renal calcium excretion in humans Antidiuretic hormone or arginine vasopressin (AVP) increases water reabsorption in the collecting ducts of the kidney. Three decades ago, experimental models have shown that AVP may increase calcium reabsorption in rat kidney. The objective of this study was to assess whether AVP modulates renal calcium excretion in humans. We analyzed calcium, potassium, and sodium fractional excretion in eight patients affected by insipidus diabetes (...) (nephrogenic or central) under acute vasopressin receptor agonist action and in 10 patients undergoing oral water load test affected or not by inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Synthetic V2 receptor agonist (dDAVP) reduced significantly calcium fractional excretion from 1.71% to 0.58% (P < 0.05) in patients with central diabetes insipidus. In patients with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (resistant to AVP), calcium fractional excretion did not change significantly after injection (0.48

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2015 Physiological reports

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