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Follicle Stimulating Hormone

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7821. Failure of normal Leydig cell development in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor-deficient mice, but not FSHbeta-deficient mice: role for constitutive FSH receptor activity. (Full text)

Failure of normal Leydig cell development in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor-deficient mice, but not FSHbeta-deficient mice: role for constitutive FSH receptor activity. Previous studies have suggested that FSH may be involved in regulation of Leydig cell function. We have examined this directly using two mouse models with null mutations in either the FSH beta-subunit (FSHbetaKO mice) or the FSH receptor (FSHRKO mice). Circulating LH levels were normal in adult FSHbetaKO mice (...) in FSHbetaKO mice during development, but in FSHRKO mice Leydig cell number increased slowly after puberty and was significantly reduced in the adult animal. Transfection studies showed that the FSHR exhibits constitutive activity in the absence of agonist stimulation. The results indicate, therefore, that Sertoli cells regulate the development of Leydig cell number and that constitutive activity within the FSHR is sufficient to stimulate this process. The presence of the hormone itself is not required

2003 Endocrinology PubMed abstract

7822. Lysyl oxidase gene expression and enzyme activity in the rat ovary: regulation by follicle-stimulating hormone, androgen, and transforming growth factor-beta superfamily members in vitro. (Full text)

Lysyl oxidase gene expression and enzyme activity in the rat ovary: regulation by follicle-stimulating hormone, androgen, and transforming growth factor-beta superfamily members in vitro. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) catalyzes the final enzymatic reaction required for cross-linking of collagen and elastin fibers and therefore has a crucial role in regulating the formation and maintenance of extracellular matrix in the ovary. LOX mRNA is abundantly expressed in rat granulosa cells. To examine how (...) regulation of LOX in the ovary might influence follicular development, we studied LOX mRNA expression and enzyme activity in rat granulosa cells from late preantral/early antral follicles in vitro. FSH dose dependently inhibited LOX mRNA and enzyme activity (50% reduction at 10 ng/ml) in vitro, and FSH action was mimicked by 8-bromo-cAMP, suggesting FSH action via elevation of cAMP. Dihydrotestosterone alone enhanced LOX mRNA and enzyme activity, but potentiated the effect of FSH, causing a further

2003 Endocrinology PubMed abstract

7823. Identification and characterization of a selective, nonpeptide follicle-stimulating hormone receptor antagonist. (Full text)

Identification and characterization of a selective, nonpeptide follicle-stimulating hormone receptor antagonist. The glycoprotein hormones (LH, FSH, and TSH) are critical to the maintenance of physiological homeostasis and control of reproduction. However, despite an obvious utility for synthetic pharmacological agents, there are few reports of selective, nonpeptide agonists or antagonists to receptors for these hormones. We have identified and characterized a novel synthetic molecule capable (...) (BV-tFSHR) to demonstrate site-specific interaction. Compound 1 competed for [(125)I]hFSH binding to BV-tFSHR with an IC(50) value of 10 +/- 2.8 micro M. Functionally, compound 1 inhibited hFSH-induced cAMP accumulation and steroidogenesis in vitro with an IC(50) value of 3 +/- 0.6 micro M. Competition of compound 1 for binding to other glycoprotein hormone receptors and other G protein-coupled receptors demonstrated select activity for FHSRs. Compound 1 inhibited ovulation in immature and cycling

2002 Endocrinology PubMed abstract

7824. Sertoli and germ cell development in hypogonadal (hpg) mice expressing transgenic follicle-stimulating hormone alone or in combination with testosterone. (Full text)

Sertoli and germ cell development in hypogonadal (hpg) mice expressing transgenic follicle-stimulating hormone alone or in combination with testosterone. We recently created a novel transgenic (tg) model to examine the specific gonadal actions of FSH, distinct from LH effects, by expressing tg-FSH in gonadotropin-deficient hypogonadal (hpg) mice. Using this unique in vivo paradigm, we now describe the postnatal cellular development in seminiferous tubules selectively stimulated by tg-FSH alone (...) or combined with testosterone (T). In the alphabeta.6 line, tg-FSH stimulated the maturation and proliferation ( approximately 2-fold) of Sertoli cells in hpg testes. Total Sertoli cell numbers were also significantly increased (1.5-fold) independently of FSH effects by T treatment alone. Selective FSH activity in alphabeta.6 hpg testes increased total spermatogonia numbers 3-fold, which established a normal spermatogonia/Sertoli cell ratio. FSH also elevated meiotic spermatocyte numbers 7-fold, notably

2003 Endocrinology PubMed abstract

7825. Anandamide activity and degradation are regulated by early postnatal aging and follicle-stimulating hormone in mouse Sertoli cells. (Full text)

Anandamide activity and degradation are regulated by early postnatal aging and follicle-stimulating hormone in mouse Sertoli cells. Anandamide (AEA), a prominent member of the endogenous ligands of cannabinoid receptors (endocannabinoids), is known to adversely affect female fertility. However, a potential role of AEA in male reproductive functions is unknown. Here we report evidence that immature mouse Sertoli cells have the biochemical tools to bind and inactivate AEA, i.e. a functional type (...) in a manner dependent on mRNA transcription and protein synthesis and apparently involving cAMP. These data demonstrate that Sertoli cells partake in the peripheral endocannabinoid system, and that FSH reduces the apoptotic potential of AEA by activating FAAH. Taken together, it can be suggested that the endocannabinoid network plays a role in the hormonal regulation of male fertility.

2003 Endocrinology PubMed abstract

7826. Follicle-stimulating hormone-responsive cytoskeletal genes in rat granulosa cells: class I beta-tubulin, tropomyosin-4, and kinesin heavy chain. (Full text)

Follicle-stimulating hormone-responsive cytoskeletal genes in rat granulosa cells: class I beta-tubulin, tropomyosin-4, and kinesin heavy chain. FSH regulates gene expression for granulosa cell differentiation and follicular development. Therefore, FSH-responsive genes are crucial, but only a few genes have been identified for the early stage of follicular development. In particular, little is known about cytoskeletal genes, which likely play essential roles in the morphological changes (...) of large preantral and early antral follicles. Despite the same temporal expression, the regulatory mechanisms of the three genes were strikingly different. As an example, cycloheximide blocked the beta-tubulin mRNA expression, whereas it increased tropomyosin-4 (TM4) mRNA. Yet, it did not impact kinesin heavy chain (Khc) mRNA. In conclusion, FSH induces the massive reorganization of the cytoskeletons and morphological changes by the selective regulation of the gene expression, protein synthesis

2003 Endocrinology PubMed abstract

7827. Delayed puberty and primary amenorrhea associated with a novel mutation of the human follicle-stimulating hormone receptor: clinical, histological, and molecular studies. (Full text)

Delayed puberty and primary amenorrhea associated with a novel mutation of the human follicle-stimulating hormone receptor: clinical, histological, and molecular studies. Inactivating mutations of the FSH receptor have been described in rare cases of premature ovarian failure. Only one mutation was associated with a complete phenotype, including delayed puberty, primary amenorrhea, and small ovaries. We describe here a new patient presenting a similar complete phenotype of premature ovarian (...) failure, with high plasma FSH levels associated with very low estrogen and inhibin B levels. No biological response to high doses of recombinant FSH was detected. A novel homozygous Pro(519)Thr mutation was found in this patient. This mutation is located in the second extracellular loop of the FSH receptor, within a motif highly conserved in gonadotropin and TSH receptors. The mutation totally impairs adenylate cyclase stimulation in vitro. FSH binding experiments and confocal microscopy showed

2003 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism PubMed abstract

7828. Glycosylation of an N-terminal extension prolongs the half-life and increases the in vivo activity of follicle stimulating hormone. (Full text)

Glycosylation of an N-terminal extension prolongs the half-life and increases the in vivo activity of follicle stimulating hormone. FSH is a key component in assisted reproductive technologies. Because of rapid clearance of the hormone, patients have to be treated with daily injections. To address this problem, a long-acting FSH mutein was created by introduction of additional N-linked glycosylation into the molecule. New glycosylation sites were introduced by two different approaches (...) of a lower in vitro activity, FSH1208 had a markedly increased in vivo potency, as shown by increased ability to augment the ovarian weight and stimulate the serum estradiol levels in rats. These characteristics make FSH1208 a possible candidate for improved infertility treatment.

2003 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism PubMed abstract

7829. Betaglycan localization in the female rat pituitary: implications for the regulation of follicle-stimulating hormone by inhibin. (Full text)

Betaglycan localization in the female rat pituitary: implications for the regulation of follicle-stimulating hormone by inhibin. Activin-stimulated FSH synthesis and secretion from the pituitary gonadotrope is negatively modulated by ovarian inhibin; however, the cellular mechanism of inhibin antagonism is unknown. Inhibin and activin share a common beta-subunit through which inhibin can compete with activin for binding to the activin type II receptor and prevent activin signal transduction (...) . Although the affinity of inhibin for binding to the activin receptor is far lower than that of activin itself, inhibin is capable of inhibiting activin-stimulated FSH synthesis and secretion even at low or equimolar concentrations. It is now known that the TGFbeta type III receptor, betaglycan, acts as an inhibin coreceptor that binds the inhibins and increases their affinity for the activin type II receptor, thereby enhancing the antagonistic effect of inhibin on activin signal transduction. Yet

2003 Endocrinology PubMed abstract

7830. Follicle-stimulating hormone promotes nuclear exclusion of the forkhead transcription factor FoxO1a via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in porcine granulosa cells. (Full text)

Follicle-stimulating hormone promotes nuclear exclusion of the forkhead transcription factor FoxO1a via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in porcine granulosa cells. The forkhead family of transcription factors is conserved in evolution and known to play critical roles in the regulation of cellular differentiation and proliferation in many systems. The current studies demonstrate for the first time that forkhead homolog in rhabdomyosarcoma (FKHR) (FoxO1a) is expressed in porcine granulosa cells (...) , and FSH stimulates FKHR phosphorylation and regulates its subcellular localization in this system. RT-PCR and Western blot studies demonstrated that FKHR is expressed and showed no change in FKHR message or protein levels in response to FSH (0-6 h). However, [32p]-orthophosphate labeling of cultured granulosa cells revealed robust phosphorylation after FSH treatment for 30 min. In addition, FSH caused nuclear exclusion of FKHR in these cells, apparently through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signal

2003 Endocrinology PubMed abstract

7831. Involvement of cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate response element-binding protein, steroidogenic factor 1, and Dax-1 in the regulation of gonadotropin-inducible ovarian transcription factor 1 gene expression by follicle-stimulating hormone in ovarian gran (Full text)

Involvement of cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate response element-binding protein, steroidogenic factor 1, and Dax-1 in the regulation of gonadotropin-inducible ovarian transcription factor 1 gene expression by follicle-stimulating hormone in ovarian gran Upon FSH stimulation, many genes are acutely induced in granulosa cells. Gonadotropin-inducible ovarian transcription factor 1 (GIOT1) represents a novel member of the group of transcriptional repressors that belong to one such gene (...) of the gene by FSH. Gel shift experiments also indicated that SF-1 and CRE binding protein specifically bind to each site. To reveal the relationship between SF-1 and the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A pathway, cotransfection was performed using SF-1-deficient cells. Although SF-1 and the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A individually caused a modest stimulation of the GIOT1 promoter, dramatic synergistic effects were observed in the case of cotransfection. Although the amount of SF-1 remained

2003 Endocrinology PubMed abstract

7832. Protein kinase B is obligatory for follicle-stimulating hormone-induced granulosa cell differentiation. (Full text)

Protein kinase B is obligatory for follicle-stimulating hormone-induced granulosa cell differentiation. Although FSH receptors are linked to the cAMP second messenger system, additional intracellular signaling pathways appear to be required for the induction of aromatase and the LH receptor during granulosa cell differentiation. We employed adenovirus vectors to modulate specific intracellular signaling systems in undifferentiated granulosa cells to identify the signaling pathway(s) that may (...) or progesterone production by undifferentiated granulosa cells. Stimulation of granulosa cells by FSH in the presence of the constitutively active PKB, but not MEK, led to an amplification of FSH-induced aromatase and LH receptor mRNA levels, whereas a dominant negative PKB vector completely abolished the actions of FSH. The expression of the constitutively active PKB in combination with the constitutively active LH receptor D578H, the constitutively active G(s)alpha Q227L, or 8-bromo-cAMP led to an induction

2003 Endocrinology PubMed abstract

7833. Follicle-stimulating hormone suppresses cytosolic 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine-binding protein messenger ribonucleic acid expression in rat granulosa cells. (Full text)

Follicle-stimulating hormone suppresses cytosolic 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine-binding protein messenger ribonucleic acid expression in rat granulosa cells. FSH plays crucial roles in differentiation of granulosa cells and development of follicles. Considering the broad scope of FSH effects, a large number of genes are likely responsive to the hormone. However, only a limited number of genes have been identified as FSH-regulated genes, particularly during the preantral stage. In an attempt to better (...) define genes involved in follicular development, we examined primary granulosa cell cultures, an undifferentiated rat ovarian granulosa cell line and rat ovaries, using differential display, quantitative RT-PCR, Northern blot analysis, and in situ hybridization. We report, for the first time, that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent cytosolic T(3)-binding protein mRNA is expressed in the ovary, particularly in the granulosa cell layer of preantral and early antral follicles

2003 Endocrinology PubMed abstract

7834. Hysterectomy and ovarian function: levels of follicle stimulating hormone and incidence of menopausal symptoms are not affected by hysterectomy in women under age 45 years. (Abstract)

Hysterectomy and ovarian function: levels of follicle stimulating hormone and incidence of menopausal symptoms are not affected by hysterectomy in women under age 45 years. To investigate levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), as a measure of ovarian function and menopausal symptoms prior to and following hysterectomy in women under the age of 45 years.This was a prospective controlled study.A total of 56 hysterectomy patients and 34 controls, up to the age of 42 years, were

2002 Climacteric

7835. Follicle-stimulating hormone versus human menopausal gonadotropin for in vitro fertilization cycles: a meta-analysis. (Abstract)

Follicle-stimulating hormone versus human menopausal gonadotropin for in vitro fertilization cycles: a meta-analysis. To conduct a systematic overview of available data comparing FSH with hMG in IVF treatment cycles.A meta-analysis of randomized trials of FSH versus hMG use in ovarian stimulation protocols, with or without GnRH agonists, in IVF treatment cycles. Search strategies included on-line searching of the National Library of Medicine MEDLINE data base from 1975 to 1993 and hand

1995 Fertility and sterility

7836. Follicle-stimulating hormone versus human menopausal gonadotropin for in vitro fertilization: results of a meta-analysis. (Abstract)

Follicle-stimulating hormone versus human menopausal gonadotropin for in vitro fertilization: results of a meta-analysis. The observation of adverse effects of high-follicular-phase LH levels on fertilization, cleavage, embryo quality and pregnancy suggests that exogenous LH administration for ovarian stimulation in IVF may also be detrimental. The purpose of this study was to compare the use of FSH with hMG in IVF by conducting a systematic overview and meta-analysis of the evidence

1995 Hormone research

7837. Potential dangers in the customary methods of conducting meta-analyses. Lack of bias in the meta-analysis of recombinant versus urinary follicle stimulating hormone. (Full text)

Potential dangers in the customary methods of conducting meta-analyses. Lack of bias in the meta-analysis of recombinant versus urinary follicle stimulating hormone. In a meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing recombinant and urinary FSH for ovarian stimulation in infertility treatment cycles, the clinical pregnancy rate per cycle started was significantly higher with recombinant FSH. Before the results of the different trials can be pooled, it is important to determine whether

2001 Human reproduction (Oxford, England) PubMed abstract

7838. Effectiveness of human menopausal gonadotropin versus recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in assisted reproductive cycles: a meta-analysis. (Abstract)

Effectiveness of human menopausal gonadotropin versus recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in assisted reproductive cycles: a meta-analysis. To compare the effectiveness of hMG and recombinant FSH after down-regulation for ovulation stimulation in assisted reproductive cycles.Meta-analysis.Infertility centers providing assisted reproductive techniques.Two thousand thirty women undergoing IVF or ICSI.Ovarian hyperstimulation with hMG or recombinant FSH

2003 Fertility and sterility

7839. Performance of basal follicle-stimulating hormone in the prediction of poor ovarian response and failure to become pregnant after in vitro fertilization: a meta-analysis. (Abstract)

Performance of basal follicle-stimulating hormone in the prediction of poor ovarian response and failure to become pregnant after in vitro fertilization: a meta-analysis. To assess the predictive performance and clinical value of basal FSH as a test for ovarian reserve in in vitro fertilization (IVF) patients.Meta-analysis.Tertiary fertility center.Patients undergoing IVF.None.Poor ovarian response, nonpregnancy.We located 21 studies that had reported on basal FSH and IVF outcome. No single

2003 Fertility and sterility

7840. Meta-analysis on recombinant versus urinary follicle stimulating hormone. (Full text)

Meta-analysis on recombinant versus urinary follicle stimulating hormone. 10875885 2000 09 08 2019 05 13 0268-1161 15 7 2000 Jul Human reproduction (Oxford, England) Hum. Reprod. Meta-analysis on recombinant versus urinary follicle stimulating hormone. 1650-2 Girard M M eng Comparative Study Letter England Hum Reprod 8701199 0268-1161 0 Recombinant Proteins 9002-68-0 Follicle Stimulating Hormone IM Hum Reprod. 2001 Mar;16(3):593-5 11228235 Hum Reprod. 2001 Nov;16(11):2249-50 11679497 Female (...) Follicle Stimulating Hormone therapeutic use urine Humans Meta-Analysis as Topic Recombinant Proteins therapeutic use 2000 6 30 11 0 2000 9 19 11 1 2000 6 30 11 0 ppublish 10875885 10.1093/humrep/15.7.1650-a

2000 Human reproduction (Oxford, England) PubMed abstract

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