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Follicle Stimulating Hormone

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41. Allosteric Regulation of the Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor. (PubMed)

Allosteric Regulation of the Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) belongs to the leucine-rich repeat family of the G protein-coupled receptor (LGR), which includes the glycoprotein hormone receptors luteinizing hormone receptor, thyrotropin receptor, and other LGRs 4, 5, 6, and 7. FSH is the key regulator of folliculogenesis in females and spermatogenesis in males. FSH elicits its physiological response through its cognate receptor on the cell (...) surface. Binding of the hormone FSH to its receptor FSHR brings about conformational changes in the receptor that are transduced through the transmembrane domain to the intracellular region, where the downstream effector interaction takes place, leading to activation of the downstream signaling cascade. Identification of small molecules that could activate or antagonize FSHR provided interesting tools to study the signal transduction mechanism of the receptor. However, because of the nature

2018 Endocrinology

42. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Levels and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Older Postmenopausal Women. (PubMed)

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Levels and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Older Postmenopausal Women. Recent studies of perimenopausal women suggest that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels may be associated with atherosclerosis, independent of estradiol. Whether FSH is related to atherosclerosis in older postmenopausal women, who have completed the menopausal transition, remains unknown. We assessed the relationship of serum FSH and estradiol levels with carotid artery intima-media (...) thickness (IMT) among 587 postmenopausal participants in the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (Kuopio, Finland). Participants were aged 53-73 years and not using hormone therapy at baseline (1998-2001). Mean IMT was measured via high-resolution ultrasonography. We observed a significant inverse association between FSH levels and IMT. Mean IMTs among women in quartiles 1-4 of FSH were 0.94 mm, 0.91 mm, 0.87 mm, and 0.85 mm, respectively (P-trend < 0.001). After adjustment for age

2018 American Journal of Epidemiology

43. Follicle-stimulating hormone enhances hepatic gluconeogenesis by GRK2-mediated AMPK hyperphosphorylation at Ser485 in mice. (PubMed)

Follicle-stimulating hormone enhances hepatic gluconeogenesis by GRK2-mediated AMPK hyperphosphorylation at Ser485 in mice. Increased serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is correlated with fasting hyperglycaemia. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Because excessive hepatic gluconeogenesis is a major cause of fasting hyperglycaemia the present study investigated whether FSH increases hepatic gluconeogenesis in mice.Ovariectomised mice supplemented with oestradiol (E2

2018 Diabetologia

44. Retro-inverso follicle-stimulating hormone peptide-mediated polyethylenimine complexes for targeted ovarian cancer gene therapy (PubMed)

Retro-inverso follicle-stimulating hormone peptide-mediated polyethylenimine complexes for targeted ovarian cancer gene therapy The development of nanoparticle drug delivery systems with targeted ligands has the potential to increase treatment efficiency in ovarian cancer.We developed a 21-amino acid peptide, YTRDLVYGDPARPGIQGTGTF (L-FP21) conjugated to polyethylenimine (PEI) and methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) to prepare a nanoparticle drug vehicle to target follicle-stimulating hormone

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2018 Drug delivery

45. Isolated follicle stimulated hormone deficiency in male: case report (PubMed)

Isolated follicle stimulated hormone deficiency in male: case report Recent rapid advances in assisted reproductive health technologies enables couples with subfertility to conceive through various intervention. Majority of treatment modalities target the female partner. However it is important to identify and treat male factor subfertility right at the outset. We report a case of isolated follicle stimulating hormone deficiency resulting in azoospermia and primary subfertility.A 28 year (...) otherwise healthy male presented with primary subfertility with a healthy female counterpart. He was found to have non obstructive azoospermia with low seminal fluid volume. He had normal external genitalia and potency with increased libido. Further evaluation revealed an isolated deficiency of follicle stimulating hormone with elevated testosterone levels. His luteinizing hormone and prolactin levels were normal. Contrast enhanced CT scan of chest, abdomen and pelvis and MRI scan of the pituitary fossa

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2018 BMC research notes

46. Isolated Follicle-stimulating Hormone Deficiency Coincidentally Diagnosed by Hematospermia (PubMed)

Isolated Follicle-stimulating Hormone Deficiency Coincidentally Diagnosed by Hematospermia 29434156 2018 11 13 1349-7235 57 12 2018 06 15 Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan) Intern. Med. Isolated Follicle-stimulating Hormone Deficiency Coincidentally Diagnosed by Hematospermia. 1799 10.2169/internalmedicine.9693-17 Fujisawa Satoshi S Endocrine Center of Okayama University Hospital, Japan. Otsuka Fumio F Endocrine Center of Okayama University Hospital, Japan. Department of General Medicine, Okayama (...) University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Japan. eng Journal Article 2018 02 09 Japan Intern Med 9204241 0918-2918 follicle-stimulating hormone gonadotropin hematospermia infertility and pituitary 2018 2 13 6 0 2018 2 13 6 1 2018 2 14 6 0 ppublish 29434156 10.2169/internalmedicine.9693-17 PMC6047976 Fertil Steril. 2005 Feb;83(2):466-70 15705395 Endocr J. 2017 Feb 27;64(2):123-131 28100869

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2018 Internal Medicine

47. Regulatory Actions of LH and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone on Breast Cancer Cells and Mammary Tumors in Rats (PubMed)

Regulatory Actions of LH and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone on Breast Cancer Cells and Mammary Tumors in Rats Gonadotrophins are mainly known to influence the body through the formation of gonadal steroids. However, receptors for luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicular-stimulating hormone (FSH) are present in a set of extra-gonadal tissues in humans and animals, but their functional relevance is uncertain. In this article, we present experimental evidence that, in T-47D breast cancer (BC) cells

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2018 Frontiers in endocrinology

48. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) promotes retinol uptake and metabolism in the mouse ovary (PubMed)

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) promotes retinol uptake and metabolism in the mouse ovary Retinoids (retinol and its derivatives) are required for the development and maintenance of normal physiological functions of the ovary. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of ovarian retinoid homeostasis during follicular development remain unclear.The present study determined retinoid levels and the expression levels of genes involved in the retinol uptake and its metabolic pathway (...) in the ovaries of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-treated mice and in granulosa cells treated with FSH using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) combined with quadrupole time-of-flight high-sensitivity mass spectrometry (Q-TOF/HSMS) and real-time PCR analysis.The levels of total retinoids and retinoic acid (RA) and expressions of retinol-oxidizing enzyme genes alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (Aldh1a1) are increased in the ovaries of mice treated with FSH; in contrast

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2018 Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E

49. Pilot study of the optimal protocol of low dose step‐up follicle stimulating hormone therapy for infertile women (PubMed)

Pilot study of the optimal protocol of low dose step‐up follicle stimulating hormone therapy for infertile women To evaluate the optimized protocol of low dose follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) therapy that has a starting dose of 50 IU/62.5 IU with a small increment dose (12.5 IU) for women with World Health Organization (WHO) II ovulatory disorder and unexplained infertility.Anovulatory women with WHO group II ovulatory disorder (ovulation induction [OI] patients, n = 29 (...) ), and with an unexplained infertility (ovarian stimulation [OS] patients, n = 21) were enrolled. The protocol of low dose step-up FSH therapy was optimized for the starting dose as 50 IU (body mass index [BMI] < 20 group) and 62.5 IU (BMI ≥ 20 group) with the increment dose of 12.5 IU. Study outcomes were ovulation, monofollicular development and other variables.In the OIpatients, the ovulation rate was 100% (BMI < 20 group) and 90.9% (BMI ≥ 20 group). Monofollicular development was 80.0% (BMI < 20) and 77.3% (BMI ≥ 20

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2018 Reproductive Medicine and Biology

50. In Vivo and In Vitro Impact of Carbohydrate Variation on Human Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Function (PubMed)

In Vivo and In Vitro Impact of Carbohydrate Variation on Human Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Function Human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) exhibits both macro- and microheterogeneity in its carbohydrate moieties. Macroheterogeneity results in three physiologically relevant FSHβ subunit variants, two that possess a single N-linked glycan at either one of the two βL1 loop glycosylation sites or one with both glycans. Microheterogeneity is characterized by 80 to over 100 unique oligosaccharide

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2018 Frontiers in endocrinology

51. Effect of a single epidural administration of follicle-stimulating hormone via caudal vertebrae on superstimulation for in vivo and in vitro embryo production in Japanese black cows (PubMed)

Effect of a single epidural administration of follicle-stimulating hormone via caudal vertebrae on superstimulation for in vivo and in vitro embryo production in Japanese black cows Here, we describe a simplified procedure for embryo production in the Japanese black cow that uses a single caudal epidural injection of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). First, we compared the efficiency of superovulation for in vivo embryo production between conventional multiple FSH treatment (control, n = 10

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2018 The Journal of reproduction and development

52. The C-terminal Phosphorylation Sites of eel Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor are Important Role in the Signal Transduction (PubMed)

The C-terminal Phosphorylation Sites of eel Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor are Important Role in the Signal Transduction The large extracellular domain of glycoprotein hormone receptors is a unique feature within the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) family. After interaction with the hormone, the receptor becomes coupled to Gs, which, in turn stimulates adenylyl cyclase and the production of cAMP. Potential phosphorylation sites exist in the C-terminal region of GPCRs. The experiments (...) described herein represent attempts to determine the functions of the eel follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (eelFSHR). We constructed a mutant of eelFSHR, in which the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail was truncated at residue 614 (eelFSHR-t614). The eelFSHR-t614 lacked all potential phosphorylation sites present in the C-terminal region of eelFSHR. In order to obtain the eelFSHR ligand, we produced recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rec-eelFSHβ/α) in the CHO-suspension cells. The expression level

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2018 Development & Reproduction

53. Constitutively active follicle-stimulating hormone receptor enables androgen-independent spermatogenesis (PubMed)

Constitutively active follicle-stimulating hormone receptor enables androgen-independent spermatogenesis Spermatogenesis is regulated by the 2 pituitary gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). This process is considered impossible without the absolute requirement of LH-stimulated testicular testosterone (T) production. The role of FSH remains unclear because men and mice with inactivating FSH receptor (FSHR) mutations are fertile. We revisited the role (...) deficiency with persistent spermatogenesis) and explain how the hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis has shifted from FSH to T dominance during evolution.

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2018 The Journal of clinical investigation

54. Frequency of the T307A, N680S, and -29G>A single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor in Mexican subjects of Hispanic ancestry (PubMed)

Frequency of the T307A, N680S, and -29G>A single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor in Mexican subjects of Hispanic ancestry FSHR SNPs may influence the ovarian sensitivity to endogenous and exogenous FSH stimulation. Given the paucity of data on the FSHR c.919A > G, c.2039A > G and - 29G > A SNPs in Hispanic population, we here analyzed their frequency distribution in Mexican mestizo women.Samples from 224 Mexican mestizo women enrolled in an IVF program (...) % (AA). In normal oocyte donors with the c.2039 GG genotype, the number of oocytes recovered after ovarian stimulation (COS) were significantly (p < 0.01) lower than in those bearing other genotypes in this or the -29G > A SNP. Analysis of the large scale database revealed that both allelic and genotype frequencies for the three SNPs were very similar to those detected in the IVF cohort (p ≥ 0.38) and that female carriers of the c.2039 G allele tended to present lower number of pregnancies than

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2018 Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E

55. Intracellular Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor Trafficking and Signaling (PubMed)

Intracellular Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptor Trafficking and Signaling Models of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling have dramatically altered over the past two decades. Indeed, GPCRs such as the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) have contributed to these new emerging models. We now understand that receptor signaling is highly organized at a spatial level, whereby signaling not only occurs from the plasma membrane but distinct intracellular compartments. Recent studies (...) in the role of membrane trafficking and spatial organization of GPCR signaling in regulating gonadotropin hormone receptor activity has identified novel intracellular compartments, which are tightly linked with receptor signaling and reciprocally regulated by the cellular trafficking machinery. Understanding the impact of these cell biological mechanisms to physiology and pathophysiology is emerging for certain GPCRs. However, for FSHR, the potential impact in both health and disease and the therapeutic

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2018 Frontiers in endocrinology

56. Male Central Hypogonadism in Paediatrics – the Relevance of Follicle-stimulating Hormone and Sertoli Cell Markers (PubMed)

Male Central Hypogonadism in Paediatrics – the Relevance of Follicle-stimulating Hormone and Sertoli Cell Markers The definition of male hypogonadism, used in adult endocrinology, is not fully applicable to paediatrics. A clear understanding of the developmental physiology of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis is essential for the comprehension of the pathogenesis of hypogonadal states in boys and for the establishment of adequate definitions and classifications in paediatric ages (...) . This is particularly true for central hypogonadism, usually called hypogonadotropic in adults. Because childhood is a period characterised by a physiological state of low gonadotropin and testosterone production, these markers of hypogonadism, typically used in adult endocrinology, are uninformative in the child. This review is focused on the physiological importance of prepubertal Sertoli cell markers - anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and inhibin B - and of the intratesticular actions of follicle-stimulating hormone

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2018 European Endocrinology

57. The Relationship between Follicle-stimulating Hormone and Bone Health: Alternative Explanation for Bone Loss beyond Oestrogen? (PubMed)

The Relationship between Follicle-stimulating Hormone and Bone Health: Alternative Explanation for Bone Loss beyond Oestrogen? Bone loss in women commences before the onset of menopause and oestrogen deficiency. The increase of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) precedes oestrogen decline and may be a cause for bone loss before menopause. This review summarizes the current evidence on the relationship between FSH and bone derived from cellular, animal and human studies. Cellular studies found (...) health in perimenopausal women and elderly men but the association was attenuated in postmenopausal women. In conclusion, FSH may have a direct action on bone health independent of oestrogen by enhancing bone resorption. Its effects may be attenuated in the presence of overt sex hormone deficiency. More longitudinal studies pertaining to the effects of FSH on bone health, especially on fracture risk, should be conducted to validate this speculation.

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2018 International journal of medical sciences

58. Follicle-stimulating hormone peptide-conjugated nanoparticles for targeted shRNA delivery lead to effective gro-α silencing and antitumor activity against ovarian cancer (PubMed)

Follicle-stimulating hormone peptide-conjugated nanoparticles for targeted shRNA delivery lead to effective gro-α silencing and antitumor activity against ovarian cancer The distinct hormone molecules and receptors, such as follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) in ovarian cancer, provide opportunities for more precisely targeted therapy. We previously developed FSHR-mediated nanoparticles and found that FSH peptides on the surface of nanoparticles improved the delivery of short

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2018 Drug delivery

59. Follicle-stimulating hormone, but not cardiorespiratory fitness, is associated with flow-mediated dilation with advancing menopausal stage. (PubMed)

Follicle-stimulating hormone, but not cardiorespiratory fitness, is associated with flow-mediated dilation with advancing menopausal stage. The aim of the study was to evaluate if there are differences in endothelial function before and after acute exercise in women at different menopausal stages with high and low cardiorespiratory fitness.Participants were healthy high-fit premenopausal (n = 11), perimenopausal (n = 12), and postmenopausal women (n = 13) and low-fit perimenopausal (n = 7 (...) ) and was lower in perimenopausal compared to postmenopausal women (P = 0.047). FMD was lower in high-fit compared to low-fit women (P = 0.006) and there was no relation between FMD and VO2peak (P > 0.05). There was an inverse relation between FMD and follicle-stimulating hormone (P < 0.05), but not estradiol (P > 0.05).These data suggest that endothelial function is lower with progressive menopausal stage in women with high cardiorespiratory fitness; that FMD is lower in women with higher cardiorespiratory

2018 Menopause

60. Transcriptional control of the MUC16 promoter facilitates follicle-stimulating hormone peptide-conjugated shRNA nanoparticle-mediated inhibition of ovarian carcinoma in vivo (PubMed)

Transcriptional control of the MUC16 promoter facilitates follicle-stimulating hormone peptide-conjugated shRNA nanoparticle-mediated inhibition of ovarian carcinoma in vivo Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among gynecological malignancies. The high mortality rate has not been significantly reduced despite advances in surgery and chemotherapy. Gene therapy shows therapeutic potential, but several key issues must be resolved before clinical application. To minimize toxicity (...) in noncancerous tissues, tumor-specific ligands are conjugated to vectors to increase the selectivity of drug delivery. The expression pattern of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor in normal and cancer tissues provides an opportunity for highly selective drug delivery in ovarian cancer. Furthermore, tumor-specific promoters can conditionally regulate therapeutic gene expression in tumor or normal tissues. The mucin 16 (MUC16) promoter might be a potential tool to drive ovarian cancer-localized gene

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2018 Drug delivery

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