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First Aid Travel Kit

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241. Toxoplasmosis Full Text available with Trip Pro

has contributed to the death of at least four Hawaiian monk seals. A Hawaiian monk seal's infection with T. gondii was first noted in 2004. The parasite's spread threatens the recovery of this highly endangered pinniped. The parasites have been found in dolphins and whales. Researchers Black and Massie believe anchovies, which travel from estuaries into the open ocean, may be helping to spread the disease. Giant panda [ ] Toxoplasma gondii has been reported as the cause of death of a kept in a zoo (...) is infected by toxoplasmosis, but have no symptoms. In the United States, about 23% are affected and in some areas of the world this is up to 95%. About 200,000 cases of congenital toxoplasmosis occur a year. and first described the organism in 1908. In 1941, transmission during pregnancy from a mother to a child was confirmed. Contents Signs and symptoms [ ] Infection has three stages: Acute toxoplasmosis [ ] Acute toxoplasmosis is often asymptomatic in healthy adults. However, symptoms may manifest

2012 Wikipedia

242. Internet addiction disorder

on the biological causes of Internet addiction. For a systematic review of the kind, please refer to the 2017 Springer book edited by Christian Montag and Martin Reuter: Internet Addiction: Neuroscientific Approaches and Therapeutical Implications Including Smartphone Addiction (3rd edition) . Other factors [ ] Parental educational level, age at first use of the Internet, and the frequency of using social networking sites and gaming sites are found to be positively associated with excessive Internet use among (...) adolescents in some European countries, as well as in the USA. Diagnosis [ ] Diagnosis of Internet addiction disorder is empirically difficult. Various screening instruments have been employed to detect Internet addiction disorder. Current diagnoses are faced with multiple obstacles. Difficulties [ ] Given the newness of the Internet and the inconsistent definition of Internet addiction disorder, practical diagnosis is far from clearcut. With the first research initiated by Kimberly S. Young in 1996

2012 Wikipedia

243. International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement

six physical rehabilitation centers to help victims. Their support extends to the national and international armed forces, civilians and the armed opposition. They regularly visit detainees under the custody of the Afghan government and the international armed forces, but have also occasionally had access since 2009 to people detained by the . They have provided basic first aid training and aid kits to both the Afghan security forces and Taliban members because, according to an ICRC spokesperson (...) of the ICRC. The first relief assistance mission organized by the League was an aid mission for the victims of a famine and subsequent epidemic in Poland. Only five years after its foundation, the League had already issued 47 donation appeals for missions in 34 countries, an impressive indication of the need for this type of Red Cross work. The total sum raised by these appeals reached 685 million Swiss francs, which were used to bring emergency supplies to the victims of famines in Russia, Germany

2012 Wikipedia

244. Snakebite

are , , and . Knowledge of what species are present locally can be crucial, as is knowledge of typical signs and symptoms of envenomation by each type of snake. A scoring system can be used to try to determine the biting snake based on clinical features, but these scoring systems are extremely specific to particular geographical areas. First aid [ ] Snakebite recommendations vary, in part because different snakes have different types of venom. Some have little local effect, but life-threatening systemic effects (...) , in which case containing the venom in the region of the bite by pressure immobilization is desirable. Other venoms instigate localized tissue damage around the bitten area, and immobilization may increase the severity of the damage in this area, but also reduce the total area affected; whether this trade-off is desirable remains a point of controversy. Because snakes vary from one country to another, first aid methods also vary. Many organizations, including the and , recommend washing the bite

2012 Wikipedia

245. Blood donation

, and , it is illegal to receive any compensation, monetary or otherwise, for the donation of blood or other human tissues. Regular donors are often given some sort of non-monetary recognition. Time off from work is a common benefit. For example, in , blood donors receive the donation day as a paid holiday from work. Blood centers will also sometimes add incentives such as assurances that donors would have priority during shortages, free T-shirts, first aid kits, windshield scrapers, pens, and similar trinkets (...) to pregnant women or a women of child-bearing age, donors taking (birth defect causing) medications are deferred. These medications include , , , and . Donors are examined for and of diseases that can be transmitted in a blood transfusion, such as , , and . Screening may include questions about for various diseases, such as travel to countries at risk for or (vCJD). These questions vary from country to country. For example, while blood centers in , , and many other places defer donors who lived

2012 Wikipedia

246. Melioidosis

% of the peadiatrics and 20% of the adult with meliodosis have no risk factors. infection does not predispose to melioidosis. Neonatal cases have been reported possibly due to mother-to-child transmission, community acquired infection, or healthcare-associated infection. Pathogenesis [ ] The bacteria has the ability to infect various types of cells and to evade human immune response. When skin is broken, B pseudomallei first enters and replicates in the epithelial cells of the broken skin. The bacteria then can (...) infect both and non-phagocytes in the blood stream. The bacteria enters these cells through inside an endocytic . B pseudomallei has multiple secretory systems and can be transported across cellular membranes, aiding invasion into a host cell. B. pseudomallei uses Type III secretion system (T3SS) system effector proteins for invasion into a cell. T3SS is a molecular syringe that injects effector proteins into host cells. The effector proteins rearrange the host to facilitate invasion.The cell entry

2012 Wikipedia

247. Tattoo

or by another person using 'DIY' kits that usually contain needles, ink, and often sample designs. United States [ ] Tattooed sailor aboard in 1944 As most tattoos in the U.S. were done by Polynesian and Japanese amateurs, tattoo artists were in great demand in port cities all over the world, especially by European and American sailors. The first recorded professional tattoo artist in the United States was a German immigrant, . He opened a shop in New York City in 1846 and quickly became popular during (...) in the late 18th century. Certainly, Cook's voyages and the dissemination of the texts and images from them brought more awareness about tattooing (and, as noted above, imported the word "tattow" into Western languages). On Cook's first voyage in 1768, his science officer and expedition botanist, Sir Joseph Banks, as well as artist Sydney Parkinson and many others of the crew, returned to England with tattoos, although many of these men would have had pre-existing tattoos. [ ] Banks was a highly regarded

2012 Wikipedia

248. Stethoscope Full Text available with Trip Pro

was similar to the common , a historical form of hearing aid; indeed, his invention was almost indistinguishable in structure and function from the trumpet, which was commonly called a "microphone". Laennec called his device the "stethoscope" ( + , "chest scope"), and he called its use " auscultation", because it was with a tool intermediate between the patient's body and the physician's ear. (Today the word auscultation denotes all such listening, mediate or not.) The first flexible stethoscope of any (...) sort may have been a binaural instrument with articulated joints not very clearly described in 1829. In 1840, described a stethoscope he had been using with a flexible tube. Bird was the first to publish a description of such a stethoscope but he noted in his paper the prior existence of an earlier design (which he thought was of little utility) which he described as the snake ear trumpet. Bird's stethoscope had a single earpiece. In 1851, Irish physician Arthur Leared invented a binaural

2012 Wikipedia

249. St. Andrew's Ambulance Association

. Treasurer - The person who administers company accounts, as well as paying expenses to members (for travel to/from duties). Public Duty Officer - The person who organises the first aid cover required at duties, and keeps a record of casualties treated. Commandant - The person in overall charge of the company. Deputy Commandant - The person who supports the work of the Commandant Assistant Commandant - This position (or positions) is only present in larger companies, in which the Commandant and Deputy (...) fêtes to international sporting events and music festivals. For example, St Andrew's provides cover at three of Scotland's largest stadia ( , , ), as well as major festivals such as and Live at Loch Lomond. Uniform [ ] Backpack style first aid kit St Andrew's first aiders are required to wear uniform when on duty and are encouraged to wear it whenever they are representing the organisation. Uniform - Black combat trousers, Blue Polo Shirt (with Association logos and First Aid branding), and soft

2012 Wikipedia

250. Pandemic Full Text available with Trip Pro

a number of pandemics, such as and . One of the most devastating pandemics was the , which killed over 75 million people in 1350. The most recent pandemics include the pandemic as well as the and pandemics. Contents Definition and stages [ ] Advice (in French and English) for travellers on risks of epidemics abroad. Posters from the Charles De Gaulle airport, Paris, 2016. A pandemic is an occurring on a scale which crosses international boundaries, usually affecting a large number of people. Pandemics (...) can also occur in important agricultural organisms (livestock, crop plants, fish, tree species) or in other organisms. [ ] The (WHO) has a six-stage classification that describes the process by which a novel influenza virus moves from the first few infections in humans through to a pandemic. This starts with the virus mostly infecting animals, with a few cases where animals infect people, then moves through the stage where the virus begins to spread directly between people, and ends

2012 Wikipedia

251. Safety and Efficacy of Direct Blood Volume Measurement in the Treatment of Heart Failure

before adding more. Safety and Efficacy of Direct Blood Volume Measurement in the Treatment of Heart Failure (TEAM-HF) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01001312 Recruitment Status : Terminated (Poor enrollment) First Posted : October 26, 2009 Last Update Posted : October 9, 2015 Sponsor (...) disease Other major co-morbidities that increase mortality risk (stroke with hemiplegia, diabetes with end-organ damage other than heart disease, history of cancer in last 2 years, moderate to severe liver disease, HIV infection with AIDS) Hospitalization length of stay >10 days Evidence of acute coronary syndrome during qualifying heart failure hospitalization Planned revascularization procedure within 6 months Planned implantation of ICD or pacemaker within 6 months Planned placement on cardiac

2009 Clinical Trials

252. Sexually transmitted infections and under-18 conceptions: prevention

of STIs using their sexual history. Opportunities for risk Sexually transmitted infections and under-18 conceptions: prevention (PH3) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 7 of 52assessment may arise during consultations on contraception, pregnancy or abortion, and when carrying out a cervical smear test, offering an STI test or providing travel immunisation. Risk assessment could also be carried out during (...) necessary. This support should be tailored to meet the patient's individual needs. If necessary, refer patients to a specialist with responsibility for partner notification. (Partner notification may be undertaken by the health professional or by the patient.) Provide the patient and their partners with infection-specific information, including advice about possible re-infection. For chlamydia infection, also consider providing a home sampling kit. Recommendation 4 Who is the target population? Who

2007 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

253. Improving outcomes for people with sarcoma

and swelling or tenderness in the affected area. The cancer can cause weakness of the bone leading to a fracture. The presence of these symptoms should lead to referral for an X-ray, which in turn may lead to the suspicion of bone malignancy. The age-specific frequencies of primary bone sarcomas are bimodal – the first peak occurring during the second decade of life, associated with the growth spurt, and the second occurring in patients older than 60 years. They are more common in males than in females. [7 (...) , especially in answering questions about treatment and providing help at a time and place of stress. In addition the value of support from self-help groups is recognised in many cancers, and the anecdotal experience of the few sarcoma-specific self-help groups in the UK reflects this. Because of the rarity of these tumours and the relatively small number of specialised treatment centres, many patients may have to travel long distances for their management. On balance, most patients wish to receive

2006 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

254. Canadian clinical practice guidelines on the management and prevention of obesity in adults and children

clinical prac- tice guidelines, the reader may be aided by a prior under- standing of the approach used by the committees. In brief, the level of evidence is an objective assessment that reflects the quality of evidence in published studies. The grade is a subjective assessment that considers both the level of evi- dence and other factors (e.g., harms and costs) relevant to an intervention when applied at the level of the individual or population. The following case scenario illustrates how (...) . A, supplemented by key points from rele- vant chapters, we recommend the following interventions. Measurement of BMI and waist circumference Rationale: Measuring BMI and waist circumference is an essen- tial first step to determine the level and distribution of adiposity and is a grade A recommendation when screening for over- weight and obesity in individuals. These measures are straight- forward and easy to perform. The measurement of BMI (weight divided by height squared) and waist circumference can

2007 CPG Infobase

255. Assessment of the cardiac patient for fitness to drive and fly

conference, “Assessment of the Cardiac Patient for Fitness to Drive and Fly”, first convened in October 2002. Our primary panel was divided into two subgroups, the “Drive” sub- group and the “Fly” subgroup, which met separately and devel- oped two sets of recommendations. This executive summary document is similarly organized into two major sections: “Assessment of the cardiac patient for fitness to drive”, and “Assessment of the cardiac patient for fitness to fly”. This year’s consensus conference has (...) been a collaborative effort involving both physicians and nonphysician stakeholders from across Canada. We are grateful to the volunteer members of the primary and secondary panels who have worked diligently toward the cre- ation of this document. Our hope is that these guidelines will serve as a practical aid to those involved in the assessment of cardiac patients’ fitness to drive and fly. David Ross MD Chris Simpson MDI n 1992, the Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) Consensus Conference

2004 CPG Infobase

256. Breastfeeding Multiples

) received at least some breast milk in the first month, 15% received some breast milk at 6 months, 31 and that median duration of breast milk feeding was 3 months. 30 In BC, 5 of 9 women breastfeeding triplets reported that all three infants received breast milk exclusively or predominantly for 2-7 months (solid foods were introduced at 4-6 months). 35 Two single- case reports detailed successful outcomes for breastfeeding quadruplets. 36,37 4. FACTORS INFLUENCING SUCCESSFUL BREASTFEEDING OF MULTIPLE (...) AND PRETERM MULTIPLE BIRTH INFANTS A. Families appreciate knowing that the short and long term benefits of breastfeeding a singleton are amplified when a family delivers twins, triplets, or more. • Breastfeeding in the first hours of life may have a beneficial influence on the physiological course of adaptation of multiple birth neonates. 58 • Breastfeeding multiples facilitates maternal-infants’ attachment 36,49,59 as it provides opportunities for the mother to interact with her babies, discover

2007 British Columbia Perinatal Health Program

257. Nurse entrepreneurs - turning initiative into independence

on in this publication. RO YA L COLLE GE OF NURSING 1 ? 1 ? 22 Having your own business can be very rewarding, as long as you approach it in a business-like way. The many books which offer guidance on running your own business all start from the same premise – know yourself, identify your strengths and weaknesses, decide on the skills you wish to sell and research the potential market for your services. Don’t underestimate your own ability or the effort required to land the first contract. Find high quality training (...) ’ no matter what the circumstances. Consideration is always given to an individual’s professional competence and to what can reasonably be expected of you as a nurse in the particular circumstances under review. 2. Y ou are first and foremost a professional nurse with a duty to the public and your profession, and you must safeguard those interests and responsibilities. Y ou must be ready to challenge a would-be employer or to refuse work if there is a possibility that it could bring your professional

2007 Royal College of Nursing

258. Point-of-Care influenza diagnostic tests

kits 17 Table 3 Effect of POCT on patient management 23 Table 4 POCT for the detection of influenza A subtypes 29 Table 5 Search terms utilised 36 Table 6 Literature sources used in assessment 36 Figures Figure 1 The structure of an influenza virus particle (Conger 2005) 6 Figure 2 The QuickVue influenza test A + B (Charles & Grayson 2007) 10 ii Point-of-care influenza diagnostic tests Executive Summary Nichols et al (2007) defined point-of-care testing (POCT) as “laboratory testing conducted close (...) 2003, the avian influenza A (H5N1) has caused a pandemic in domestic poultry and the wild bird population. This strain is not readily transmitted to humans but has infected at least 300 humans (laboratory confirmed) with a 60 per cent case-fatality rate. There are several rapid influenza diagnostic tests available that are capable of detecting the presence of either influenza A, influenza B or influenza A and B. Influenza A POCT kits are capable of testing whether or not a patient has been infected

2008 Australia and New Zealand Horizon Scanning Network

259. Recommendations for snowmobile safety

bright-coloured antennae flags mounted on rods that are 1.2 m to 2.4 m in length and located on the back of the snowmobile. Operators should carry a first aid kit; an emergency tool kit containing spark plugs, drive and fan belts and an extra key; a survival kit that includes flares; and, if practical, a cellular phone. Snowmobilers should travel in groups of two or more and only on designated, marked trails away from roads, waterways, railroads and pedestrian traffic. Snowmobilers should check (...) reported in the literature include hearing loss from prolonged exposure to excess engine noise and white finger syndrome arising from the effects of cold weather and hand-arm vibrations from the handlebar of the snowmobile . Common factors identified in other studies and contributing to snowmobile incidents include operator error, speeding, travelling on inappropriate terrain, night-time operation and alcohol use - . Snowmobile legislation in Canada While all provinces require that snowmobiles

2004 Canadian Paediatric Society

260. UK National STI Screening and Testing Guideline

in Int J STD and AIDS 2004 15. 297 – 298, 299 – 305). The key features are as follows: 1. Scope and purpose: the overall aim of the guidelines, target population and target users are as described above. 2. Stakeholder involvement. The extent to which the guideline represents the views of intended users has been addressed primarily by the authorship coming from the multidisciplinary membership of the BSIG. As practising clinicians the authors were able to draw on their experience of applying the tests (...) , but may use as part of HPA algorithm (see text) NR: Not recommended NAAT: nucleic acid amplification testAdditional notes: Non specific urethritis (NSU) 1 NSU is diagnosed on the basis of identifying 5 or more polymorphs per high power field (x 1000) on a gram stained urethral smear, averaged over 5 fields containing the greatest concentration of polymorphs. Alternatively, or additionally, the diagnosis can be made from a first pass urine specimen by identifying 10 or more polymorphs per high power

2006 British Association for Sexual Health and HIV

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