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Fetal Scalp Stimulation

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61. Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

in seven infants with molecular-genetic analysis. Fetal Pediatr Pathol 30 (5): 329-37, 2011. [ ] Evans HL: Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: a clinicopathologic study of 33 cases with long-term follow-up. Am J Surg Pathol 35 (10): 1450-62, 2011. [ ] Alaggio R, Collini P, Randall RL, et al.: Undifferentiated high-grade pleomorphic sarcomas in children: a clinicopathologic study of 10 cases and review of literature. Pediatr Dev Pathol 13 (3): 209-17, 2010 May-Jun. [ ] Staging and Grading Systems

2016 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

62. Von Willebrand Disease in Women

Willebrand disease can be transmitted as an autosomal dominant or recessive trait, the fetus can have up to a 50% risk of being affected. Procedures, such as fetal scalp electrode or fetal scalp sampling, are better avoided, and circumcision should be postponed until the newborn’s vWD status is determined (2). Operative vaginal deliveries, in which there may be an increased risk of trauma to the newborn, should be avoided because of the potential risk of intracranial hemorrhage (15). In many women, vWF (...) acetate, recombinant factor VIII, and vWF complex infusion (7, 10). Desmopressin acetate is a synthetic derivative of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin and works by stimulating the release of vWF from endothelial cells (7). Recombinant factor VIII and vWF complex infusion are plasma-derived concentrates used to replace factor VIII and vWF, respectively. One study demonstrated that women with bleeding disorders had reduced menstrual flow with the use of either intranasal desmopressin or tranexamic

2013 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

63. Consensus on women?s health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): the Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored 3rd PCOS Consensus Workshop Group

effective contraception (given their potential fetal toxicity). Flutamide is of limited value because of associated hepatotoxicity. In addition, drospirenone is not antiandrogenic in the dosage usedasacomponentofsomeOCPs.Insulin-sensitizingagents, such asmetformin andpioglitazone, have little effecton hir- sutism or acne (13, 14). Physical approaches to remove unwanted hair, including electrolysis and laser treatments, maybe acceptabletomanypatients. Insevereacne,isotretinoincanbebene?cial,butindivid (...) excess in utero. This may have long-term effects, particularly on female offspring. Fetal hyperandrogenism maydisturbepigeneticprogramming,inparticularthosegenes regulating reproduction and metabolism. Data in relation to the risk of miscarriage in women with PCOS are con?icting, althoughmiscarriageratesaregenerallythoughttobecompa- rable with other subfertile populations (29, 30). When pregnancy occurs in women with PCOS, there is a higher incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM) (40% to 50

2012 Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology

64. Diagnosis and Management of Hepatitis C Infection in Infants, Children, and Adolescents

pregnancy or because infants of HIV-positive mothers may be born somewhat prematurely (43). High maternal HCV viral load (>600,000 IU/mL) appears to favor mother-to-infant HCV transmission (44–46). Internal monitoring of the fetus (‘‘fetal scalp vein monitoring’’) (10), prolonged rupture of membranes (10,43), and fetal anoxia around the time of delivery, as indicated by decreased cord blood pH (46), may enhance the risk of infection. The role of amniocent- esis on the risk of mother-to-infant HCV (...) there are presently no effective strategies to prevent perinatal HCV transmission, universal screening of pregnant women is not recommended (91) Obstetrical-perinatal factors Vertical transmission of HCV is similar between infants born by C-section or vaginally; however, prolonged rupture of membranes and the use of fetal scalp probes are associated with increased HCV transmission rates and should be avoided (1B; AII) (92–94) Postnatal period The rate of vertical transmission is similar between breast- and bottle

2012 North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

65. 2012 ACCF/SCAI Expert Consensus Document on Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory Standards Update

, some subset of all operators should be randomly reviewed at least annually. All operators should be required to attend regularly cardiac catheterization confer- ences and obtain a minimum of 12 CME hours per year. Stimulation training may assist in improving skills. The very low complication rate for diagnostic catheter- ization makes suggestions for a minimum volume threshold particularly dif?cult. The prior catheterization standards document suggested 150 cases per year as a minimum (...) after clear liquids or 6 hours after a light meal. Hydration should be considered an important component prior to contrast administration; and 4) women of child- bearing age should have a urine or serum beta-HCG test within 2 weeks of the procedure. There is little fetal risk during the ?rst 2 weeks of gestation. In addition, the committee could ?nd no data to suggest a concern regarding nitinol device use in patients with nickel allergies. For patients on warfarin, the drug is usually stopped 3

2012 Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions

66. Hyperthyroidism and Other Causes of Thyrotoxicosis

[A] Background In general, thyrotoxicosis can occur if (i) the thyroid is inappropriately stimulated by trophic factors; (ii) there is constituitive activation of thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion leading to autonomous release of excess thyroid hormone; (iii) thyroid stores of preformed hormone are passively released in excessive amounts owing to autoim- mune, infectious, chemical, or mechanical insult; or (iv) there is exposure to extra-thyroidal sources of thyroid hormone, which may be either (...) endogenous (struma ova- rii, metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer) or exogenous (factitious thyrotoxicosis). Subclinical hyperthyroidism (SH) is most often caused by release of excess thyroid hormone by the gland. This condition is defined as a low or undetectable serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) with values within the normal reference range for both triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and free thyroxine (T 4 ) estimates. Both overt and subclinical disease may lead to characteristic signs and symptoms. GD

2011 American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists

67. Guidelines for standard and diuretic renogram in children

into a peripheral vein. This has the advantage of being undertaken within the department of nuclear medicine by any skilful trained health personnel. Using a butterfly needle size 27/25 in a tiny vein (at the anterior side of the wrist or a scalp vein) results in many children not reacting to the injection. In many institutions anaesthetic cream (EMLA/Ametop) has been found unnecessary. After the injection is over, often the child will ask when will the injection be done. Furosemide stimulation test (...) is indepen- dent of frame time and will be the same using either 10- or 20-s frames [18, 19]. Duration of study: The basic renogram should have a minimal duration of 20 min. If a furosemide stimulation test might be required, a separate15-to20-minacquisitionisnecessary.Theadvantage ofthisapproachisthatitallowscheckingfirsttherenographic curves and thento decidewhether or not a furosemide test is warranted. If there is a clear indication for a furosemide test already before the study begins, then some

2011 European Association of Nuclear Medicine

68. Hirsutism

the scalp, central obesity, and acanthosis nigricans (darkening and thickening of the skin usually found in body folds like the axilla, neck, and groin). For information on the diagnosis of PCOS, see the section on in the CKS topic on . An androgen-secreting tumour, including sudden onset or rapid progression of hair growth, severe hirsutism, signs of virilization (hair loss from the scalp, voice deepening, increased muscle bulk, clitoromegaly), and a pelvic or abdominal mass. If present, see (...) it be? Hypertrichosis — excessive hair growth distributed in a generalized, nonsexual pattern. It is not caused by excess androgen, although hyperandrogenaemia may aggravate it. It can be: Congenital, for example Hurler's syndrome, trisomy 18 syndrome, or fetal alcohol syndrome. Associated with certain conditions, for example hypothyroidism, porphyrias, epidermolysis bullosa, anorexia nervosa, malnutrition, dermatomyositis, or following a severe head injury. Induced by such as minoxidil, ciclosporin, phenytoin

2014 NICE Clinical Knowledge Summaries

69. Otezla - apremilast

/antiangiogenic activity (Table 1) (Report 5042-107; Report 5424-11; Report 5478-159; Report 5299-148; Report 5197-130; Report 5279-153; Report 5127-132; Report 5478-100; Report 5638-35). Table 1: Cellular Pharmacologic activity of apremilast Human whole blood, pre-treated for 1 hour with apremilast (0.5 and 1.5 µM), was stimulated with LPS for 18 hours using a TruCulture™ System (Report 7600-043). Apremilast had significant inhibitory effects at 0.5 and 1.5 µM on TNF- a, IL-12/IL-23 p40, interferon gamma (...) inducible protein 10 (IP-10), and MCP-1 EMA/CHMP/476353/2014 Page 19/189 production in LPS-stimulated human whole blood (p 100 µM under LPS, TNF- a, or TGF-ß1 stimulated conditions). The apremilast antiproliferative activity improved in the 48-hour assay with IC 50 values of 92, 40 and 52 µM for the LPS, TNF- a, and TGF-ß1 conditions, respectively. Human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) were treated for 1 hour with apremilast (0.00001 - 10 µM), followed by incubation with IL-1ß (1 ng/mL), TNF- a (5 ng/mL

2015 European Medicines Agency - EPARs

71. How Do You Advise the Balding Patient?

, Casey ML, McConnell JD, Russell DW. Tissue distribution and ontogeny of steroid 5 alpha-reductase isozyme expression. J Clin Invest. 1993;92(2):903-910. 18. Wester RC, Maibach HI, Guy RH, Novak E. Minoxidil stimulates cutaneous blood flow in human balding scalps: pharmacodynamics measured by laser Doppler velocimetry and photopulse plethysmography. J Invest Dermatol. 1984;82(5):515-517. 19. Lachgar S, Charveron M, Gall Y, Bonafe JL. Minoxidil upregulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth (...) exist for male pattern hair loss. Herbal supplements and products on infomercials make cursory non-FDA-approved claims of hair growth. Minoxidil, once developed for hypertension, is available over the counter as a scalp treatment. Finasteride and the newer dutasteride may curb hair loss but also cause sexual and developmental side effects that preclude use by couples who are pregnant or trying to conceive. Hair transplant surgery is a very expensive but effective and lasting procedure in persons

2010 Clinical Correlations

72. Clinical Practice Guideline on Care in Normal Childbirth

when there is an abnor- mal cardiotocography reading (CTGR)? 74. How effective are the following methods of fetal monitoring: CEFM with or with- out fetal scalp blood sampling (FBM)? 75. How effective are the following methods of fetal monitoring: CEFM with or with- out fetal stimulation test when there are alterations in fetal heart rate? 76. How does the use of a CEFM classification system influence neonatal outcomes? It has been 5 years since the publication of this Clinical Practice Guideline (...) Contact 165 8.3. Breastfeeding 167 8.4. Bathing the Neonate 170 8.5. Nasopharyngeal Aspiration and use of Gastric-Rectal tubes in Neonatal Period 171 8.6. Ophthalmic Prophylaxis 173 8.7. Haemorrhagic Disease Prophylaxis Using Vitamin K 178 9. Pain Relief During Labour 185 9.1. Pain, Analgesia and Maternal Satisfaction 186 9.2. Non-pharmacological Pain Relief Methods 190 9.3. Pharmacological Pain Relief Methods 202 9.4. Neuraxial Analgesia 211 10. Fetal Monitoring 243 11. Dissemination

2010 GuiaSalud

73. A consensus statement on the management of pregnancy and delivery in women who are carriers of or have bleeding disorders

, results of quantitative and functional assays for VWF) is desirable for delivery. If needed, factor replacement should be given to the mother as close to the time of delivery as possible. (Note: this does not normalise the baby’s factor levels.) Vacuum extraction is contraindicated. Use of forceps, fetal scalp blood sampling, and scalp electrodes should be avoided, if possible. DDAVP has poor efficacy in type 2 and type 3 von Willebrand disease, but may be used in carriers of haemophilia A. DDAVP may (...) of haemophilia A will develop “normal” factor levels as pregnancy progresses, and thus will not require replacement therapy. , , However, in carriers with a moderate-to-severe deficiency, factor levels may not adequately correct during pregnancy. , , Women with rare bleeding disorders, such as fibrinogen or factor XIII deficiency, may require antenatal treatment to prevent fetal loss. Women with type 1 von Willebrand disease (the most common and mildest form) also experience increased levels of factor VIII

2009 MJA Clinical Guidelines

74. Nasopharyngeal Cancer, Childhood

diagnosis and result in better outcomes.[ ] Diagnostic Evaluation Initial evaluation of a child or adolescent with a thyroid nodule includes the following: Ultrasound of the thyroid. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level. Serum thyroglobulin level. Tests of thyroid function are usually normal, but thyroglobulin can be elevated. Fine-needle aspiration as an initial diagnostic approach is sensitive and useful. However, in doubtful cases, open biopsy or resection should be considered.[ ] Treatment (...) . Importantly, if iodinated contrast agents are used, further evaluation and treatment with radioactive iodine may need to be delayed for 2 to 3 months until total body iodine burden decreases. Chest imaging (x-ray or CT) may be considered for patients with substantial cervical lymph node disease. Thyroid nuclear scintigraphy should be pursued only if the patient presents with a suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The routine use of bone scan or fluorine F 18-fludeoxyglucose positron emission

2012 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

75. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia, Childhood

diagnosis and result in better outcomes.[ ] Diagnostic Evaluation Initial evaluation of a child or adolescent with a thyroid nodule includes the following: Ultrasound of the thyroid. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level. Serum thyroglobulin level. Tests of thyroid function are usually normal, but thyroglobulin can be elevated. Fine-needle aspiration as an initial diagnostic approach is sensitive and useful. However, in doubtful cases, open biopsy or resection should be considered.[ ] Treatment (...) . Importantly, if iodinated contrast agents are used, further evaluation and treatment with radioactive iodine may need to be delayed for 2 to 3 months until total body iodine burden decreases. Chest imaging (x-ray or CT) may be considered for patients with substantial cervical lymph node disease. Thyroid nuclear scintigraphy should be pursued only if the patient presents with a suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The routine use of bone scan or fluorine F 18-fludeoxyglucose positron emission

2012 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

76. Mesothelioma, Childhood

diagnosis and result in better outcomes.[ ] Diagnostic Evaluation Initial evaluation of a child or adolescent with a thyroid nodule includes the following: Ultrasound of the thyroid. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level. Serum thyroglobulin level. Tests of thyroid function are usually normal, but thyroglobulin can be elevated. Fine-needle aspiration as an initial diagnostic approach is sensitive and useful. However, in doubtful cases, open biopsy or resection should be considered.[ ] Treatment (...) . Importantly, if iodinated contrast agents are used, further evaluation and treatment with radioactive iodine may need to be delayed for 2 to 3 months until total body iodine burden decreases. Chest imaging (x-ray or CT) may be considered for patients with substantial cervical lymph node disease. Thyroid nuclear scintigraphy should be pursued only if the patient presents with a suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The routine use of bone scan or fluorine F 18-fludeoxyglucose positron emission

2012 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

77. Midline Tract Carcinoma, Childhood

diagnosis and result in better outcomes.[ ] Diagnostic Evaluation Initial evaluation of a child or adolescent with a thyroid nodule includes the following: Ultrasound of the thyroid. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level. Serum thyroglobulin level. Tests of thyroid function are usually normal, but thyroglobulin can be elevated. Fine-needle aspiration as an initial diagnostic approach is sensitive and useful. However, in doubtful cases, open biopsy or resection should be considered.[ ] Treatment (...) . Importantly, if iodinated contrast agents are used, further evaluation and treatment with radioactive iodine may need to be delayed for 2 to 3 months until total body iodine burden decreases. Chest imaging (x-ray or CT) may be considered for patients with substantial cervical lymph node disease. Thyroid nuclear scintigraphy should be pursued only if the patient presents with a suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The routine use of bone scan or fluorine F 18-fludeoxyglucose positron emission

2012 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

78. Papillomatosis, Childhood

diagnosis and result in better outcomes.[ ] Diagnostic Evaluation Initial evaluation of a child or adolescent with a thyroid nodule includes the following: Ultrasound of the thyroid. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level. Serum thyroglobulin level. Tests of thyroid function are usually normal, but thyroglobulin can be elevated. Fine-needle aspiration as an initial diagnostic approach is sensitive and useful. However, in doubtful cases, open biopsy or resection should be considered.[ ] Treatment (...) . Importantly, if iodinated contrast agents are used, further evaluation and treatment with radioactive iodine may need to be delayed for 2 to 3 months until total body iodine burden decreases. Chest imaging (x-ray or CT) may be considered for patients with substantial cervical lymph node disease. Thyroid nuclear scintigraphy should be pursued only if the patient presents with a suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The routine use of bone scan or fluorine F 18-fludeoxyglucose positron emission

2012 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

79. Head and Neck Cancer, Childhood

diagnosis and result in better outcomes.[ ] Diagnostic Evaluation Initial evaluation of a child or adolescent with a thyroid nodule includes the following: Ultrasound of the thyroid. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level. Serum thyroglobulin level. Tests of thyroid function are usually normal, but thyroglobulin can be elevated. Fine-needle aspiration as an initial diagnostic approach is sensitive and useful. However, in doubtful cases, open biopsy or resection should be considered.[ ] Treatment (...) . Importantly, if iodinated contrast agents are used, further evaluation and treatment with radioactive iodine may need to be delayed for 2 to 3 months until total body iodine burden decreases. Chest imaging (x-ray or CT) may be considered for patients with substantial cervical lymph node disease. Thyroid nuclear scintigraphy should be pursued only if the patient presents with a suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The routine use of bone scan or fluorine F 18-fludeoxyglucose positron emission

2012 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

80. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors, Childhood

diagnosis and result in better outcomes.[ ] Diagnostic Evaluation Initial evaluation of a child or adolescent with a thyroid nodule includes the following: Ultrasound of the thyroid. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level. Serum thyroglobulin level. Tests of thyroid function are usually normal, but thyroglobulin can be elevated. Fine-needle aspiration as an initial diagnostic approach is sensitive and useful. However, in doubtful cases, open biopsy or resection should be considered.[ ] Treatment (...) . Importantly, if iodinated contrast agents are used, further evaluation and treatment with radioactive iodine may need to be delayed for 2 to 3 months until total body iodine burden decreases. Chest imaging (x-ray or CT) may be considered for patients with substantial cervical lymph node disease. Thyroid nuclear scintigraphy should be pursued only if the patient presents with a suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The routine use of bone scan or fluorine F 18-fludeoxyglucose positron emission

2012 PDQ - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database

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