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Fetal Head Circumference

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161. Impact of replacing Chinese ethnicity-specific fetal biometry charts with the INTERGROWTH-21<sup>st</sup> standard. (Abstract)

Impact of replacing Chinese ethnicity-specific fetal biometry charts with the INTERGROWTH-21st standard. To assess the impact of adopting the INTERGROWTH-21(st) biometry standards in a Chinese population.Retrospective cohort study.A teaching hospital in Hong Kong.A total of 10 527 Chinese women with a singleton pregnancy having a second- or third-trimester fetal anomaly or growth scan between January 2009 and June 2014.Z-scores were derived for fetal abdominal circumference (AC (...) ), head circumference (HC), and femur length (FL) using the INTERGROWTH-21(st) and Chinese biometry standards. Pregnancies with aneuploidy, structural or skeletal abnormalities, or that developed pre-eclampsia were excluded. Z-scores were stratified as <2.5th, <5th, <10th, >90th, >95th, or >97.5th percentile. Birthweight centile, adjusted for gestation and gender, was categorised as ≤3rd, 3rd to ≤5th, 5th to ≤10th, and >10th. Pairwise comparison and the McNemar test were performed to assess biometry Z

2016 BJOG

162. Fetal infection by Zika virus in the third trimester - report of 2 cases. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fetal infection by Zika virus in the third trimester - report of 2 cases. Zika virus (ZIKV) infection acquired during pregnancy is associated with congenital microcephaly. We describe 2 cases of ZIKV infection in women in their 36th week of pregnancy whose fetuses had preserved head circumference at birth and findings of subependymal cysts and lenticulostriate vasculopathy in postnatal imaging. These represent the first signs of congenital brain injury acquired due to ZIKV in the third

2016 Clinical Infectious Diseases

163. Accelerated Fetal Growth Prior to Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Cohort Study of Nulliparous Women. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Accelerated Fetal Growth Prior to Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Cohort Study of Nulliparous Women. To determine whether fetal overgrowth precedes the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to quantify the interrelationships among fetal overgrowth, GDM, and maternal obesity.We conducted a prospective cohort study of unselected nulliparous women and performed ultrasonic measurement of the fetal abdominal circumference (AC) and head circumference (HC (...) ) at 20 and 28 weeks of gestational age (wkGA). Exposures were diagnosis of GDM ≥28 wkGA and maternal obesity. The risk of AC >90th and HC-to-AC ratio <10th percentile was modeled using log-binomial regression, adjusted for maternal characteristics.Of 4,069 women, 171 (4.2%) were diagnosed with GDM at ≥28 wkGA. There was no association between fetal biometry at 20 wkGA and subsequent maternal diagnosis of GDM. However, at 28 wkGA, there was an increased risk of AC >90th percentile (adjusted relative

2016 Diabetes Care

164. Congenital Heart Defects and Measures of Fetal Growth in Newborns with Down Syndrome or 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome. (Abstract)

growth by multivariable linear regression adjusted for potential confounders. We report mean differences in gestational age specific z-scores compared with newborns without CHD.Down syndrome and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome were both associated with lower mean birth weight and head circumference z-scores. We found no association between CHD or CHD severity and indices of fetal growth. In Down syndrome, the association between any CHD and the mean difference in head circumference z-score was 0.03 (95% CI (...) Congenital Heart Defects and Measures of Fetal Growth in Newborns with Down Syndrome or 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome. To estimate the association between congenital heart defects (CHD) and indices of fetal growth in Down and 22q11.2 deletion syndromes.We established 2 Danish nationwide cohorts of newborn singletons with either Down syndrome (n = 670) or 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (n = 155), born 1997-2011. In both cohorts, we analyzed the association between CHD, CHD severity, and indices of fetal

2016 Journal of Pediatrics

165. Longitudinal changes in fetal biometries and cerebroplacental haemodynamics in fetuses with congenital heart disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

gestation.Four hundred and forty-four ultrasound examinations were performed in 119 CHD fetuses, with a median of two measurements per fetus. The fetuses presented a small head at diagnosis (biparietal diameter (BPD) Z-score, -1.32 ± 0.99; head circumference (HC) Z-score, -0.79 ± 1.02), which remained small throughout gestation. UtA and UA pulsatility indices (PI) showed a significant increase towards the end of pregnancy, whereas no significant changes were observed in MCA-PI or cerebroplacental ratio (CPR (...) Longitudinal changes in fetal biometries and cerebroplacental haemodynamics in fetuses with congenital heart disease. To determine the longitudinal behavior of fetal biometric measures and cerebroplacental hemodynamics throughout gestation in fetuses with congenital heart disease (CHD).Fetal biometry and Doppler hemodynamics (uterine artery (UtA), umbilical artery (UA) and fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA)) were measured serially in a cohort of consecutive fetuses diagnosed with CHD

2016 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

166. Does Gestational Diabetes Affect Fetal Growth and Pregnancy Outcome in Twin Pregnancies? (Abstract)

Does Gestational Diabetes Affect Fetal Growth and Pregnancy Outcome in Twin Pregnancies? Women with twin pregnancies are at increased risk for fetal growth restriction, which might be attributed to the limited maternal resources that are being shared by >1 fetus. Based on that, it may be hypothesized that the fetal effects of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with respect to accelerated fetal growth may be less pronounced in twin gestations or alternatively may even have a beneficial role (...) percentile: OGTT-NEGATIVE = odds ratio (OR), 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-2.2; GDM-IADPSG = OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.6; and GDM-CDA = OR, 1.9, 95% CI, 1.3-3.1 (using the GCT-NEGATIVE group as reference). Fetuses of women with glucose intolerance were more likely to experience asymmetric growth as reflected by an elevated abdominal circumference to head circumference ratio.GDM and milder degrees of glucose intolerance in twin pregnancies are associated with an increased risk of asymmetric

2015 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

167. Associations between gestational anthropometry, maternal HIV, and fetal and early infancy growth in a prospective rural/semi-rural Tanzanian cohort, 2012-13. Full Text available with Trip Pro

practices. Second or third trimester anthropometry (mid-upper arm circumference [MUAC], triceps skinfold thickness, weight, height), pregnancy outcomes, birth (weight, length, head circumference) and infant anthropometry (weight-for-age z-score [WAZ], length-for-age z-score [LAZ]) were obtained. Linear regression and mixed effect modeling were used to evaluate gestational factors in relation to pregnancy and infant outcomes.Gestational MUAC and maternal HIV status (HIV-positive mothers = 39%) were (...) Associations between gestational anthropometry, maternal HIV, and fetal and early infancy growth in a prospective rural/semi-rural Tanzanian cohort, 2012-13. Healthcare access and resources differ considerably between urban and rural settings making cross-setting generalizations difficult. In resource-restricted rural/semi-rural environments, identification of feasible screening tools is a priority. The objective of this study was to evaluate gestational anthropometry in relation to birth

2015 BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

168. Placental expression of the insulin receptor binding protein GRB10: Relation to human fetoplacental growth and fetal gender. (Abstract)

small- (SGA) and appropriate- (AGA) for gestational age full-term singleton pregnancies (n = 36 SGA and 41 AGA). Placentae and neonates were weighed at birth. Realtime quantitative PCR was performed to assess placental transcript abundance of GRB10 and PHLDA2 normalized to a panel of reference genes.Placental GRB10 transcript abundance associated positively with placental weight (r = 0.307, P = 0.007), birth weight (r = 0.267, P = 0.019) and neonatal head circumference (r = 0.280, P = 0.014 (...) ). Placental GRB10 transcript levels were significantly lower in male SGA placentae compared to the male AGA placentae. Placental PHLDA2 transcript abundance did not show any associations with maternal, placental or neonatal parameters.Placental GRB10 expression was found to be associated positively with placental weight, birth weight, and neonatal head circumference, especially in males. Hence, we speculate that placental GRB10 plays a role in regulating fetoplacental growth and thereby

2015 Placenta

169. Ultrasound assessment of congenital fetal lung masses and neonatal respiratory outcomes. (Abstract)

and 2013 were reviewed. CVR was calculated at each ultrasound using the formula for a prolate ellipse divided by head circumference. The pregnancy outcome and information about NICU admission for respiratory insufficiency were collected.Forty-two fetuses were diagnosed with a lung mass during the study period. CVR prior to 24 weeks and between 24 and 32 weeks were associated with NICU admission (p < 0.0001 and <0.008, respectively). CVR increased up to 32 weeks and decreased thereafter for most (...) Ultrasound assessment of congenital fetal lung masses and neonatal respiratory outcomes. Fetal congenital lung masses generate concern for compromised postnatal respiratory function. Congenital pulmonary adenomatoid malformation volume ratio (CVR) has been used to predict the risk of hydrops fetalis and need for antenatal intervention. This study investigates whether CVR could be used to predict neonatal respiratory outcomes.The ultrasounds of fetuses diagnosed with a lung mass between 2005

2015 Prenatal diagnosis

170. Effects of yoga on utero-fetal-placental circulation in high-risk pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

pregnant women were randomized into yoga (n = 27) and control (n = 32) groups. The yoga group received standard care plus yoga sessions (1 hour/day, 3 times/week), from 12th to 28th week of gestation. The control group received standard care plus conventional antenatal exercises (walking). Measurements were assessed at 12th, 20th, and 28th weeks of gestation. Results. RM-ANOVA showed significantly higher values in the yoga group (28th week) for biparietal diameter (P = 0.001), head circumference (P (...) Effects of yoga on utero-fetal-placental circulation in high-risk pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial. Introduction. Impaired placentation and inadequate trophoblast invasion have been associated with the etiology of many pregnancy complications and have been correlated with the first trimester uterine artery resistance. Previous studies have shown the benefits of yoga in improving pregnancy outcomes and those of yogic visualization in revitalizing the human tissues. Methods. 59 high-risk

2015 Advances in preventive medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

171. The role and interaction of imprinted genes in human fetal growth Full Text available with Trip Pro

of the growth factor receptor-bound protein 10 (GRB10) in term placenta is significantly negatively correlated with head circumference. Analysis of the paternally expressing delta-like 1 homologue (DLK1) shows that the paternal transmission of type 1 diabetes protective G allele of rs941576 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) results in significantly reduced birth weight (-132 g). In conclusion, we have found that the expression of key imprinted genes show a strong correlation with fetal growth (...) The role and interaction of imprinted genes in human fetal growth Identifying the genetic input for fetal growth will help to understand common, serious complications of pregnancy such as fetal growth restriction. Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic process that silences one parental allele, resulting in monoallelic expression. Imprinted genes are important in mammalian fetal growth and development. Evidence has emerged showing that genes that are paternally expressed promote fetal growth

2015 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

172. THE CONTINUUM OF FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS IN FOUR RURAL COMMUNITIES IN SOUTH AFRICA: PREVALENCE AND CHARACTERISTICS Full Text available with Trip Pro

THE CONTINUUM OF FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS IN FOUR RURAL COMMUNITIES IN SOUTH AFRICA: PREVALENCE AND CHARACTERISTICS Prevalence and characteristics of the continuum of diagnoses within fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were researched in previously unstudied rural, agricultural, lower socioeconomic populations in South Africa (ZA).Using an active case ascertainment approach among first grade learners, 1354 (72.6%) were consented into the study via: height, weight, and/or head (...) circumference ≤ 25th centile and/or random selection as normal control candidates. Final diagnoses were made following: examination by pediatric dysmorphologists/geneticists, cognitive/behavioral testing, and maternal risk factor interviews.FASD children were significantly growth deficient and dysmorphic: physical measurements, cardinal facial features of FAS, and total dysmorphology scores clearly differentiated diagnostic categories from severe to mild to normal in a consistent, linear fashion

2015 Drug and alcohol dependence

173. Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphorous Pesticides and Fetal Growth: Pooled Results from Four Longitudinal Birth Cohort Studies Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphorous Pesticides and Fetal Growth: Pooled Results from Four Longitudinal Birth Cohort Studies Organophosphorous (OP) pesticides are associated with reduced fetal growth in animals, but human studies are inconsistent.We pooled data from four cohorts to examine associations of prenatal OP exposure with birth weight (n = 1,169), length (n = 1,152), and head circumference (n = 1,143).Data were from the CHAMACOS, HOME, Columbia, and Mount Sinai birth cohorts (...) . Concentrations of three diethyl phosphate (ΣDEP) and three dimethyl phosphate (ΣDMP) metabolites of OP pesticides [summed to six dialkyl phosphates (ΣDAPs)] were measured in maternal urine. Linear regression and mixed-effects models were used to examine associations with birth outcomes.We found no significant associations of ΣDEP, ΣDMP, or ΣDAPs with birth weight, length, or head circumference overall. However, among non-Hispanic black women, increasing urinary ΣDAP and ΣDMP concentrations were associated

2015 Environmental health perspectives

174. Fetal Growth and Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Congenital Heart Disease. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fetal Growth and Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Congenital Heart Disease. We evaluated differences in growth between fetuses with and without congenital heart disease (CHD) and tested associations between growth and early childhood neurodevelopment (ND). In this prospective cohort study, fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), transposition of the great arteries (TGA), and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and controls had biparietal diameter (BPD), head (HC) and abdominal circumference (AC (...) at F2 predicted Language score (B = 127, P = 0.03, R (2) = 0.12). Differences in growth between CHD fetuses and controls can be measured early in pregnancy. In CHD fetuses, larger abdominal relative to head circumference is associated with better 18-month neurodevelopment.

2015 Pediatric Cardiology

175. Early Postnatal Growth in a Subset of Convalescing Extremely Low Birth Weight Neonates - Approximating the "Index Fetus" Ex Utero. (Abstract)

the growth rate of the index fetus.This was a retrospective review of a subset of 21 premature neonates defined by 4 criteria: inborn or transferred-in within 24 hours of birth, gestational age < 30 weeks and birth weight ≤1000 g, hospitalized >35 postnatal days, and discharged between 34 and 42 weeks postconceptual age. Optimal growth at discharge was defined as weight and head circumference >10th percentile compared with comparable gestational age fetal parameters.Protein intake of ≥1.4 g · kg · day (...) and energy ≥30 kcal · kg · day were provided as of the first postnatal day. Proteins ≥3 g · kg · day and >80 kcal · kg · day were established ≥10th postnatal day. Birth weight was regained by postnatal day 10 ± 5 day (mean + standard deviation). Nutrition was predominantly enteral (ie, >50% of all calories) after the 11th postnatal day. At discharge, 71% (15/21) by weight and 76% (16/21) by head circumference were >10th percentile. After 30 weeks postconceptual age, the cohort exceeded the weight gain

2015 Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition

176. Prediction of small for gestational age neonates: Screening by fetal biometry at 35-37 weeks. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine if screening by a combination of maternal factors and Z-scores of fetal head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) or estimated fetal weight (EFW) had a significant contribution to the prediction of SGA neonates.Multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the likelihood of delivering a SGA neonate with a birth weight < 5th percentile decreased with maternal weight and height, and in parous (...) Prediction of small for gestational age neonates: Screening by fetal biometry at 35-37 weeks. To investigate the value of fetal biometry at 35-37 weeks' gestation in the prediction of delivery of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates, in the absence of pre-eclampsia (PE).This was a screening study in singleton pregnancies at 35-37 weeks' gestation, comprising 278 that delivered SGA neonates with a birth weight < 5th percentile and 5237 cases unaffected by SGA, PE or gestational hypertension

2015 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

177. Prediction of small for gestational age neonates: screening by fetal biometry at 19-24 weeks. Full Text available with Trip Pro

%) that delivered SGA neonates with birth weight < 5(th) percentile (SGA < 5(th)). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine if screening by a combination of maternal characteristics and medical history and Z-scores of fetal head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) had significant contribution in predicting SGA neonates. A model was developed for selecting the gestational age for third-trimester assessment, at 32 and/or 36 weeks, based on the results (...) Prediction of small for gestational age neonates: screening by fetal biometry at 19-24 weeks. To investigate the value of fetal biometry at 19-24 weeks' gestation in the prediction of delivery of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates, in the absence of pre-eclampsia (PE), and examine the potential value of such assessment in deciding whether the third-trimester scan should be at 32 and/or 36 weeks' gestation.This was a screening study in 88,187 singleton pregnancies, including 5003 (5.7

2015 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

178. Fetal Pelvic index to predict cephalopelvic disproportion- a retrospective clinical cohort study. (Abstract)

regression analyses were carried out to identify risk factors for cesarean section. Diagnostic accuracy was tested with a receiver operating characteristic curve, and the optimal cut-off value for fetal pelvic index was calculated.Cesarean section rates.A total of 242 women delivered vaginally, and 32 delivered with cesarean section caused by labor arrest. In multivariable modeling, the fetal pelvic index, maternal pelvic inlet size, fetal head circumference and maternal age were significantly associated (...) Fetal Pelvic index to predict cephalopelvic disproportion- a retrospective clinical cohort study. To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of the fetal pelvic index to predict cephalopelvic disproportion.Retrospective observational cohort study.Pregnant women who had been examined by X-ray or magnetic resonance imaging pelvimetry because of an increased risk of fetal-pelvic disproportion during 2000-2008 in North Karelia Central Hospital.A total of 274 pregnant women.Univariable and multivariable

2015 Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica

179. Fetal iron deficiency and genotype influence emotionality in infant rhesus monkeys. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of structured experiences were recorded during a 25-h separation of the infants from their mothers.Infant monkeys with low-transcription MAOA polymorphisms more clearly demonstrated the following ID effects suggested in earlier studies: a 4% smaller head circumference, a 39% lower cortisol response to social separation, a 129% longer engagement with novel visual stimuli, and 33% lesser withdrawal in response to a human intruder. The high MAOA genotype ID monkeys demonstrated other ID effects: less (...) Fetal iron deficiency and genotype influence emotionality in infant rhesus monkeys. Anemia during the third trimester of fetal development affects one-third of the pregnancies in the United States and has been associated with postnatal behavioral outcomes. This study examines how fetal iron deficiency (ID) interacts with the fetal monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype. MAOA metabolizes monoamine neurotransmitters. MAOA polymorphisms in humans affect temperament and modify the influence of early

2015 Journal of Nutrition

180. The association of fetal growth, cerebral blood flow, and neurodevelopmental outcome in single ventricle fetuses. Full Text available with Trip Pro

a subset of 82 infants in whom ND was assessed at 14 months using mental (MDI) and psychomotor (PDI) developmental indices. US examinations were assigned to one of four gestational time periods: (1) 20-23 weeks, (2) 24-29 weeks, (3) 30-33 weeks and (4) ≥ 34 weeks. Middle cerebral artery (MCA) flow velocity was measured and pulsatility index (PI), a measure of downstream resistance, was calculated. Data on fetal head circumference (HC), femur length, abdominal circumference (AC) and estimated fetal (...) The association of fetal growth, cerebral blood flow, and neurodevelopmental outcome in single ventricle fetuses. To investigate the association of fetal growth and cerebrovascular resistance at different periods in gestation with neurodevelopment (ND) at 14 months in the univentricular subject.We reviewed serial prenatal ultrasound (US) examinations from 133 infants enrolled in the Pediatric Heart Network's Single Ventricle Reconstruction or Infants with Single Ventricle trials, including

2015 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

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