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Fetal Head Circumference

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141. Normative biometry of the fetal brain using magnetic resonance imaging (PubMed)

) of fetuses with a normal brain appearance (21-38 gestational weeks) were included in this study. 2D and 3D biometric parameters were measured from slice-to-volume reconstructed images, including 3D measurements of supratentorial brain tissue, lateral ventricles, cortex, cerebellum and extra-cerebral CSF and 2D measurements of brain biparietal diameter and fronto-occipital length, skull biparietal diameter and occipitofrontal diameter, head circumference, transverse cerebellar diameter, extra-cerebral CSF (...) Normative biometry of the fetal brain using magnetic resonance imaging The fetal brain shows accelerated growth in the latter half of gestation, and these changes can be captured by 2D and 3D biometry measurements. The aim of this study was to quantify brain growth in normal fetuses using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and to produce reference biometry data and a freely available centile calculator ( https://www.developingbrain.co.uk/fetalcentiles/ ). A total of 127 MRI examinations (1.5 T

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2016 Brain structure & function

142. Sex-specific differences in fetal and infant growth patterns: a prospective population-based cohort study (PubMed)

trimester of pregnancy head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) were assessed. Information on infant growth during the first 2 years of life was obtained from Community Health Centers and included HC, body weight and length.In the first trimester, male CRL was larger than female CRL (0.12 SD [95% CI 0.03,0.22]). From the second trimester onwards, HC and AC were larger in males than in females (0.30 SD [95% CI 0.26,0.34] and 0.09 SD [95% CI 0.05,0.014], respectively (...) Sex-specific differences in fetal and infant growth patterns: a prospective population-based cohort study The objective of this study was to assess whether sex-specific differences in fetal and infant growth exist.This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective birth cohort. In total, 8556 live singleton births were included. Fetal growth was assessed by ultrasound. During the first trimester, crown-rump-length (CRL) was measured. In the second and third

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2016 Biology of sex differences

143. Ultrasonography-based Fetal Weight Estimation: Finding an Appropriate Model for an Indian Population (PubMed)

Ultrasonography-based Fetal Weight Estimation: Finding an Appropriate Model for an Indian Population Very limited information is available regarding the accuracy and applicability of various ultrasonography parameters [abdominal circumference (AC), biparietal diameter (BPD), femur length (FL), and head circumference (HC)]-based fetal weight estimation models for Indian population. The objective of this study was to systematically evaluate commonly used fetal weight estimation models (...) to determine their appropriateness for an Indian population.Retrospective data of 300 pregnant women was collected from a tertiary care center in Bengaluru, India. The inclusion criteria were a live singleton pregnancy, gestational age ≥ 34 weeks, and last ultrasound scan to delivery duration ≤ 7 days. Cases with suspected fetal growth restriction or malformation were excluded. For each case, fetal weight was estimated using 34 different models. The models specifically designed for low birth weight, small

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2016 Journal of medical ultrasound

144. Urinary phthalate metabolite and bisphenol A associations with ultrasound and delivery indices of fetal growth (PubMed)

were consistent across different growth parameters (e.g., head circumference, femur length), and by fetal sex. No consistent associations were observed for other phthalate metabolites or BPA. Maternal exposure to DEHP during pregnancy was associated with decreased fetal growth, which could have repercussive effects.Published by Elsevier Ltd. (...) Urinary phthalate metabolite and bisphenol A associations with ultrasound and delivery indices of fetal growth Growth of the fetus is highly sensitive to environmental perturbations, and disruption can lead to problems in pregnancy as well as later in life. This study investigates the relationship between maternal exposure to common plasticizers in pregnancy and fetal growth. Participants from a longitudinal birth cohort in Boston were recruited early in gestation and followed until delivery

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2016 Environment international

145. International Estimated Fetal Weight Standards of the INTERGROWTH-21<sup>st</sup> Project. (PubMed)

Growth Longitudinal Study (FGLS) and INTERBIO-21st Fetal Study (FS), two components of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project, had ultrasound scans every 5 weeks from 9-14 weeks' until 40 weeks' gestation. At each visit, measurements of fetal head circumference (HC), biparietal diameter, occipitofrontal diameter, abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) were obtained blindly by dedicated research sonographers using standardized methods and identical ultrasound machines. Birth weight was measured (...) International Estimated Fetal Weight Standards of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project. Estimated fetal weight (EFW) and fetal biometry are complementary measures used to screen for fetal growth disturbances. Our aim was to provide international EFW standards to complement the INTERGROWTH-21st Fetal Growth Standards that are available for use worldwide.Women with an accurate gestational-age assessment, who were enrolled in the prospective, international, multicenter, population-based Fetal

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2016 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

146. Maternal vitamin D concentrations during pregnancy, fetal growth patterns, and risks of adverse birth outcomes. (PubMed)

at a median gestational age of 20.3 wk (range: 18.5-23.3 wk). Vitamin D concentrations were analyzed continuously and in quartiles. Fetal head circumference and body length and weight were estimated by repeated ultrasounds, and preterm birth (gestational age <37 wk) and small size for gestational age (less than the fifth percentile) were determined.Adjusted multivariate regression analyses showed that, compared with mothers with second-trimester 25(OH)D concentrations in the highest quartile, those (...) with 25(OH)D concentrations in the lower quartiles had offspring with third-trimester fetal growth restriction, leading to a smaller head circumference, shorter body length, and lower body weight at birth (all P < 0.05). Mothers who had 25(OH)D concentrations in the lowest quartile had an increased risk of preterm delivery (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.60) and children who were small for gestational age (OR: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.33, 3.22). The estimated population attributable risk of 25(OH)D concentrations

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2016 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

147. Association of prenatal lipid-based nutritional supplementation with fetal growth in rural Gambia. (PubMed)

, and weight gain. Despite evidence of between-arm differences in some fetal biometry, z-scores at birth were not greater in the intervention arms than the FeFol arm (e.g., birth weight z-scores: FeFol -0.71, MMN -0.63, PE -0.64, PE + MMN -0.62; group-wise p = .796). In regression analyses, intervention associations with birth weight and head circumference were modified by maternal weight gain between booking and 30 weeks gestation (e.g., PE + MMN associations with birth weight were +0.462 z-scores (95% CI (...) Association of prenatal lipid-based nutritional supplementation with fetal growth in rural Gambia. Prenatal supplementation with protein-energy (PE) and/or multiple-micronutrients (MMNs) may improve fetal growth, but trials of lipid-based nutritional supplements (LNSs) have reported inconsistent results. We conducted a post-hoc analysis of non-primary outcomes in a trial in Gambia, with the aim to test the associations of LNS with fetal growth and explore how efficacy varies depending

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2016 Maternal & child nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

148. Preliminary analysis of in utero low-level arsenic exposure and fetal growth using biometric measurements extracted from fetal ultrasound reports (PubMed)

records. We used information extraction methods to develop and validate an automated approach for mining biometric measurements from the text of clinical reports. As a preliminary analysis, we examined associations between in utero low-level arsenic exposure (as measured by maternal urinary arsenic concentration) and fetal growth measures (converted to Z-scores based on reference populations for estimated fetal weight, head, and other body measures) at approximately 18 weeks of gestation.In (...) a preliminary cross-sectional analysis of 223 out of 272 pregnancies, maternal urinary arsenic concentration (excluding arsenobetaine) was associated with a reduction in head circumference Z-score (Spearman correlation coefficient, rs = -0.08, p-value = 0.21) and a stronger association was observed among female fetuses at approximately 18 weeks of gestation (rs = - 0.21, p-value < 0.05). Although, associations were attenuated in adjusted analyses - among female fetuses a 1 μg/L increase in maternal urinary

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2015 Environmental Health

149. The Effects of Fetal Gender on Maternal and Fetal Insulin Resistance. (PubMed)

birth to female infants. Compared to male infants at birth, female infants were significantly lighter, (3945 ± 436 vs. 4081± 549g, p<0.001), shorter in length (52.36 ± 2.3 vs. 53.05 ± 2.4cm, p<0.001) and with smaller head circumferences (35.36 ± 1.5 vs. 36.10 ± 1.1cm, p<0.001) than males. On multiple regression analysis, women pregnant with female fetuses were less insulin resistant in early pregnancy, i.e. had lower HOMA indices (B = -0.19, p = 0.01). Additionally female fetuses had higher (...) The Effects of Fetal Gender on Maternal and Fetal Insulin Resistance. Gender plays a role in the development of a number of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and it has been suggested that females may be more insulin resistant in utero. We sought to assess the relationship between infant gender and insulin resistance in a large pregnancy cohort.This is a secondary analysis of a cohort from the ROLO randomized control trial of low GI diet in pregnancy. Serum insulin, glucose and leptin were

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2015 PloS one Controlled trial quality: uncertain

150. Oxygen Supply to the Fetal Cerebral Circulation in Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: A Simulation Study Based on the Theoretical Models of Fetal Circulation. (PubMed)

Oxygen Supply to the Fetal Cerebral Circulation in Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: A Simulation Study Based on the Theoretical Models of Fetal Circulation. Hypoxia due to congenital heart diseases (CHDs) adversely affects brain development during the fetal period. Head circumference at birth is closely associated with neuropsychiatric development, and it is considerably smaller in newborns with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) than in normal newborns. We performed simulation studies (...) on newborns with CHD to evaluate the cerebral circulation during the fetal period. The oxygen saturation of cerebral blood flow in newborns with CHD was simulated according to a model for normal fetal circulation in late pregnancy. We compared the oxygen saturation of cerebral blood flow between newborns with tricuspid atresia (TA; a disease showing univentricular circulation and hypoplasia of the right ventricle), those with transposition of the great arteries (TGA; a disease showing abnormal mixing

2014 Pediatric Cardiology

151. Growth trajectories of the human embryonic head and periconceptional maternal conditions. (PubMed)

Growth trajectories of the human embryonic head and periconceptional maternal conditions. Can growth trajectories of the human embryonic head be created using 3D ultrasound (3D-US) and virtual reality (VR) technology, and be associated with second trimester fetal head size and periconceptional maternal conditions?Serial first trimester head circumference (HC) and head volume (HV) measurements were used to create reliable growth trajectories of the embryonic head, which were significantly (...) associated with fetal head size and periconceptional maternal smoking, age and ITALIC! in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment.Fetal growth is influenced by periconceptional maternal conditions.We selected 149 singleton pregnancies with a live born non-malformed fetus from the Rotterdam periconception cohort.Bi-parietal diameter and occipital frontal diameter to calculate HC, HV and crown-rump length (CRL) were measured weekly between 9 + 0 and 12 + 6 weeks

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2016 Human Reproduction

152. Head growth in fetuses with isolated congenital heart defects: lack of influence of aortic arch flow and ascending aorta oxygen saturation. (PubMed)

Head growth in fetuses with isolated congenital heart defects: lack of influence of aortic arch flow and ascending aorta oxygen saturation. Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are reported to be associated with a smaller fetal head circumference (HC) and neurodevelopmental delay. Recent studies suggest that altered intrauterine brain hemodynamics may explain these findings. Our objectives were to evaluate the pattern of head growth in a large cohort of fetuses with various types of CHD, analyze (...) these patterns according to the type of CHD and estimate the effect of cerebral hemodynamics with advancing gestation in the second and third trimesters.Singleton fetuses with an isolated CHD were selected from three fetal medicine units (n = 436). Cases with placental insufficiency or genetic syndromes were excluded. CHD types were clustered according to the flow and oxygen saturation in the aorta. Z-scores of biometric data were constructed using growth charts of a normal population. HC at different

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2016 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

153. Sonographic estimation of fetal head circumference - how accurate are we? (PubMed)

Sonographic estimation of fetal head circumference - how accurate are we? To assess the accuracy of sonographic estimation of fetal head circumference (HC).We compared sonographic estimations of fetal HC with actual measurements performed immediately after delivery using 3008 sonographic examinations performed within 3 days prior to delivery. The following measures of accuracy were calculated: correlation with actual HC, systematic error, random error, simple error, mean absolute percentage (...) cephalic index (> 0.81) (odds ratio (OR), 0.3; 95% CI, 0.2-0.4), HC > 90(th) centile (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.6), delivery by vacuum extraction (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8), gestational week (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6-0.9) and male fetal gender (OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.6-0.9) were associated with decreased sonographic accuracy. At term, breech presentation at the time of sonographic examination was associated with a higher sonographic accuracy compared with vertex presentation (-12.0; 95% CI, - 10.5 to - 13.5 vs

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2010 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

154. Fetal head circumference growth in children with specific language impairment. (PubMed)

Fetal head circumference growth in children with specific language impairment. To characterise fetal brain growth in children with specific language impairment (SLI).A nested case-control study.Perth, Western Australia.Thirty children meeting criteria for SLI at age 10 years were individually matched with a typically developing comparison child on sex, non-verbal ability, fetal gestational age, maternal age at conception, smoking and alcohol intake during pregnancy.Occipitofrontal head (...) circumference (HC) was measured using ultrasonography at approximately 18 weeks gestation. Femur length provided a measure of fetal length. Occipitofrontal HC was measured at birth and at the 1-year postnatal follow-up using a precise paper tape measure, while crown-heel length acted as an index of body length at both time points. Raw data were transformed to z-scores using reference norms.The SLI group had a significantly smaller mean HC than the typically developing comparison children at birth

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2010 Archives of Disease in Childhood

155. Ultrasound assessment of congenital fetal lung masses and neonatal respiratory outcomes. (PubMed)

and 2013 were reviewed. CVR was calculated at each ultrasound using the formula for a prolate ellipse divided by head circumference. The pregnancy outcome and information about NICU admission for respiratory insufficiency were collected.Forty-two fetuses were diagnosed with a lung mass during the study period. CVR prior to 24 weeks and between 24 and 32 weeks were associated with NICU admission (p < 0.0001 and <0.008, respectively). CVR increased up to 32 weeks and decreased thereafter for most (...) Ultrasound assessment of congenital fetal lung masses and neonatal respiratory outcomes. Fetal congenital lung masses generate concern for compromised postnatal respiratory function. Congenital pulmonary adenomatoid malformation volume ratio (CVR) has been used to predict the risk of hydrops fetalis and need for antenatal intervention. This study investigates whether CVR could be used to predict neonatal respiratory outcomes.The ultrasounds of fetuses diagnosed with a lung mass between 2005

2015 Prenatal diagnosis

156. Associations between gestational anthropometry, maternal HIV, and fetal and early infancy growth in a prospective rural/semi-rural Tanzanian cohort, 2012-13. (PubMed)

practices. Second or third trimester anthropometry (mid-upper arm circumference [MUAC], triceps skinfold thickness, weight, height), pregnancy outcomes, birth (weight, length, head circumference) and infant anthropometry (weight-for-age z-score [WAZ], length-for-age z-score [LAZ]) were obtained. Linear regression and mixed effect modeling were used to evaluate gestational factors in relation to pregnancy and infant outcomes.Gestational MUAC and maternal HIV status (HIV-positive mothers = 39%) were (...) Associations between gestational anthropometry, maternal HIV, and fetal and early infancy growth in a prospective rural/semi-rural Tanzanian cohort, 2012-13. Healthcare access and resources differ considerably between urban and rural settings making cross-setting generalizations difficult. In resource-restricted rural/semi-rural environments, identification of feasible screening tools is a priority. The objective of this study was to evaluate gestational anthropometry in relation to birth

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2015 BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

157. Placental expression of the insulin receptor binding protein GRB10: Relation to human fetoplacental growth and fetal gender. (PubMed)

small- (SGA) and appropriate- (AGA) for gestational age full-term singleton pregnancies (n = 36 SGA and 41 AGA). Placentae and neonates were weighed at birth. Realtime quantitative PCR was performed to assess placental transcript abundance of GRB10 and PHLDA2 normalized to a panel of reference genes.Placental GRB10 transcript abundance associated positively with placental weight (r = 0.307, P = 0.007), birth weight (r = 0.267, P = 0.019) and neonatal head circumference (r = 0.280, P = 0.014 (...) ). Placental GRB10 transcript levels were significantly lower in male SGA placentae compared to the male AGA placentae. Placental PHLDA2 transcript abundance did not show any associations with maternal, placental or neonatal parameters.Placental GRB10 expression was found to be associated positively with placental weight, birth weight, and neonatal head circumference, especially in males. Hence, we speculate that placental GRB10 plays a role in regulating fetoplacental growth and thereby

2015 Placenta

158. Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphorous Pesticides and Fetal Growth: Pooled Results from Four Longitudinal Birth Cohort Studies (PubMed)

Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphorous Pesticides and Fetal Growth: Pooled Results from Four Longitudinal Birth Cohort Studies Organophosphorous (OP) pesticides are associated with reduced fetal growth in animals, but human studies are inconsistent.We pooled data from four cohorts to examine associations of prenatal OP exposure with birth weight (n = 1,169), length (n = 1,152), and head circumference (n = 1,143).Data were from the CHAMACOS, HOME, Columbia, and Mount Sinai birth cohorts (...) . Concentrations of three diethyl phosphate (ΣDEP) and three dimethyl phosphate (ΣDMP) metabolites of OP pesticides [summed to six dialkyl phosphates (ΣDAPs)] were measured in maternal urine. Linear regression and mixed-effects models were used to examine associations with birth outcomes.We found no significant associations of ΣDEP, ΣDMP, or ΣDAPs with birth weight, length, or head circumference overall. However, among non-Hispanic black women, increasing urinary ΣDAP and ΣDMP concentrations were associated

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2015 Environmental health perspectives

159. THE CONTINUUM OF FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS IN FOUR RURAL COMMUNITIES IN SOUTH AFRICA: PREVALENCE AND CHARACTERISTICS (PubMed)

THE CONTINUUM OF FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS IN FOUR RURAL COMMUNITIES IN SOUTH AFRICA: PREVALENCE AND CHARACTERISTICS Prevalence and characteristics of the continuum of diagnoses within fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were researched in previously unstudied rural, agricultural, lower socioeconomic populations in South Africa (ZA).Using an active case ascertainment approach among first grade learners, 1354 (72.6%) were consented into the study via: height, weight, and/or head (...) circumference ≤ 25th centile and/or random selection as normal control candidates. Final diagnoses were made following: examination by pediatric dysmorphologists/geneticists, cognitive/behavioral testing, and maternal risk factor interviews.FASD children were significantly growth deficient and dysmorphic: physical measurements, cardinal facial features of FAS, and total dysmorphology scores clearly differentiated diagnostic categories from severe to mild to normal in a consistent, linear fashion

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2015 Drug and alcohol dependence

160. Does Gestational Diabetes Affect Fetal Growth and Pregnancy Outcome in Twin Pregnancies? (PubMed)

percentile: OGTT-NEGATIVE = odds ratio (OR), 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-2.2; GDM-IADPSG = OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.6; and GDM-CDA = OR, 1.9, 95% CI, 1.3-3.1 (using the GCT-NEGATIVE group as reference). Fetuses of women with glucose intolerance were more likely to experience asymmetric growth as reflected by an elevated abdominal circumference to head circumference ratio.GDM and milder degrees of glucose intolerance in twin pregnancies are associated with an increased risk of asymmetric (...) Does Gestational Diabetes Affect Fetal Growth and Pregnancy Outcome in Twin Pregnancies? Women with twin pregnancies are at increased risk for fetal growth restriction, which might be attributed to the limited maternal resources that are being shared by >1 fetus. Based on that, it may be hypothesized that the fetal effects of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with respect to accelerated fetal growth may be less pronounced in twin gestations or alternatively may even have a beneficial role

2015 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

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