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Fetal Head Circumference

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121. Influence of fetal blood flow redistribution on fetal and childhood growth and fat distribution: the Generation R Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

and android/gynoid fat mass ratio by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and preperitoneal fat by ultrasound at 6 years.A higher fetal U/C ratio was associated with increased risks of preterm birth and small size for gestational age at birth [odds ratios, 1.41 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.85) and 1.63 (95% confidence interval, 1.21-2.19), respectively, per SDS increase in U/C ratio]. Longitudinal growth analyses showed that a higher fetal U/C ratio was associated with persistently lower head (...) circumference, length and weight from third trimester fetal life until childhood (all P < 0.05). The fetal U/C ratio was not associated with total body and abdominal fat measures at 6 years.Our results suggest that fetal blood flow redistribution affects fetal development and has persistent consequences for childhood growth.Fetal blood flow redistribution affects fetal development and has persistent consequences for childhood growth.© 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

2016 BJOG

122. Fetal Hemodynamics and Fetal Growth Indices by Ultrasound in Late Pregnancy and Birth Weight in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Full Text available with Trip Pro

women with GDM and 124 normal controls (NC) were enrolled in this study. Fetal hemodynamic indices, including the systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D), resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI) of umbilical artery (UA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), and renal artery (RA), were collected. Fetal growth indices, including biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), and femur length, were also measured by ultrasound. Birth weight, newborn gender, and maternal clinical (...) Fetal Hemodynamics and Fetal Growth Indices by Ultrasound in Late Pregnancy and Birth Weight in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus The offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are prone to macrosomia. However, birth weight is difficult to be correctly estimated by ultrasound because of fetal asymmetric growth characteristics. This study aimed to investigate the correlations between fetal hemodynamics, fetal growth indices in late pregnancy, and birth weight in GDM.A total of 147

2016 Chinese medical journal

123. IMPLEMENTING THE INTERGROWTH-21<sup>st</sup> FETAL GROWTH STANDARDS IN FRANCE: A « FLASH » STUDY OF THE COLLEGE FRANÇAIS D'ECHOGRAPHIE FOETALE (CFEF). Full Text available with Trip Pro

were recruited prospectively within the network of the national French College of Fetal Ultrasound, CFEF, over a 6-week period. Further selection was performed based on the criteria of the IG-21st Project in order to obtain a comparable population. Head circumference (HC) was used as the main fat-free skeletal measure of growth for comparison of French fetal size with that of the IG-21st population. The impact of switching to the IG-21st fetal growth standards was quantified by comparing Z-scores (...) IMPLEMENTING THE INTERGROWTH-21st FETAL GROWTH STANDARDS IN FRANCE: A « FLASH » STUDY OF THE COLLEGE FRANÇAIS D'ECHOGRAPHIE FOETALE (CFEF). To assess potential differences in fetal size between the French population and the international population from the INTERGROWTH-21st (IG-21st ) Project and to measure the impact of switching to the IG-21st reference standards for fetal size.This was a nationwide cross-sectional study of fetal ultrasound biometry. Low-risk singleton pregnancies

2016 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

124. The Effects of Fetal Gender on Maternal and Fetal Insulin Resistance. Full Text available with Trip Pro

birth to female infants. Compared to male infants at birth, female infants were significantly lighter, (3945 ± 436 vs. 4081± 549g, p<0.001), shorter in length (52.36 ± 2.3 vs. 53.05 ± 2.4cm, p<0.001) and with smaller head circumferences (35.36 ± 1.5 vs. 36.10 ± 1.1cm, p<0.001) than males. On multiple regression analysis, women pregnant with female fetuses were less insulin resistant in early pregnancy, i.e. had lower HOMA indices (B = -0.19, p = 0.01). Additionally female fetuses had higher (...) The Effects of Fetal Gender on Maternal and Fetal Insulin Resistance. Gender plays a role in the development of a number of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and it has been suggested that females may be more insulin resistant in utero. We sought to assess the relationship between infant gender and insulin resistance in a large pregnancy cohort.This is a secondary analysis of a cohort from the ROLO randomized control trial of low GI diet in pregnancy. Serum insulin, glucose and leptin were

2015 PloS one Controlled trial quality: uncertain

125. Preliminary analysis of in utero low-level arsenic exposure and fetal growth using biometric measurements extracted from fetal ultrasound reports Full Text available with Trip Pro

records. We used information extraction methods to develop and validate an automated approach for mining biometric measurements from the text of clinical reports. As a preliminary analysis, we examined associations between in utero low-level arsenic exposure (as measured by maternal urinary arsenic concentration) and fetal growth measures (converted to Z-scores based on reference populations for estimated fetal weight, head, and other body measures) at approximately 18 weeks of gestation.In (...) a preliminary cross-sectional analysis of 223 out of 272 pregnancies, maternal urinary arsenic concentration (excluding arsenobetaine) was associated with a reduction in head circumference Z-score (Spearman correlation coefficient, rs = -0.08, p-value = 0.21) and a stronger association was observed among female fetuses at approximately 18 weeks of gestation (rs = - 0.21, p-value < 0.05). Although, associations were attenuated in adjusted analyses - among female fetuses a 1 μg/L increase in maternal urinary

2015 Environmental Health

126. Zika Virus Infection with Prolonged Maternal Viremia and Fetal Brain Abnormalities. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Zika Virus Infection with Prolonged Maternal Viremia and Fetal Brain Abnormalities. The current outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with an apparent increased risk of congenital microcephaly. We describe a case of a pregnant woman and her fetus infected with ZIKV during the 11th gestational week. The fetal head circumference decreased from the 47th percentile to the 24th percentile between 16 and 20 weeks of gestation. ZIKV RNA was identified in maternal serum at 16 (...) and 21 weeks of gestation. At 19 and 20 weeks of gestation, substantial brain abnormalities were detected on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without the presence of microcephaly or intracranial calcifications. On postmortem analysis of the fetal brain, diffuse cerebral cortical thinning, high ZIKV RNA loads, and viral particles were detected, and ZIKV was subsequently isolated.

2016 NEJM

127. Serial Head and Brain Imaging of 17 Fetuses With Confirmed Zika Virus Infection in Colombia, South America. Full Text available with Trip Pro

symptom onset and microcephaly (head circumference less than 3 standard deviations below the mean) was 18 weeks (range 15-24 weeks). The earliest fetal head circumference measurement consistent with microcephaly diagnosis was at 24 weeks of gestation. The earliest sign of congenital Zika syndrome was talipes equinovarus, which in two patients was noted first at 19 weeks of gestation. Common findings on fetal magnetic resonance imaging were microcephaly, ventriculomegaly, polymicrogyria (...) Serial Head and Brain Imaging of 17 Fetuses With Confirmed Zika Virus Infection in Colombia, South America. To evaluate fetal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging findings among a series of pregnant women with confirmed Zika virus infection to evaluate the signs of congenital Zika syndrome with respect to timing of infection.We conducted a retrospective case series of pregnant women referred to two perinatal clinics in Barranquilla and Ibagué, Colombia, who had findings consistent

2017 Obstetrics and Gynecology

128. Fetal Macrosomia

Fetal Macrosomia Fetal Macrosomia Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Fetal Macrosomia Fetal Macrosomia Aka: Fetal (...) Macrosomia , Large for Gestational Age From Related Chapters II. Definition Macrosomia Fetal weight 4500 grams (ranges from 4000-5000 grams) Large for Gestational Age Birth weight above 90th percentile III. Risk Factors: Macrosomia Maternal or Multiparity Prior history of macrosomic infant Post-Dates Gestation Maternal or excessive weight gain Male fetus Parental stature tic disorders Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome Sotos Syndrome IV. Pathophysiology Overgrowth Hallmark of No concurrent vascular disease

2018 FP Notebook

129. Fetal Femur Length

Fetal Femur Length Fetal Femur Length Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Fetal Femur Length Fetal Femur Length Aka: Fetal (...) Femur Length II. Technique Start with transducer at abdominal circumference Move transducer inferiorly to transect Rotate transducer 30 degrees to view femur Exclude distal femoral epiphyses present after 32 weeks Tibia is at times mistaken for femur III. Images Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Fetal Femur Length." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related

2018 FP Notebook

130. Single and Serial Fetal Biometry to Detect Preterm and Term Small- and Large-for-Gestational-Age Neonates: A Longitudinal Cohort Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

) delivery of a live neonate after 33 gestational weeks and 2) two or more ultrasound examinations with fetal biometry parameters obtained at ≤36 weeks. Primary outcomes were SGA (<5th centile) and LGA (>95th centile) at birth based on INTERGROWTH-21st gender-specific standards. Fetus-specific estimated fetal weight (EFW) trajectories were calculated by linear mixed-effects models using data up to a fixed gestational age (GA) cutoff (28, 32, or 36 weeks) for fetuses having two or more measurements before (...) the GA cutoff and not already delivered. A screen test positive for single biometry was based on Z-scores of EFW at the last scan before each GA cut-off so that the false positive rate (FPR) was 10%. Similarly, a screen test positive for the longitudinal analysis was based on the projected (extrapolated) EFW at 40 weeks from all available measurements before each cutoff for each fetus.Fetal abdominal and head circumference measurements, as well as birth weights in the Detroit population, matched well

2016 PLoS ONE

131. Low birth weight and elevated head-to-abdominal circumference ratio are associated with elevated fetal glycated serum protein concentrations. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Low birth weight and elevated head-to-abdominal circumference ratio are associated with elevated fetal glycated serum protein concentrations. To analyze the association between low birth weight, head-to-abdominal circumference ratio, and insulin resistance in early life.Glycated serum proteins (GSPs) were quantified at delivery in 612 Chinese mother/child pairs serving as a surrogate of maternal and fetal glycemia. Differential ultrasound examination of the fetal's body (head circumference (...) , biparietal diameter, pectoral diameter, abdominal circumference, and femur length) was done in average 1 week prior to delivery. Multivariable regression analysis considering gestational age at delivery, the child's sex, maternal BMI, maternal age at delivery, maternal body weight, and pregnancy-induced hypertension revealed that fetal GSP was inversely associated with birth weight (R² = 0.416; P < 0.001). Fetal GSP was furthermore positively associated with the head-to-abdominal circumference ratio

2011 Journal of Hypertension

132. Oxygen Supply to the Fetal Cerebral Circulation in Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: A Simulation Study Based on the Theoretical Models of Fetal Circulation. (Abstract)

Oxygen Supply to the Fetal Cerebral Circulation in Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: A Simulation Study Based on the Theoretical Models of Fetal Circulation. Hypoxia due to congenital heart diseases (CHDs) adversely affects brain development during the fetal period. Head circumference at birth is closely associated with neuropsychiatric development, and it is considerably smaller in newborns with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) than in normal newborns. We performed simulation studies (...) on newborns with CHD to evaluate the cerebral circulation during the fetal period. The oxygen saturation of cerebral blood flow in newborns with CHD was simulated according to a model for normal fetal circulation in late pregnancy. We compared the oxygen saturation of cerebral blood flow between newborns with tricuspid atresia (TA; a disease showing univentricular circulation and hypoplasia of the right ventricle), those with transposition of the great arteries (TGA; a disease showing abnormal mixing

2014 Pediatric Cardiology

133. The Fetus as a Patient: Prenatal Diagnosis and Fetal Therapy (Treatment)

. This is measured from the top of the head to the bottom of the torso or the longest dimension of the fetus, excluding the yolk sac and extremities. In the second and third trimesters, parameters used to estimate gestation are the biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur lengths. BPD is measured on the transaxial view of the head from the outer edge of the cranium nearest the transducer to the inner edge of the cranium farthest from the transducer. BPD, which is measured (...) at the level of the thalami, including the cavum septum pellucidum, should not be used in cases of hydrocephalus or abnormal head shape or late in the third trimester when the head may be engaged. Measures such as a corrected BPD have been devised to take into account differences in head shape. Abdominal circumference is the length of the outer perimeter of the fetal abdomen measured at the level of the stomach and intrahepatic umbilical vein on a transverse scan. This measure should not be used in cases

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

134. The Fetus as a Patient: Prenatal Diagnosis and Fetal Therapy (Follow-up)

. This is measured from the top of the head to the bottom of the torso or the longest dimension of the fetus, excluding the yolk sac and extremities. In the second and third trimesters, parameters used to estimate gestation are the biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur lengths. BPD is measured on the transaxial view of the head from the outer edge of the cranium nearest the transducer to the inner edge of the cranium farthest from the transducer. BPD, which is measured (...) at the level of the thalami, including the cavum septum pellucidum, should not be used in cases of hydrocephalus or abnormal head shape or late in the third trimester when the head may be engaged. Measures such as a corrected BPD have been devised to take into account differences in head shape. Abdominal circumference is the length of the outer perimeter of the fetal abdomen measured at the level of the stomach and intrahepatic umbilical vein on a transverse scan. This measure should not be used in cases

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

135. The Fetus as a Patient: Prenatal Diagnosis and Fetal Therapy (Diagnosis)

. This is measured from the top of the head to the bottom of the torso or the longest dimension of the fetus, excluding the yolk sac and extremities. In the second and third trimesters, parameters used to estimate gestation are the biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur lengths. BPD is measured on the transaxial view of the head from the outer edge of the cranium nearest the transducer to the inner edge of the cranium farthest from the transducer. BPD, which is measured (...) at the level of the thalami, including the cavum septum pellucidum, should not be used in cases of hydrocephalus or abnormal head shape or late in the third trimester when the head may be engaged. Measures such as a corrected BPD have been devised to take into account differences in head shape. Abdominal circumference is the length of the outer perimeter of the fetal abdomen measured at the level of the stomach and intrahepatic umbilical vein on a transverse scan. This measure should not be used in cases

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

136. The Fetus as a Patient: Prenatal Diagnosis and Fetal Therapy (Overview)

. This is measured from the top of the head to the bottom of the torso or the longest dimension of the fetus, excluding the yolk sac and extremities. In the second and third trimesters, parameters used to estimate gestation are the biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur lengths. BPD is measured on the transaxial view of the head from the outer edge of the cranium nearest the transducer to the inner edge of the cranium farthest from the transducer. BPD, which is measured (...) at the level of the thalami, including the cavum septum pellucidum, should not be used in cases of hydrocephalus or abnormal head shape or late in the third trimester when the head may be engaged. Measures such as a corrected BPD have been devised to take into account differences in head shape. Abdominal circumference is the length of the outer perimeter of the fetal abdomen measured at the level of the stomach and intrahepatic umbilical vein on a transverse scan. This measure should not be used in cases

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

137. Increased fetal adiposity prior to diagnosis of gestational diabetes in South Asians: more evidence for the 'thin-fat' baby. Full Text available with Trip Pro

head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL) and biparietal diameter (BPD) were recorded at 11, 20 and 32 weeks. Anterior abdominal wall thickness (AAWT) as a marker of abdominal adiposity at 20 and 32 weeks was compared between groups. Adjustments were made for maternal age, BMI, parity, gestational weight gain, fetal sex and gestational age.Fetuses of women with GDM had significantly higher AAWT at 20 weeks (β 0.26 [95% CI 0.15, 0.37] mm, p < 0.0001) despite lower (...) Increased fetal adiposity prior to diagnosis of gestational diabetes in South Asians: more evidence for the 'thin-fat' baby. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased future risk of obesity in the offspring. Increased adiposity has been observed in the newborns of women with GDM. Our aim was to examine early fetal adiposity in women with GDM.Obstetric and sonographic data was collated for 153 women with GDM and 178 controls from a single centre in Chennai, India. Fetal

2016 Diabetologia

138. Congenital Heart Defects and Indices of Placental and Fetal Growth in a Nationwide Study of 924,422 Liveborn Infants. Full Text available with Trip Pro

to -0.31); double-outlet right ventricle, -0.48 (95% confidence interval, -0.87 to -0.10); major ventricular septal defects, -0.41 (95% confidence interval, -0.52 to -0.29). Placental weight z score was associated with birth weight and head circumference z scores in all subtypes. In the 3 mentioned subtypes, the mean deviations from the population mean head circumference and birth weight z scores were reduced by up to 66% with adjustment for placental weight z score.Three subtypes of CHD were (...) Congenital Heart Defects and Indices of Placental and Fetal Growth in a Nationwide Study of 924,422 Liveborn Infants. Congenital heart defects (CHDs) have been associated with placental anomalies. The nature and the consequences of this association remain poorly understood. We aimed to estimate the associations between all major subtypes of CHD and placental weight at birth, and the association between placental weight and measures of both overall and cerebral growth in fetuses with CHD

2016 Circulation

139. Association of prenatal lipid-based nutritional supplementation with fetal growth in rural Gambia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, and weight gain. Despite evidence of between-arm differences in some fetal biometry, z-scores at birth were not greater in the intervention arms than the FeFol arm (e.g., birth weight z-scores: FeFol -0.71, MMN -0.63, PE -0.64, PE + MMN -0.62; group-wise p = .796). In regression analyses, intervention associations with birth weight and head circumference were modified by maternal weight gain between booking and 30 weeks gestation (e.g., PE + MMN associations with birth weight were +0.462 z-scores (95% CI (...) Association of prenatal lipid-based nutritional supplementation with fetal growth in rural Gambia. Prenatal supplementation with protein-energy (PE) and/or multiple-micronutrients (MMNs) may improve fetal growth, but trials of lipid-based nutritional supplements (LNSs) have reported inconsistent results. We conducted a post-hoc analysis of non-primary outcomes in a trial in Gambia, with the aim to test the associations of LNS with fetal growth and explore how efficacy varies depending

2016 Maternal & child nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

140. International Estimated Fetal Weight Standards of the INTERGROWTH-21<sup>st</sup> Project. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Growth Longitudinal Study (FGLS) and INTERBIO-21st Fetal Study (FS), two components of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project, had ultrasound scans every 5 weeks from 9-14 weeks' until 40 weeks' gestation. At each visit, measurements of fetal head circumference (HC), biparietal diameter, occipitofrontal diameter, abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) were obtained blindly by dedicated research sonographers using standardized methods and identical ultrasound machines. Birth weight was measured (...) International Estimated Fetal Weight Standards of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project. Estimated fetal weight (EFW) and fetal biometry are complementary measures used to screen for fetal growth disturbances. Our aim was to provide international EFW standards to complement the INTERGROWTH-21st Fetal Growth Standards that are available for use worldwide.Women with an accurate gestational-age assessment, who were enrolled in the prospective, international, multicenter, population-based Fetal

2016 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

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