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Fetal Head Circumference

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121. Increased fetal adiposity prior to diagnosis of gestational diabetes in South Asians: more evidence for the 'thin-fat' baby. (PubMed)

head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL) and biparietal diameter (BPD) were recorded at 11, 20 and 32 weeks. Anterior abdominal wall thickness (AAWT) as a marker of abdominal adiposity at 20 and 32 weeks was compared between groups. Adjustments were made for maternal age, BMI, parity, gestational weight gain, fetal sex and gestational age.Fetuses of women with GDM had significantly higher AAWT at 20 weeks (β 0.26 [95% CI 0.15, 0.37] mm, p < 0.0001) despite lower (...) Increased fetal adiposity prior to diagnosis of gestational diabetes in South Asians: more evidence for the 'thin-fat' baby. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased future risk of obesity in the offspring. Increased adiposity has been observed in the newborns of women with GDM. Our aim was to examine early fetal adiposity in women with GDM.Obstetric and sonographic data was collated for 153 women with GDM and 178 controls from a single centre in Chennai, India. Fetal

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2016 Diabetologia

122. Congenital Heart Defects and Indices of Placental and Fetal Growth in a Nationwide Study of 924,422 Liveborn Infants. (PubMed)

to -0.31); double-outlet right ventricle, -0.48 (95% confidence interval, -0.87 to -0.10); major ventricular septal defects, -0.41 (95% confidence interval, -0.52 to -0.29). Placental weight z score was associated with birth weight and head circumference z scores in all subtypes. In the 3 mentioned subtypes, the mean deviations from the population mean head circumference and birth weight z scores were reduced by up to 66% with adjustment for placental weight z score.Three subtypes of CHD were (...) Congenital Heart Defects and Indices of Placental and Fetal Growth in a Nationwide Study of 924,422 Liveborn Infants. Congenital heart defects (CHDs) have been associated with placental anomalies. The nature and the consequences of this association remain poorly understood. We aimed to estimate the associations between all major subtypes of CHD and placental weight at birth, and the association between placental weight and measures of both overall and cerebral growth in fetuses with CHD

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2016 Circulation

123. Relation of FTO gene variants to fetal growth trajectories: Findings from the Southampton Women's survey. (PubMed)

genotyped for common gene variants in FTO (rs9939609, rs1421085) and MC4R (rs17782313). Linear mixed-effect models were used to analyse relations of gene variants with fetal growth.Fetuses with the rs9939609 A:A FTO genotype had faster biparietal diameter and head circumference growth velocities between 11 and 34 weeks gestation (by 0.012 (95% CI 0.005 to 0.019) and 0.008 (0.002-0.015) standard deviations per week, respectively) compared to fetuses with the T:T FTO genotype; abdominal circumference (...) growth velocity did not differ between genotypes. FTO genotype was not associated with placental FTO expression, but higher placental FTO expression was independently associated with larger fetal size and higher placental ASCT2, EAAT2 and y + LAT2 amino acid transporter expression. Findings were similar for FTO rs1421085, and the MC4R gene variant was associated with the fetal growth velocity of head circumference.FTO gene variants are known to associate with obesity but this is the first time

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2016 Placenta

124. National Curves of Fetal Growth in Singleton Fetuses of Greek Origin. (PubMed)

National Curves of Fetal Growth in Singleton Fetuses of Greek Origin. Foetal growth monitoring is an essential component of prenatal care with postnatal impact. The aim of the study was to construct reference ranges for foetal biometric parameters in Greek foetuses and to compare them with previously published models.Measurements from 1200 Greek foetuses were used to construct normal curves for biparietal diameter (BPD), occipitofrontal diameter (OFD), head circumference (HC), abdominal (...) circumference (AC), femoral length (FL) and the BPD/FL ratio according to the methodology described by Royston and Wright (1998). The model was validated in a second group of 1200 different foetuses using analysis of the corresponding standardized residuals (z-scores). The z-scores which were derived by our model were compared to those calculated using previously published models from other populations.BPD, OFD, HC, AC, FL and the BPD/FL ratio are accurately described by simple quadratic equations (R(2) > 0

2016 European journal of clinical investigation

125. Impact of replacing Chinese ethnicity-specific fetal biometry charts with the INTERGROWTH-21<sup>st</sup> standard. (PubMed)

Impact of replacing Chinese ethnicity-specific fetal biometry charts with the INTERGROWTH-21st standard. To assess the impact of adopting the INTERGROWTH-21(st) biometry standards in a Chinese population.Retrospective cohort study.A teaching hospital in Hong Kong.A total of 10 527 Chinese women with a singleton pregnancy having a second- or third-trimester fetal anomaly or growth scan between January 2009 and June 2014.Z-scores were derived for fetal abdominal circumference (AC (...) ), head circumference (HC), and femur length (FL) using the INTERGROWTH-21(st) and Chinese biometry standards. Pregnancies with aneuploidy, structural or skeletal abnormalities, or that developed pre-eclampsia were excluded. Z-scores were stratified as <2.5th, <5th, <10th, >90th, >95th, or >97.5th percentile. Birthweight centile, adjusted for gestation and gender, was categorised as ≤3rd, 3rd to ≤5th, 5th to ≤10th, and >10th. Pairwise comparison and the McNemar test were performed to assess biometry Z

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2016 BJOG

126. Fetal infection by Zika virus in the third trimester - report of 2 cases. (PubMed)

Fetal infection by Zika virus in the third trimester - report of 2 cases. Zika virus (ZIKV) infection acquired during pregnancy is associated with congenital microcephaly. We describe 2 cases of ZIKV infection in women in their 36th week of pregnancy whose fetuses had preserved head circumference at birth and findings of subependymal cysts and lenticulostriate vasculopathy in postnatal imaging. These represent the first signs of congenital brain injury acquired due to ZIKV in the third

2016 Clinical Infectious Diseases

127. Longitudinal changes in fetal biometries and cerebroplacental haemodynamics in fetuses with congenital heart disease. (PubMed)

gestation.Four hundred and forty-four ultrasound examinations were performed in 119 CHD fetuses, with a median of two measurements per fetus. The fetuses presented a small head at diagnosis (biparietal diameter (BPD) Z-score, -1.32 ± 0.99; head circumference (HC) Z-score, -0.79 ± 1.02), which remained small throughout gestation. UtA and UA pulsatility indices (PI) showed a significant increase towards the end of pregnancy, whereas no significant changes were observed in MCA-PI or cerebroplacental ratio (CPR (...) Longitudinal changes in fetal biometries and cerebroplacental haemodynamics in fetuses with congenital heart disease. To determine the longitudinal behavior of fetal biometric measures and cerebroplacental hemodynamics throughout gestation in fetuses with congenital heart disease (CHD).Fetal biometry and Doppler hemodynamics (uterine artery (UtA), umbilical artery (UA) and fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA)) were measured serially in a cohort of consecutive fetuses diagnosed with CHD

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2016 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

128. Fetal brain imaging in isolated congenital heart defects - a systematic review and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Fetal brain imaging in isolated congenital heart defects - a systematic review and meta-analysis. Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are associated with neurodevelopmental (ND) delay. This study aims to assess evidence for impaired prenatal brain development, in fetuses with CHD. A systematical search was performed, and 34 studies evaluating the fetal brain [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or ultrasound] in isolated CHD were included (1990-2015). Data regarding cerebral abnormalities, head (...) circumference growth and middle cerebral artery flow were extracted. Prenatal MRI was studied in ten articles (445 fetuses), resulting in a pooled prevalence of 18% (95%CI -6%; 42%) for combined structural and acquired cerebral abnormalities. Prenatal head circumference was studied in 13 articles (753 fetuses), resulting in a pooled z-score of -0.51 (95%CI -0.84; -0.18). Doppler was studied in 21 articles (1412 fetuses), resulting in a lower middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (z-score -0.70 95%CI

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2016 Prenatal diagnosis

129. Accelerated Fetal Growth Prior to Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Cohort Study of Nulliparous Women. (PubMed)

Accelerated Fetal Growth Prior to Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Cohort Study of Nulliparous Women. To determine whether fetal overgrowth precedes the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to quantify the interrelationships among fetal overgrowth, GDM, and maternal obesity.We conducted a prospective cohort study of unselected nulliparous women and performed ultrasonic measurement of the fetal abdominal circumference (AC) and head circumference (HC (...) ) at 20 and 28 weeks of gestational age (wkGA). Exposures were diagnosis of GDM ≥28 wkGA and maternal obesity. The risk of AC >90th and HC-to-AC ratio <10th percentile was modeled using log-binomial regression, adjusted for maternal characteristics.Of 4,069 women, 171 (4.2%) were diagnosed with GDM at ≥28 wkGA. There was no association between fetal biometry at 20 wkGA and subsequent maternal diagnosis of GDM. However, at 28 wkGA, there was an increased risk of AC >90th percentile (adjusted relative

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2016 Diabetes Care

130. Congenital Heart Defects and Measures of Fetal Growth in Newborns with Down Syndrome or 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome. (PubMed)

growth by multivariable linear regression adjusted for potential confounders. We report mean differences in gestational age specific z-scores compared with newborns without CHD.Down syndrome and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome were both associated with lower mean birth weight and head circumference z-scores. We found no association between CHD or CHD severity and indices of fetal growth. In Down syndrome, the association between any CHD and the mean difference in head circumference z-score was 0.03 (95% CI (...) Congenital Heart Defects and Measures of Fetal Growth in Newborns with Down Syndrome or 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome. To estimate the association between congenital heart defects (CHD) and indices of fetal growth in Down and 22q11.2 deletion syndromes.We established 2 Danish nationwide cohorts of newborn singletons with either Down syndrome (n = 670) or 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (n = 155), born 1997-2011. In both cohorts, we analyzed the association between CHD, CHD severity, and indices of fetal

2016 Journal of Pediatrics

131. Are fetal growth impairment and preterm birth causally related to child attention problems and ADHD? Evidence from a comparison between high-income and middle-income cohorts (PubMed)

confounding structures play a different role in parent-reported attention difficulties compared with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses.Birth exposures included low birth weight (LBW), small-for-gestational age (SGA), small head circumference (HC) and preterm birth (PTB)). Outcomes of interest were attention difficulties (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, SDQ) and ADHD (Development and Well-Being Assessment, DAWBA). Associations between exposures and outcomes were compared (...) Are fetal growth impairment and preterm birth causally related to child attention problems and ADHD? Evidence from a comparison between high-income and middle-income cohorts Cross-cohort comparison is an established method for improving causal inference. This study compared 2 cohorts, 1 from a high-income country and another from a middle-income country, to (1) establish whether birth exposures may play a causal role in the development of childhood attention problems; and (2) identify whether

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2016 Journal of epidemiology and community health

132. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorocarboxylic Acids (PFCAs) and Fetal and Postnatal Growth in the Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study (PubMed)

growth.For 223 Taiwanese mothers and their term infants, we measured PFOA and four long-chain PFCAs (ng/mL) in third-trimester maternal serum; infant weight (kg), length and head circumference (cm) at birth; and childhood weight and height at approximately 2, 5, 8, and 11 years of age. For each sex, we used multivariable linear regression to examine associations between ln-transformed prenatal PFCAs and continuous infant measures, and logistic regression to examine small for gestational age (SGA). Linear (...) Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorocarboxylic Acids (PFCAs) and Fetal and Postnatal Growth in the Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) are environmentally and biologically persistent synthetic chemicals. PFCAs include perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA; C8) and long-chain PFCAs (C9-C20). Studies examining long-chain PFCAs and fetal and postnatal growth are limited.We investigated the associations of prenatal exposure to long-chain PFCAs with fetal and postnatal

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2016 Environmental health perspectives

133. Effects of gamma radiation on fetal development in mice (PubMed)

Gy. Number of fetuses counted and the fetus's weight, head circumference, birth height, the number of live healthy fetuses, the number of fetuses with detected anomalies in the body, the sum of resorption and arrested fetuses were all recorded as outcome of treatments.In the group I and group II, increased radiation and hormone dose led to a decrease in the number of survived fetuses (45 in 2 Gy vs. 29 in 4 Gy for irradiated group) as well as from 76 in 10 units into 48 in 15 units. In the group (...) Effects of gamma radiation on fetal development in mice Many cancer patients receive radiotherapy which may lead to serious damages to the ovary storage and the matrix muscle state. Some of these patients may admit to infertility clinics for having pregnancy and on the other hand hormonal administration for superovulation induction is a routine procedure in assisted reproduction technology (ART) clinics.This study aimed to investigate fertility and fetuses of hormone treated super ovulated

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2016 International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine

134. Fetal Macrosomia

Fetal Macrosomia Fetal Macrosomia Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Fetal Macrosomia Fetal Macrosomia Aka: Fetal (...) ( ) Error in weight estimation: 300 grams More accurate than estimate Estimate altered by physiologic characteristics Amniotic fluid volume and configuration Mother's body habitus Error in weight estimation: 300 to 550 grams Estimated fetal weight and Abdominal circumference Correlates 88% with diagnosis of macrosomia VII. Efficacy: Fetal Macrosomia prediction and prevention Methods proven ineffective at complication prevention Elective Analysis based on permanent C/S for EFW 4500g prevents 1 case/3700

2018 FP Notebook

135. Fetal Femur Length

Fetal Femur Length Fetal Femur Length Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Fetal Femur Length Fetal Femur Length Aka: Fetal (...) Femur Length II. Technique Start with transducer at abdominal circumference Move transducer inferiorly to transect Rotate transducer 30 degrees to view femur Exclude distal femoral epiphyses present after 32 weeks Tibia is at times mistaken for femur III. Images Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Fetal Femur Length." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related

2018 FP Notebook

136. Congenital Heart Defects and Indices of Fetal Cerebral Growth in a Nationwide Cohort of 924,422 Liveborn Infants. (PubMed)

Congenital Heart Defects and Indices of Fetal Cerebral Growth in a Nationwide Cohort of 924,422 Liveborn Infants. Neurodevelopmental disorders are the most common and distressful comorbidities associated with congenital heart defects (CHD). Head circumference at birth (HC), a proxy for prenatal cerebral growth, is an established risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders.In a nationwide cohort, we included all 924 422 liveborn Danish singletons, 1997 to 2011. CHD was present in 5519

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2016 Circulation

137. IMPLEMENTING THE INTERGROWTH-21<sup>st</sup> FETAL GROWTH STANDARDS IN FRANCE: A « FLASH » STUDY OF THE COLLEGE FRANÇAIS D'ECHOGRAPHIE FOETALE (CFEF). (PubMed)

were recruited prospectively within the network of the national French College of Fetal Ultrasound, CFEF, over a 6-week period. Further selection was performed based on the criteria of the IG-21st Project in order to obtain a comparable population. Head circumference (HC) was used as the main fat-free skeletal measure of growth for comparison of French fetal size with that of the IG-21st population. The impact of switching to the IG-21st fetal growth standards was quantified by comparing Z-scores (...) IMPLEMENTING THE INTERGROWTH-21st FETAL GROWTH STANDARDS IN FRANCE: A « FLASH » STUDY OF THE COLLEGE FRANÇAIS D'ECHOGRAPHIE FOETALE (CFEF). To assess potential differences in fetal size between the French population and the international population from the INTERGROWTH-21st (IG-21st ) Project and to measure the impact of switching to the IG-21st reference standards for fetal size.This was a nationwide cross-sectional study of fetal ultrasound biometry. Low-risk singleton pregnancies

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2016 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

138. Maternal and Neonatal Markers of the Homocysteine Pathway and Fetal Growth: The Generation R Study. (PubMed)

cord vitamin B12 , lower vitamin B12 concentrations were associated with a higher weight, length, and head circumference at birth (P < 0.01).Early pregnancy maternal and umbilical cord markers of the homocysteine pathway are significantly associated with fetal growth patterns. These differences arise from mid-pregnancy onwards.© 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. (...) Maternal and Neonatal Markers of the Homocysteine Pathway and Fetal Growth: The Generation R Study. Suboptimal dietary intake during pregnancy may have long-term health implications in children. These effects may be mediated by fetal growth. We investigated the associations of early pregnancy and umbilical cord total homocysteine (tHcy), folate, and total and active vitamin B12 concentrations with fetal growth parameters repeatedly measured in pregnancy and at birth.This study was performed

2016 Paediatric and perinatal epidemiology

139. Fetal Alcohol Growth Restriction and Cognitive Impairment. (PubMed)

. Small for gestational age (SGA) was defined as birth weight <10th percentile. Length/height, weight, and head circumference were measured at 6.5 and 12 months and 5, 9, and 13 years. Four growth trajectories were identified: SGA with long-term postnatal growth restriction (length/height-for-age <10th percentile through 13 years); SGA with catch-up growth; no SGA or postnatal growth restriction; and late-onset postnatal stunting. IQ was assessed at 5 and 10 years, and learning, memory, and executive (...) Fetal Alcohol Growth Restriction and Cognitive Impairment. Although both fetal and long-term growth restriction are well documented in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, effects on pattern of growth trajectory have not been characterized. Furthermore, the degree to which growth trajectories are related to fetal alcohol-related neurocognitive deficits is unknown.Ninety-three heavy drinking pregnant women and 64 controls were recruited at initiation of prenatal care in Cape Town, South Africa

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2016 Pediatrics

140. Early-onset fetal growth restriction treated with the long-acting phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor tadalafil: a case report (PubMed)

growth restriction with oligohydramnios in a 41-year-old primigravida Japanese woman who was treated with tadalafil (20-mg tablet daily) from 22 weeks' gestational age. Ten days after the initiation of the tadalafil therapy, the amniotic fluid level rose and the weight of the fetus began to increase. A 1024-g baby boy was delivered by cesarean at 32 weeks' gestation. The z-score for fetal head circumference had increased from -2.2 to -1.2, whereas the z-score of the femur legth was decreased to -4.3 (...) , indicating that tadalafil preferentially increased the blood flow to important organs.We achieved two positive results by administering tadalafil to the mother carrying a severely growth-restricted fetus with oligohydramnios. First, the z-scores of head circumference and abdominal circumference had at first declined but started to rise after the tadalafil administration. Second, the amniotic fluid, which was emptied before the tadalafil treatment, recovered to normal range with this treatment. Tadalafil

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2016 Journal of medical case reports

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