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Fetal Head Circumference

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1041. Fetal growth in Peru: comparisons with international fetal size charts and implications for fetal growth assessment. (PubMed)

Fetal growth in Peru: comparisons with international fetal size charts and implications for fetal growth assessment. To compare fetal biometry measurements obtained in a Peruvian population with reference fetal size charts obtained in Peruvian and non-Peruvian populations.Fetal biometry measurements collected prospectively in 195 uncomplicated pregnancies were included in the presented analysis. At 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 38 weeks' gestation, fetal head circumference, abdominal circumference (...) and femur diaphysis length were measured. Fetal biometry measurements were compared with fetal size charts obtained from another Peruvian and two non-Peruvian populations from North America and Europe.When compared with ultrasound-based reference fetal size charts obtained from North American and European populations, fetuses from the studied population appeared to grow more slowly with advancing gestational age. This trend was not observed when a Peruvian population, similar to the one studied here

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2005 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

1042. Automated fetal head detection and measurement in ultrasound images by iterative randomized Hough transform. (PubMed)

Automated fetal head detection and measurement in ultrasound images by iterative randomized Hough transform. An image-processing and object-detection method was developed to automate the measurements of biparietal diameter (BPD) and head circumference (HC) in ultrasound fetal images. The heads in 214 of 217 images were detected by an iterative randomized Hough transform. A head was assumed to have an elliptical shape with parameters progressively estimated by the iterative randomized Hough (...) transform. No user input or size range of the head was required. The detection and measurement took 1.6 s on a personal computer. The interrun variations of the algorithm were small at 0.84% for BPD and 2.08% for HC. The differences between the automatic measurements and sonographers' manual measurements were 0.12% for BPD and -0.52% for HC. The 95% limits of agreement were -3.34%, 3.58% for BPD and -5.50%, 4.45% for HC. The results demonstrated that the automatic measurements were consistent

2005 Ultrasound in medicine & biology

1043. Maternal-fetal interactions and birth order influence insulin variable number of tandem repeats allele class associations with head size at birth and childhood weight gain. (PubMed)

Maternal-fetal interactions and birth order influence insulin variable number of tandem repeats allele class associations with head size at birth and childhood weight gain. Polymorphism of the insulin gene (INS) variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR; class I or class III alleles) locus has been associated with adult diseases and with birth size. Therefore, this variant is a potential contributory factor to the reported fetal origins of adult disease. In the population-based Avon Longitudinal (...) Study of Pregnancy and Childhood birth cohort, we have confirmed in the present study the association between the INS VNTR III/III genotype and larger head circumference at birth (odds ratio [OR] 1.92, 95% CI 1.23-3.07; P = 0.004) and identified an association with higher cord blood IGF-II levels (P = 0.05 to 0.0001). The genotype association with head circumference was influenced by maternal parity (birth order): the III/III OR for larger head circumference was stronger in second and subsequent

2004 Diabetes

1044. Fetal head biometry following in-utero repair of myelomeningocele. (PubMed)

Fetal head biometry following in-utero repair of myelomeningocele. To evaluate the impact of prenatal myelomeningocele repair on fetal head biometry.Fifty fetuses underwent open fetal myelomeningocele repair at our institution between January 1998 and July 2002. All had serial head circumference (HC) and lateral ventricular diameter (VD) measurements taken preoperatively and weekly for 8 weeks after repair. Cortical index (CI) was defined as HC/VD. Measurements were compared with gestational (...) %, P < 0.001).Mid-gestational repair of myelomeningocele alters fetal head growth. Increased CI suggests HC changes are not due to ventriculomegaly alone.

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2004 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

1045. Occiput posterior fetal head position increases the risk of anal sphincter injury in vacuum-assisted deliveries. (PubMed)

collected from an obstetric database and chart review.Within the OP group, 41.7% developed a third- or fourth-degree laceration compared with 22.0% in the OA group (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.7). In a logistic regression model that controlled for BMI, race, nulliparity, length of second stage, episiotomy, birth weight, head circumference, and fetal head position, OP position was 4.0 times (95% CI 1.7-9.6) more likely to be associated with an anal sphincter injury than OA position.Among vacuum deliveries (...) Occiput posterior fetal head position increases the risk of anal sphincter injury in vacuum-assisted deliveries. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an occiput posterior (OP) fetal head position increases the risk for anal sphincter injury when compared with an occiput anterior (OA) position in vacuum-assisted deliveries.We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 393 vacuum-assisted singleton vaginal deliveries. Maternal demographics and obstetric and neonatal data were

2005 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

1046. The influence of head growth in fetal life, infancy, and childhood on intelligence at the ages of 4 and 8 years. (PubMed)

The influence of head growth in fetal life, infancy, and childhood on intelligence at the ages of 4 and 8 years. We investigated the effects of head growth prenatally, during infancy, and during later periods of development on cognitive function at the ages of 4 and 8 years.We studied 633 term-born children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort whose head circumference was measured at birth and at regular intervals thereafter. Their cognitive function was assessed (...) infancy were associated with subsequent IQ. At 4 years, after adjustment for parental characteristics, full-scale IQ increased an average of 2.41 points for each 1-SD increase in head circumference at birth and 1.97 points for each 1-SD increase in head growth during infancy, conditional on head size at birth. At 8 years, head circumference at birth was no longer associated with IQ, but head growth during infancy remained a significant predictor, with full-scale IQ increasing an average of 1.56 points

2006 Pediatrics

1047. Fetal age assessment based on ultrasound head biometry and the effect of maternal and fetal factors. (PubMed)

Fetal age assessment based on ultrasound head biometry and the effect of maternal and fetal factors. Maternal height and weight have increased during the past 20 years, as has birthweight. The aim of the present study was to establish new reference charts for gestational age (GA) assessment using fetal biparietal diameter (BPD) and head circumference (HC), and to determine the effect of maternal and fetal factors on age assessment.This was a prospective, cross-sectional study of 650 healthy (...) compared to other recently established charts. Maternal age, multiparity, fetal gender, breech position and shape of fetal head affect GA estimation by 1-2 days when using BPD (p = 0.0001-0.02). Only maternal age and fetal gender affected GA estimation when using HC (fetal head biometry are notably different from charts presently in use. Maternal and especially fetal factors affect gestational age assessment when using BPD

2004 Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica

1048. Fetal lung-to-head ratio in the prediction of survival in severe left-sided diaphragmatic hernia treated by fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO). (PubMed)

Fetal lung-to-head ratio in the prediction of survival in severe left-sided diaphragmatic hernia treated by fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO). The objective of the study was to investigate the value of fetal lung area to head circumference ratio in the prediction of the postnatal outcome in left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia treated by fetoscopic endoluminal tracheal occlusion.The lung area to head circumference ratio was measured before fetoscopic endoluminal tracheal (...) occlusion in 28 fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia at 25 to 29 weeks. Regression analysis was used to investigate the effect on survival of lung area to head circumference ratio, gestation at fetoscopic endoluminal tracheal occlusion, gestation at delivery, preterm amniorrhexis following fetoscopic endoluminal tracheal occlusion, and prenatal removal of the balloon.The median lung area to head circumference ratio prior to fetoscopic endoluminal tracheal occlusion was 0.7 (range 0.5 to 0.9

2006 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

1049. Observed to expected lung area to head circumference ratio in the prediction of survival in fetuses with isolated diaphragmatic hernia. (PubMed)

Observed to expected lung area to head circumference ratio in the prediction of survival in fetuses with isolated diaphragmatic hernia. To assess the value of antenatally determined observed to expected fetal lung area to head circumference ratio (LHR) in the prediction of postnatal survival in isolated, congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH).Two groups of fetuses were examined. The first group included 650 normal fetuses at 12-32 weeks' gestation, and the data collected were used to establish

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2007 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

1050. Head circumference at birth and risk of brain cancer in childhood: a population-based study. (PubMed)

Head circumference at birth and risk of brain cancer in childhood: a population-based study. Studies have found only a weak or no association between birthweight and brain cancer in childhood. However, previous studies have not assessed the association between head circumference at birth and brain cancer. We aimed to assess the risk of brain cancer in childhood according to head circumference at birth.We investigated the association between incidence of brain cancer in childhood and factors (...) recorded at birth such as head circumference, birthweight, and gestational age based on the Norwegian medical birth registry from 1978-98, linked to the Norwegian cancer registry from 1978-2002.We analysed 1,010,366 individuals with 12,378,172 person-years of follow-up, from which 453 individuals aged 0-15 years were diagnosed with brain cancer. The relative risk of brain cancer was 1.27 (95% CI 1.16-1.38) per 1-cm increase in head circumference after adjustment for birthweight, gestational age

2006 Lancet Oncology

1051. Standards for the measurement of birth weight, length and head circumference at term in neonates of European, Chinese and South Asian ancestry (PubMed)

Standards for the measurement of birth weight, length and head circumference at term in neonates of European, Chinese and South Asian ancestry Fetal growth restriction is associated with metabolic derangements in the newborn, impaired functioning in childhood and chronic diseases in adulthood. Differences between ethnic groups with respect to fetal growth may result in the misclassification of constitutionally small or large babies as having abnormal growth for their gestational age. We have (...) developed intrauterine growth charts based on precise measurements of newborns whose parents were both of European, Chinese or South Asian ethnicity.Weight, length and head circumference were measured in 2695 infants born to healthy non-smoking mothers in British Columbia at 37-41 completed weeks of gestation. Gestational age was confirmed by ultrasound before 20 weeks of gestation. Weight was measured by digital scale, length by stadiometer and head circumference by firm plastic tape measures. Means

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2007 Open Medicine

1052. Genetic and environmental influences on birth weight, birth length, head circumference, and gestational age by use of population-based parent-offspring data. (PubMed)

Genetic and environmental influences on birth weight, birth length, head circumference, and gestational age by use of population-based parent-offspring data. Familial correlations in birth weight and gestational age have been explained by fetal and maternal genetic factors, mainly in studies on offspring of twins. The aim of the present intergenerational study was to estimate and compare fetal and maternal genetic effects and shared sibling environmental effects on birth weight and gestational (...) and random mating, the authors found that fetal genetic factors explained 31% of the normal variation in birth weight and birth length, 27% of the variation in head circumference, and 11% of the variation in gestational age. Maternal genetic factors explained 22% of the variation in birth weight, 19% of the variation in birth length and head circumference, and 14% of the variation in gestational age. Relative to the proportion of explained variation, fetal genes were most important for birth length

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2007 American Journal of Epidemiology

1053. Nomograms of the axial fetal cerebellar hemisphere circumference and area throughout gestation. (PubMed)

study involved pregnant patients between 14 and 41 weeks of gestation. Inclusion criteria consisted of well-established dates (confirmed by early ultrasound), non-anomalous singleton fetuses and intact amniotic membranes. Sonographic measurements included biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL), humerus length (HL), TCD, and estimated fetal weight (EFW). Values of axial fetal CHC and CHA were each calculated as the mean of three separate (...) Nomograms of the axial fetal cerebellar hemisphere circumference and area throughout gestation. The widely applied transcerebellar diameter (TCD) obtained at axial cranial imaging, measures the distance between the lateral aspects of the cerebellum and incorporates the width of the cerebellar vermis. Our objective was to create reference ranges of axial fetal cerebellar hemisphere circumference (CHC) and area (CHA), independent of the cerebellar vermis, throughout gestation.This cross-sectional

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2007 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

1054. Influence of elective preterm delivery on birthweight and head circumference standards. (PubMed)

Influence of elective preterm delivery on birthweight and head circumference standards. We calculated new birthweight and head circumference centiles for boys and girls between 24 and 42 weeks' gestation from 20,713 singleton live births at our hospital between 1978 and 1984. Among the 803 babies born at or before 34 weeks' gestation, 28% were delivered electively for fetal problems; they were considerably lighter than babies born after spontaneous preterm labour. In contrast, they showed only (...) a small deficit in head circumference, possibly due to a brain sparing effect in growth retarded infants. Electively delivered preterm infants cause a bias in birthweight and head circumference centiles and we recommend that these babies should be excluded when these centiles are calculated.

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1987 Archives of Disease in Childhood

1055. Positive association of maternal G protein beta3 subunit 825T allele with reduced head circumference at birth. (PubMed)

Positive association of maternal G protein beta3 subunit 825T allele with reduced head circumference at birth. G protein beta3 subunit C825T polymorphism, which has previously been studied in association with common disorders in adults such as hypertension and obesity, has been focused upon recently for a possible important role in fetal metabolism. Japanese are characterized by having equal allele frequencies for this polymorphism. In this study, we determined the maternal and infantile (...) genotypes in 342 pairs of normal healthy mothers and their infants, and compared the genotype frequencies with various infantile somatoscopic characteristics converted into SD units according to sex, parity and gestational weeks. We observed an association of the maternal (but not infantile) G protein beta3 subunit 825T allele with reduced head circumference but not with reduced birth weight of the neonate. No association was observed between G protein beta3 subunit C825T polymorphism and various

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2002 Pediatric Research

1056. The relation of small head circumference and thinness at birth to death from cardiovascular disease in adult life. (PubMed)

The relation of small head circumference and thinness at birth to death from cardiovascular disease in adult life. To determine how fetal growth is related to death from cardiovascular disease in adult life.A follow up study of men born during 1907-24 whose birth weights, head circumferences, and other body measurements were recorded at birth.Sheffield, England.1586 Men born in the Jessop Hospital.Death from cardiovascular disease.Standardised mortality ratios for cardiovascular disease fell (...) from 119 in men who weighed 5.5 pounds (2495 g) or less at birth to 74 in men who weighed more than 8.5 pounds (3856 g). The fall was significant for premature cardiovascular deaths up to 65 years of age (chi 2 = 5.0, p = 0.02). Standardised mortality ratios also fell with increasing head circumference (chi 2 = 4.6, p = 0.03) and increasing ponderal index (weight/length3) (chi 2 = 3.8, p = 0.05; for premature deaths chi 2 = 6.0, p = 0.01). They were not related to the duration of gestation. Among

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1993 BMJ : British Medical Journal

1057. Does Antenatal Fetal Head Circumference Predict Anal Sphincter Injury, a Prospective Study

Does Antenatal Fetal Head Circumference Predict Anal Sphincter Injury, a Prospective Study Does Antenatal Fetal Head Circumference Predict Anal Sphincter Injury, a Prospective Study - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more (...) studies before adding more. Does Antenatal Fetal Head Circumference Predict Anal Sphincter Injury, a Prospective Study The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00580879 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : December 27, 2007 Last Update Posted : January 11, 2010 Sponsor: University

2007 Clinical Trials

1058. Fetal age assessment based on femur length at 10-25 weeks of gestation, and reference ranges for femur length to head circumference ratios. (PubMed)

Fetal age assessment based on femur length at 10-25 weeks of gestation, and reference ranges for femur length to head circumference ratios. The aim of the present study is to establish new reference charts for gestational age assessment based on fetal femur length (FL), and new reference ranges for FL to head ratios at gestational weeks 10-25, and to determine the effect of maternal and fetal factors on these charts.Six hundred fifty low-risk women with regular menstrual periods and singleton (...) pregnancies were recruited to a prospective cross-sectional study after obtaining written consent. FL, outer-outer biparietal diameter (BPD), and head circumference (HC) were measured at 10-25 weeks of gestation. We used regression analysis in order to construct mean curves and to assess the effect of maternal and fetal factors on age assessment.The new chart for age assessment by means of FL was based on 636 measurements. The 95% CI of the mean corresponded to <1 day. The variation between the mean

2005 Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica

1059. Comparison of fetal lung area to head circumference ratio with lung volume in the prediction of postnatal outcome in diaphragmatic hernia. (PubMed)

Comparison of fetal lung area to head circumference ratio with lung volume in the prediction of postnatal outcome in diaphragmatic hernia. To compare prediction of postnatal survival in isolated diaphragmatic hernia by prenatal two-dimensional (2D) versus three-dimensional (3D) sonographic assessment of the contralateral lung.The lung area to head circumference ratio (LHR) of the contralateral lung was measured and expressed as a percentage of the normal mean for gestation (O/E) in 47 fetuses

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2007 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

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