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Fetal Head Circumference

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81. Comparison of the Hadlock and INTERGROWTH 21<sup>st</sup> formulas for calculating estimated fetal weight in a preterm population in France. (PubMed)

the EPIPAGE 2 population-based study of births between 22-34 weeks of gestation, we included 578 nonanomalous singleton fetuses with an ultrasound-to-delivery interval <2 days. We used abdominal circumference, head circumference, and femur length to calculate estimated fetal weight with Hadlock formula and abdominal and head circumferences to calculate estimated fetal weight according to INTERGROWTH. The mean percentage errors and the proportions of estimated fetal weight measures within ±10 (...) Comparison of the Hadlock and INTERGROWTH 21st formulas for calculating estimated fetal weight in a preterm population in France. Accurate estimation of fetal weight is needed for growth monitoring and decision-making in obstetrics; the INTERGROWTH project developed an estimated fetal weight formula to construct new intrauterine growth standards.We sought to compare the accuracy of the Hadlock and INTERGROWTH formulas for the estimation of fetal weight among preterm infants.Using

2018 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

82. Neonatal outcomes after fetal exposure to methadone and buprenorphine: national registry studies from the Czech Republic and Norway (PubMed)

citizens for data linkage.The Czech Republic (2000-14) and Norway (2004-13). [Correction added after online publication on 26 April 2018: The Czech Republic (2000-04) corrected to (2000-14).] PARTICIPANTS: Opioid-dependent pregnant Czech (n = 333) and Norwegian (n = 235) women in OMT who received either B or M during pregnancy and their newborns.We linked data from health registries to identify the neonatal outcomes: gestational age, preterm birth, birth weight, length and head circumference, small (...) Neonatal outcomes after fetal exposure to methadone and buprenorphine: national registry studies from the Czech Republic and Norway Opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) is recommended to opioid-dependent females during pregnancy. However, it is not clear which medication should be preferred. We aimed to compare neonatal outcomes after prenatal exposure to methadone (M) and buprenorphine (B) in two European countries.Nation-wide register-based cohort study using personalized IDs assigned to all

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2018 Addiction (Abingdon, England)

83. Maternal Iodine Insufficiency and Excess Are Associated with Adverse Effects on Fetal Growth: A Prospective Cohort Study in Wuhan, China. (PubMed)

in the Tongji Maternal and Child Health Cohort study were involved. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and creatinine concentration were measured in spot urine samples collected in early pregnancy (<20 wk of gestation). Fetal head circumference (HC), femur length (FL), and estimated fetal weight (EFW) were evaluated by ultrasonography in each trimester. A multiple linear regression model was used to examine the association of iodine status with fetal growth characteristics, and a mixed-effects model (...) Maternal Iodine Insufficiency and Excess Are Associated with Adverse Effects on Fetal Growth: A Prospective Cohort Study in Wuhan, China. Maternal iodine status has been suggested to affect birth outcomes. Few studies have focused on its effects on fetal growth during pregnancy.This study aimed to assess maternal iodine status during early pregnancy and further examine the relation between maternal iodine status and fetal growth.A total of 2087 singleton-pregnant women participating

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2018 Journal of Nutrition

84. Femur-Sparing Pattern of Abnormal Fetal Growth in Pregnant Women from New York City After Maternal Zika Virus Infection. (PubMed)

for the 21st Century Project and World Health Organization Fetal Growth Chart sonographic standards were applied to obtain Z-scores and/or percentiles for fetal head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length specific for each gestational week. A novel 2014 International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Project standard was also developed to generate Z-scores for fetal body ratios with respect to femur length (head circumference:femur length, abdominal (...) circumference:femur length). Data were then grouped within clinically relevant gestational age strata (<24, 24-27 6/7, 28-33 6/7, >34 weeks) to analyze time-dependent effects of Zika virus infection on fetal size. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test on paired data, comparing either abdominal circumference or head circumference to femur length.A total of 56 pregnant women were included in the study with laboratory evidence of a confirmed or possible recent Zika virus infection. Based

2018 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

85. Abnormal fetal cerebral and vascular development in hypoplastic left heart syndrome. (PubMed)

and control fetuses without heart disease.Twenty-seven midgestation fetal HLHS were included (gestational age, 23.3 ± 3.4 weeks). Head circumference z scores were lower in HLHS fetuses. Middle cerebral artery pulsatility index, a measure of cerebrovascular resistance, was inversely correlated with the ascending aortic z score (P < 0.05). Fetuses with HLHS had lower capillary density in the germinal matrix and their capillaries were larger compared with control fetuses with (P < 0.05). The expression (...) Abnormal fetal cerebral and vascular development in hypoplastic left heart syndrome. To assess the cerebral and vascular development in fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS).Pregnant women carrying fetuses diagnosed with HLHS who decided to interrupt their pregnancies were included in our study. Aortic size and blood flow were assessed based from fetal echocardiography. Immunohistochemical staining was performed in brain sections obtained from pathology in fetuses with HLHS

2018 Prenatal diagnosis

86. Zika Virus Infection with Prolonged Maternal Viremia and Fetal Brain Abnormalities. (PubMed)

Zika Virus Infection with Prolonged Maternal Viremia and Fetal Brain Abnormalities. The current outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with an apparent increased risk of congenital microcephaly. We describe a case of a pregnant woman and her fetus infected with ZIKV during the 11th gestational week. The fetal head circumference decreased from the 47th percentile to the 24th percentile between 16 and 20 weeks of gestation. ZIKV RNA was identified in maternal serum at 16 (...) and 21 weeks of gestation. At 19 and 20 weeks of gestation, substantial brain abnormalities were detected on ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without the presence of microcephaly or intracranial calcifications. On postmortem analysis of the fetal brain, diffuse cerebral cortical thinning, high ZIKV RNA loads, and viral particles were detected, and ZIKV was subsequently isolated.

2016 NEJM

87. The effect of portable HEPA filter air cleaner use during pregnancy on fetal growth: The UGAAR randomized controlled trial. (PubMed)

gestational age-adjusted birth weight, birth length, head circumference, gestational age at birth, and small for gestational age. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01741051).We recruited 540 participants (272 control and 268 intervention) from January 9, 2014 to May 1, 2015. There were 465 live births and 28 losses to follow up. We previously reported a 29% (95% CI: 21, 37%) reduction in indoor PM2.5 concentrations with portable HEPA filter air cleaner use. The median (25th, 75th (...) The effect of portable HEPA filter air cleaner use during pregnancy on fetal growth: The UGAAR randomized controlled trial. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure may impair fetal growth.Our aim was to assess the effect of portable high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter air cleaner use during pregnancy on fetal growth.The Ulaanbaatar Gestation and Air Pollution Research (UGAAR) study is a single-blind randomized controlled trial conducted in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Non-smoking pregnant

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2018 Environment international Controlled trial quality: predicted high

88. From the Field: Improving Fetal and Infant Growth in Vulnerable Populations. (PubMed)

about age of 24 months. In the Ghana trial, mean (SD) birth weight (g) was greater ( P = .044) for the LNS group (3030 [414]) than the IFA group (2945 [442]) but not the MMN group (3005 [435]). Among primiparous mothers, the LNS group had significantly greater mean birth length, weight, and head circumference than the IFA or MMN group. By 18 months of age, the mean length (95% confidence interval) for the LNS group was +0.6 (0.1-1.1) cm greater than for the IFA group and +0.6 (0.1-1.2) cm greater (...) From the Field: Improving Fetal and Infant Growth in Vulnerable Populations. This article summarizes a presentation given at the 2017 Dairy for Global Nutrition Conference in Boise, Idaho.To give an overview of the pattern of early growth faltering in developing countries and examine the implications of the iLiNS-DYAD randomized trial in Ghana.The pattern of growth faltering in developing countries was outlined. In Ghana, 1320 women ≤ 20 weeks of pregnancy were assigned to 20 g/d small-quantity

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2018 Food and nutrition bulletin Controlled trial quality: uncertain

89. Comparison of the INTERGROWTH-21st, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and WHO fetal growth standards. (PubMed)

in six states in the USA between November 1987 and May 1991. The predictive capability of various biometric indicators (biparietal diameter, femur length, abdominal circumference, head circumference, estimated fetal weight, and birthweight) was evaluated. Adverse outcomes included severe morbidity and perinatal death.There were 9409 women included. Biometric indicators measured at a gestational age of 18-24 weeks had insufficient predictive sensitivity (range, 4%-47%). By contrast, measurements taken (...) Comparison of the INTERGROWTH-21st, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and WHO fetal growth standards. To compare the ability of the INTERGROWTH-21st, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and WHO fetal growth standards to identify fetuses at risk of adverse perinatal outcomes.A retrospective analysis was performed among women enrolled in a multicenter randomized controlled trial (Routine Antenatal Diagnostic Imaging with Ultrasound) that was conducted

2018 International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

90. The mediating effects of gestational diabetes on fetal growth and adiposity in women who are overweight and obese: secondary analysis of the LIMIT randomised trial. (PubMed)

gestation.Fetal ultrasound measures at 36 weeks of gestation and baseline BMI from women randomised to the LIMIT trial Standard Care group (n = 912 women) were used to conduct causal mediation analyses using regression-based methods.Ultrasound measures of fetal biometry and adiposity at 36 weeks of gestation.Increased maternal BMI was associated with increased measures of fetal head circumference [direct (unmediated) effect 0.18 (95% CI: 0.05-0.31), P = 0.005; total effect 0.17 (95% CI: 0.02-0.31), P = 0.018 (...) ], abdominal circumference [direct effect 0.26 (95% CI: 0.11-0.41), P = 0.001; total effect 0.26 (95% CI: 0.11-0.42), P = 0.001] and estimated fetal weight [direct effect 0.22 (95% CI: 0.08-0.35), P = 0.002; total effect 0.22 (95% CI: 0.08-0.35), P = 0.002], with no evidence of mediation by treated gestational diabetes. There was no apparent association between maternal BMI and fetal adiposity measures, or mediation by treated gestational diabetes.We show an important association between increased maternal

2018 BJOG Controlled trial quality: uncertain

91. Fetal Biometric Charts and Reference Equations for Pregnant Women Living in Port Said and Ismailia Governorates in Egypt (PubMed)

was between the 12th and 41st weeks of gestation, recruited from the district general hospital in Ismailia and Port Said to measure ultrasonographically biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL), then for each measurement separate regression models were fitted to estimate both the mean and the Standard deviation at each gestational age.New Egyptian charts were reported for BPD, HC, AC, and FL. Reference equations for the dating of pregnancy were (...) Fetal Biometric Charts and Reference Equations for Pregnant Women Living in Port Said and Ismailia Governorates in Egypt To construct new fetal biometric charts and equations for some fetal biometric parameters for women between 12th and 41st weeks living in Ismailia and Port Said Governorates in Egypt.This cross-sectional study was carried out on 656 Egyptian women (from Ismailia and Port Said governorates) with an uncomplicated pregnancy, and all were sure of their dates. The selected group

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2018 Open access Macedonian journal of medical sciences

92. Head Circumference

Head Circumference Head Circumference Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Head Circumference Head Circumference Aka: Head (...) Circumference , Microcephaly , Microcephalic Infant , Macrocephaly , Macrocephalic Infant II. Exam: Head Size Measurement Normal term newborn Head Circumference: 33 to 38 cm Technique Measuring tape around frontal forehead and occiput Take largest of several measurements III. Causes: Macrocephaly Familial with inheritance Other conditions (skeletal dysplasia) Sotos' Syndrome ( ) Alexander's Disease Canavan's Disease Gangliosidoses Glutaric aciduria Type I Type I IV. Causes: Microcephaly Familial Trisomy 13

2015 FP Notebook

93. Outcomes of fetuses with small head circumference on second-trimester ultrasonography. (PubMed)

Outcomes of fetuses with small head circumference on second-trimester ultrasonography. We examined the outcomes of pregnancies in which the fetal head circumference (HC) was below the 5(th) centile at the routine second-trimester scan.We retrospectively analysed outcomes of 18,377 women according to HC Z scores at second-trimester ultrasound examination between 2001 and 2008. We collected all major malformations, intrauterine deaths and other abnormal outcomes.Six hundred seventy-four fetuses (...) to -1.645, compared with 0.3% of fetuses with normal HC (p < 10(-4)).A head circumference below the 5(th) centile at second-trimester scan is associated with various abnormalities, especially neurological disorders. The outcome was worse when the HC was smaller. An HC Z score below -2.5 was strongly associated with neurological and chromosomal abnormalities. Conversely, an HC Z score below -1.645 but above -2, excluding cases with prenatally diagnosed malformations, seems to be reassuring for favorable

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2012 Prenatal diagnosis

94. Quality control of ultrasound for fetal biometry: results from the INTERGROWTH-21<sup>st</sup> Project. (PubMed)

examination, three fetal biometric variables (head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL)) were measured in triplicate on separately generated images. All measurements were taken in a blinded fashion. QC had two elements: (1) qualitative QC: visual assessment by sonographers at each study site of their images based on specific criteria, with 10% of images being re-assessed at the Oxford-based Ultrasound Quality Unit (compared using an adjusted kappa statistic); and (2 (...) Quality control of ultrasound for fetal biometry: results from the INTERGROWTH-21st Project. To assess a comprehensive package of ultrasound quality control in the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project, a large multicenter study of fetal growth.Quality control (QC) measures were performed for 20 313 ultrasound scan images obtained prospectively from 4321 fetuses at 14-41 weeks' gestation in eight geographical locations. At the time of each ultrasound

2017 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

95. Development of Customized Fetal Growth Charts in Twins. (PubMed)

characteristics.Fetal biometric measurements obtained from serial ultrasound examinations in uncomplicated twin pregnancies delivering after 36 weeks of gestation were collected by 19 Italian fetal medicine units under the auspices of the Società Italiana di Ecografia Ostetrica e Ginecologica. The measurements acquired in each fetus at each examination included biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length. Multilevel linear regression models were used to adjust for the serial (...) Development of Customized Fetal Growth Charts in Twins. Twin gestations are at significantly higher risk of fetal growth restriction in comparison with singletons. Using fetal biometric charts customized for obstetrical and parental characteristics may facilitate an accurate assessment of fetal growth.The objective of the study was to construct reference charts for the gestation of fetal biometric parameters stratified by chorionicity and customized for obstetrical and parental

2017 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

96. Subclinical Changes in Maternal Thyroid Function Parameters in Pregnancy and Fetal Growth. (PubMed)

score decrease (∼8.5 g) in birth weight (β = -0.41 for ln-transformed FT4; 95% confidence interval, -0.64 to -0.18). FT4 was also inversely associated with repeated measurements of estimated fetal weight, head circumference, and abdominal circumference. We observed weaker inverse associations for total T4 and a positive relationship between total triiodothyronine and birth weight z scores. We did not observe any associations for thyroid-stimulating hormone.In pregnant women without overt thyroid (...) Subclinical Changes in Maternal Thyroid Function Parameters in Pregnancy and Fetal Growth. Overt thyroid disease in pregnancy is a known risk factor for abnormal fetal growth and development. Data on the effects of milder forms of variation in maternal thyroid function on intrauterine growth are less well examined.We explored these associations using repeated thyroid hormone and ultrasound measurements.Data were obtained from 439 pregnant women without diagnosed thyroid disease who were

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2017 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

97. The satisfactory growth and development at 2 years of age of the INTERGROWTH-21<sup>st</sup> Fetal Growth Standards cohort support its appropriateness for constructing international standards. (PubMed)

contributed data to the construction of the international fetal growth, newborn infant size and body composition at birth, and preterm postnatal growth standards. Clinical care, feeding practices, anthropometric measures, and assessment of morbidity were standardized across study sites and documented at 1 and 2 years of age. Weight, length, and head circumference age- and sex-specific z-scores and percentiles and motor development milestones were estimated with the use of the World Health Organization (...) mortality rate was 3 per 1000; neonatal mortality rate was 1.6 per 1000. At the 2-year visit, the children included in the INTERGROWTH-21st Fetal Growth Standards were at the 49th percentile for length, 50th percentile for head circumference, and 58th percentile for weight of the World Health Organization Child Growth Standards. Similar results were seen for the preterm subgroup that was included in the INTERGROWTH-21st Preterm Postnatal Growth Standards. The cohort overlapped between the 3rd and 97th

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2017 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

98. Fetal somatic growth trajectory differs by type of congenital heart disease. (PubMed)

Fetal somatic growth trajectory differs by type of congenital heart disease. BackgroundThe growth trajectories of common measurements, including estimated fetal weight (EFW), head circumference (HC), and abdominal circumference (AC), in fetuses with congenital heart disease (CHD) have not been described for different cardiac lesions. We hypothesized that (i) fetuses with CHD have differential growth in utero, and (ii) different categories of CHD demonstrate different in utero growth (...) curves.MethodsWe performed a retrospective observational cohort study of pregnancies with known fetal CHD seen from January 2000 to June 2013. For analysis, the infants were divided into single ventricle (SV), biventricular conotruncal, d-transposition of great arteries (d-TGA), biventricular septal defects (SD; including atrial, ventricular, and atrioventricular SD), and all others (Other).ResultsA total of 194 newborns met inclusion criteria. There was significant differential growth of EFW in all CHD types

2017 Pediatric Research

99. Fetal growth standards in gastroschisis: Reference values for ultrasound measurements. (PubMed)

, 10th, 50th, 90th, and 95th centiles being established for biometric parameters according to gestational age. Curves were obtained, comparing with normal reference via the Mann-Whitney test. UA Doppler velocimetry patterns were obtained.A total of 434 examinations were performed, and centiles were established for biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, femur length, and estimated fetal weight. A significant difference was observed between the gastroschisis measurements when (...) compared to control, with all curves shifted downwards. Abdominal circumference was the parameter presenting the largest difference. Estimated fetal weight was also lower, with mean difference of 256.3 ± 166.8 g for the 50th centile (P < .0001). UA Doppler velocimetry was normal in 97.5%.Fetuses with gastroschisis show symmetrical growth deficits in the second and third trimesters, with normal UA Doppler velocimetry. These results reinforce the hypothesis that they are constitutionally smaller, yet

2017 Prenatal diagnosis

100. Severe Apparently Isolated Fetal Ventriculomegaly And Neurodevelopmental Outcome. (PubMed)

fulfilled the study criteria. SVM was diagnosed at an average gestational age of 30 weeks (range 22-37 weeks). Head circumference was >95th centile in 39% of them. The etiology of SVM was intraventricular hemorrhage in 6 (29%), stenosis of the aqueduct of Sylvius in 3 (14%), and undetermined in 12 (57%). Neurosurgery was performed in four infants, and ventriculoperitoneal shunts were inserted in three. At a mean age at last follow-up of 8.4 years, neurodevelopmental outcome was normal in 62 (...) Severe Apparently Isolated Fetal Ventriculomegaly And Neurodevelopmental Outcome. Our aim is to assess the neurodevelopmental outcome of children with a prenatal diagnosis of apparently isolated severe ventriculomegaly (SVM).This is a retrospective cohort study from 1994 to 2011. We included fetuses with unilateral or bilateral ventriculomegaly equal to or greater than 15 mm at prenatal ultrasound and confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging, whose parents chose continuation of pregnancy past 22

2017 Prenatal diagnosis

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