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Fetal Head Circumference

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61. Ultrasound screening for fetal microcephaly following Zika virus exposure Full Text available with Trip Pro

, and available data regarding prenatal diagnosis of microcephaly are based on small numbers of cases of varying etiologies. In cases in which the fetal head circumference (HC) measures >2SD below the mean, we recommend that a detailed neurosonographic examination be performed, 6 as somefetuseswithHC>2SDbelowthemeanduetoinutero infection will have ?ndings such as periventricular and intraparenchymal echogenic foci, ventriculomegaly, cere- bellar hypoplasia, microcephaly, and cortical abnormal- ities. 4,5 (...) head circumference. How canweimproveprediction?UltrasoundObstetGynecol2015[Epubahead of print]. All authors and Committee members have ?led a con?ict of interest disclosure delineating personal, professional, and/or business in- terests that might be perceived as a real or potential con?ict of interest in relation to this publication. Any con?icts have been resolved through a process approved by the Executive Board. The Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine has neither solicited nor accepted any

2016 Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine

62. Antenatal corticosteriods given to women prior to birth to improve fetal, infant, child and adult health

or gestational diabetes at risk of preterm birth 210 14.8 Women with systemic infection at trial entry at risk of preterm birth 224 14.9 Women with pregnancy associated hypertension/pre-eclampsia at risk of preterm birth 226 14.10 Women with a fetus with intrauterine growth restriction at risk of preterm birth 238 Page 2 14.11 Women with ultrasound evidence of cervical shortening /funnelling 249 14.12 Fetal fibronectin test and the use of antenatal corticosteroids in women at risk of preterm birth . 251 (...) with a fetus with intrauterine growth restriction at risk of preterm birth – Repeat course of antenatal corticosteroids 444 M35 Women with ultrasound evidence of cervical shortening /funnelling – Single course or repeat antenatal corticosteroids 448 M36 Fetal fibronectin test and the use of antenatal corticosteroids in women at risk of preterm birth – Single course or repeat antenatal corticosteroids 452 M37 Women for whom preterm birth is medically indicated for other reasons – Single course of antenatal

2015 Clinical Practice Guidelines Portal

63. Folic Acid Intake, Fetal Brain Growth, and Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. A 2-level linear growth model was used to assess treatment effect and factors that predict intrauterine growth in head circumference over time. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to estimate the effect of higher-strength folic acid on head circumference at birth, fetal brain weight, and fetal BBRs.Mothers who received the higher dose of folic acid had infants with a 1.18 mm larger mean head circumference compared with infants born to mothers who received the standard dose (...) brain growth, measured by head circumference, brain weight, and brain-body weight ratio (BBR).In this randomly assigned, double-blind, controlled clinical trial, we recruited 345 smoking pregnant women attending a community health center in Tampa, FL between 2010 and 2014. Participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either 0.8 mg folic acid/d (standard of care at the study center) or 4 mg folic acid/d (higher strength). Participants were also enrolled in a smoking cessation program

2019 Current Developments in Nutrition Controlled trial quality: predicted high

64. In overweight and obese women, fetal ultrasound biometry accurately predicts newborn measures. (Abstract)

) and adiposity measures including mid-thigh fat mass (MTFM), subscapular fat mass (SSFM), and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were undertaken using ultrasound. Neonatal anthropometric measurements obtained after birth included birthweight, head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and skinfold thickness measurements (SFTM) of the subscapular region and abdomen.At 36 weeks gestation, every 1 g increase in EFW was associated with a 0.94 g increase in birthweight (95% CI 0.88-0.99; P < 0.001). For every 1 (...)  mm increase in the fetal ultrasound measure, there was a 0.69 mm increase in birth HC (95% CI 0.63-0.75, P < 0.001) and 0.69 mm increase in birth AC (95% CI 0.60-0.79, P < 0.001). Subscapular fat mass in the fetus and the newborn (0.29 mm, 95% CI 0.20-0.39, P < 0.001) were moderately associated, but AFM measurements were not (0.06 mm, -0.03 to 0.15, P = 0.203). There is no evidence that these relationships differed by maternal body mass index.In women who are overweight or obese, fetal ultrasound

2019 The Australian & New Zealand journal of obstetrics & gynaecology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

65. High maternal early-pregnancy blood glucose levels are associated with altered fetal growth and increased risk of adverse birth outcomes. Full Text available with Trip Pro

≤0.05 for all). A weaker association of maternal early-pregnancy non-fasting glucose levels with fetal head circumference growth rates was present. Higher maternal early-pregnancy non-fasting glucose levels were also associated with an increased risk of delivering a large-for-gestational-age infant, but decreased risk of delivering a small-for-gestational-age infant (OR 1.28 [95% CI 1.16, 1.41], OR 0.88 [95% CI 0.79, 0.98] per mmol/l increase in maternal early-pregnancy non-fasting glucose levels (...) High maternal early-pregnancy blood glucose levels are associated with altered fetal growth and increased risk of adverse birth outcomes. The study aimed to assess the associations of maternal early-pregnancy blood glucose levels with fetal growth throughout pregnancy and the risks of adverse birth outcomes.In a population-based prospective cohort study among 6116 pregnant women, maternal non-fasting glucose levels were measured in blood plasma at a median 13.2 weeks of gestation (95% range 9.6

2019 Diabetologia

66. Reduced fetal growth velocities and the association with neonatal outcomes in appropriate-for-gestational-age neonates: a retrospective cohort study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

), biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC) and femur length (FL) were compared between the suboptimal AGA (sAGA) (birth weight centiles 10-50) and optimal AGA (oAGA) (birth weight centiles 50-80) group. We assessed the association between velocities and neonatal outcomes.We included 934 singleton pregnancies. In the suboptimal AGA group, fetal growth velocities were lower (in mm/week): AC 10.72 ± 1.00 vs 11.23 ± 1.00 (p < .001), HC 10.50 ± 0.80 vs 10.68 ± 0.77 (p = 0.001), BPD 3.01 ± 0.28 vs 3.08 (...) restriction of growth potential. We hypothesized that within AGA neonates, reduced fetal growth velocities are associated with adverse neonatal outcome.A retrospective cohort study of singleton pregnancies, in the Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC) between 2010 and 2016. Women had two fetal biometry scans (18-22 weeks and 30-34 weeks of gestational age) and delivered a newborn with a birth weight between the 10th-80th percentile. Differences in growth velocities of the abdominal circumference (AC

2019 BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

67. Does fetoscopic or open repair for spina bifida affect fetal and postnatal growth? (Abstract)

did not show any significant differences in any fetal growth parameter between the groups over time. There were no significant correlations between duration of surgery or duration of CO2 exposure and any of the biometric percentiles evaluated. Postnatal growth showed no significant differences between the groups in weight, height or head circumference percentiles, at 6-18, 18-30 or > 30 months of age.Babies exposed to fetoscopic or open MMC repair in-utero did not show significant differences (...) ultrasound after fetoscopic (n = 32) or open hysterotomy (n = 34) MMC repair in utero at a single institution between November 2011 and July 2017. Measurements obtained during growth scans on initial evaluation prior to surgery, and those taken at 6 weeks post-surgery, were transformed into percentiles and compared between groups. Additional neonatal and infant anthropometric measurements, including weight, length/height and head circumference, were also transformed into percentiles and compared between

2019 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

68. Fetal Heart Defects and Measures of Cerebral Size. (Abstract)

calculated for first trimester biparietal diameter, second trimester head circumference, fetal weight, birthweight, head circumference, and placental weight.We obtained data from 63 349 pregnancies and identified 295 fetuses with isolated CHDs (major n = 145; minor n = 150). The first trimester mean biparietal diameter Z-scores were not different between those with and those without CHDs. The head circumference mean Z-score difference was -0.13 (95% CI, -0.24 to -0.01; P = .03) in the second trimester (...) Fetal Heart Defects and Measures of Cerebral Size. To estimate the association between fetal congenital heart defects (CHDs) and measures of brain size throughout pregnancy, from the end of the first trimester to birth.The cohort consisted of all fetuses scanned in Western Denmark in 2012 and 2013. Anthropometric measures in fetuses with isolated CHDs diagnosed within 12 months after birth were compared with those in the fetuses without CHDs. Z-scores standardized to gestational age were

2019 Journal of Pediatrics

69. Investigation and Management Small-for-Gestational-Age Fetus

plots below the 10 th centile or serial measurements which demonstrate slow or static growth by crossing centiles should be referred for ultrasound measurement of fetal size. Women in whom measurement of SFH is inaccurate (for example: BMI > 35, large fibroids, hydramnios) should be referred for serial assessment of fetal size using ultrasound. Optimum method of diagnosing a SGA fetus and FGR Fetal abdominal circumference (AC) or estimated fetal weight (EFW) +2 SDs above mean for gestational age (...) under the same title. Executive Summary of Recommendations Risk factors for a SGA fetus/neonate All women should be assessed at booking for risk factors for a SGA fetus/neonate to identify those who require increased surveillance. Women who have a major risk factor (Odds Ratio [OR] > 2.0) should be referred for serial ultrasound measurement of fetal size and assessment of wellbeing with umbilical artery Doppler from 26–28 weeks of pregnancy (Appendix 1). Women who have three or more minor risk

2013 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

70. Fetal Abdominal Circumference

Fetal Abdominal Circumference Fetal Abdominal Circumference Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Fetal Abdominal (...) Circumference Fetal Abdominal Circumference Aka: Fetal Abdominal Circumference II. Technique Use ellipse Transverse abdominal Triad Deep portion of ( ) Spine III. Equation Abdominal Circumference = (AP + Transverse) x 1.57 IV. Accuracy Least accurate of measurements for estimating (except 26-32 weeks) Most useful beyond 15 weeks for calculating fetal weight, serial growth and diagnosing References V. Resources AJR Online version of Benson and Doubilet article above Images: Related links to external sites

2015 FP Notebook

71. The head progression distance in prolonged second stage of labor: relationship to mode of delivery and fetal head station. (Abstract)

mean HPD was 6.50 (± 1.35; 95% CI, 6.16-6.83) cm. No correlation was found between HPD and head position or mode of delivery, but HPD was positively correlated with fetal head station and neonatal head circumference measured after delivery. Logistic regression and receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis demonstrated no significant predictive value of HPD with respect to mode of delivery.Although HPD in prolonged second stage of labor could not predict mode of delivery, it may have a role (...) The head progression distance in prolonged second stage of labor: relationship to mode of delivery and fetal head station. To evaluate the clinical significance of fetal head progression distance (HPD), measured by transperineal ultrasound, during prolonged second stage of labor.In this prospective study, a single operator, who was blinded to the results of the digital examination, assessed using transperineal ultrasound women at ≥ 37 weeks of gestation with failure to progress in the second

2013 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

72. From the Field: Improving Fetal and Infant Growth in Vulnerable Populations. Full Text available with Trip Pro

about age of 24 months. In the Ghana trial, mean (SD) birth weight (g) was greater ( P = .044) for the LNS group (3030 [414]) than the IFA group (2945 [442]) but not the MMN group (3005 [435]). Among primiparous mothers, the LNS group had significantly greater mean birth length, weight, and head circumference than the IFA or MMN group. By 18 months of age, the mean length (95% confidence interval) for the LNS group was +0.6 (0.1-1.1) cm greater than for the IFA group and +0.6 (0.1-1.2) cm greater (...) From the Field: Improving Fetal and Infant Growth in Vulnerable Populations. This article summarizes a presentation given at the 2017 Dairy for Global Nutrition Conference in Boise, Idaho.To give an overview of the pattern of early growth faltering in developing countries and examine the implications of the iLiNS-DYAD randomized trial in Ghana.The pattern of growth faltering in developing countries was outlined. In Ghana, 1320 women ≤ 20 weeks of pregnancy were assigned to 20 g/d small-quantity

2018 Food and nutrition bulletin Controlled trial quality: uncertain

73. The effect of portable HEPA filter air cleaner use during pregnancy on fetal growth: The UGAAR randomized controlled trial. Full Text available with Trip Pro

gestational age-adjusted birth weight, birth length, head circumference, gestational age at birth, and small for gestational age. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01741051).We recruited 540 participants (272 control and 268 intervention) from January 9, 2014 to May 1, 2015. There were 465 live births and 28 losses to follow up. We previously reported a 29% (95% CI: 21, 37%) reduction in indoor PM2.5 concentrations with portable HEPA filter air cleaner use. The median (25th, 75th (...) The effect of portable HEPA filter air cleaner use during pregnancy on fetal growth: The UGAAR randomized controlled trial. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure may impair fetal growth.Our aim was to assess the effect of portable high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter air cleaner use during pregnancy on fetal growth.The Ulaanbaatar Gestation and Air Pollution Research (UGAAR) study is a single-blind randomized controlled trial conducted in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Non-smoking pregnant

2018 Environment international Controlled trial quality: predicted high

74. Comparison of the INTERGROWTH-21st, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and WHO fetal growth standards. (Abstract)

in six states in the USA between November 1987 and May 1991. The predictive capability of various biometric indicators (biparietal diameter, femur length, abdominal circumference, head circumference, estimated fetal weight, and birthweight) was evaluated. Adverse outcomes included severe morbidity and perinatal death.There were 9409 women included. Biometric indicators measured at a gestational age of 18-24 weeks had insufficient predictive sensitivity (range, 4%-47%). By contrast, measurements taken (...) Comparison of the INTERGROWTH-21st, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and WHO fetal growth standards. To compare the ability of the INTERGROWTH-21st, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and WHO fetal growth standards to identify fetuses at risk of adverse perinatal outcomes.A retrospective analysis was performed among women enrolled in a multicenter randomized controlled trial (Routine Antenatal Diagnostic Imaging with Ultrasound) that was conducted

2018 International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

75. Maternal Iodine Insufficiency and Excess Are Associated with Adverse Effects on Fetal Growth: A Prospective Cohort Study in Wuhan, China. Full Text available with Trip Pro

in the Tongji Maternal and Child Health Cohort study were involved. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and creatinine concentration were measured in spot urine samples collected in early pregnancy (<20 wk of gestation). Fetal head circumference (HC), femur length (FL), and estimated fetal weight (EFW) were evaluated by ultrasonography in each trimester. A multiple linear regression model was used to examine the association of iodine status with fetal growth characteristics, and a mixed-effects model (...) Maternal Iodine Insufficiency and Excess Are Associated with Adverse Effects on Fetal Growth: A Prospective Cohort Study in Wuhan, China. Maternal iodine status has been suggested to affect birth outcomes. Few studies have focused on its effects on fetal growth during pregnancy.This study aimed to assess maternal iodine status during early pregnancy and further examine the relation between maternal iodine status and fetal growth.A total of 2087 singleton-pregnant women participating

2018 Journal of Nutrition

76. Investigating the relationship between fetal growth and academic attainment: secondary analysis of the Born in Bradford (BiB) cohort Full Text available with Trip Pro

Investigating the relationship between fetal growth and academic attainment: secondary analysis of the Born in Bradford (BiB) cohort The relationship between ultrasongraphically derived estimates of fetal growth and educational attainment in the postnatal period is unknown. Results from previous studies focusing on cognitive ability, however, suggest there may be gestation-specific associations. Our objective was to model growth in fetal weight (EFW) and head circumference (HC) and identify (...) ordinal logistic and logistic regression. Associations were adjusted for potential confounders, facilitated by directed acyclic graphs. Missing covariate data were imputed using multiple imputation.In all, 6995 and 8438 children had complete KS1, and EFW and HC data, respectively. Positive associations were observed between both fetal weight in early pregnancy (14 weeks) and EFW growth in mid-pregnancy (14-26 weeks) and the individual KS1 outcomes. Furthermore, after adjustment for previous size

2018 International journal of epidemiology

77. Evaluation of automated tool for 2D fetal biometry. (Abstract)

Evaluation of automated tool for 2D fetal biometry. To determine whether an automated tool can automatically measure the fetal head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) on frozen 2D ultrasound images.Ultrasound images from 100 pregnancies between 20 to 40 weeks of gestation were assessed, ensuring equal distribution of data throughout gestational age. For each pregnancy, three standard biometric variables (HC, AC, FL) were measured three times (nine independent (...) were calculated and expressed as percentages to correct for fetal growth with advancing gestation.After exclusion of one pregnancy (due to technical failure), a total of 891 images, 297 for each biometric variable, were analyzed. The algorithm failed to place calipers for the AC in 9 images, whereas there were no failures on HC and FL. In the subjective quality assessment of automatic caliper placement, 475 images (53.3%) were judged to be clinically acceptable and did not require any adjustment

2018 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

78. Fetal Biometric Charts and Reference Equations for Pregnant Women Living in Port Said and Ismailia Governorates in Egypt Full Text available with Trip Pro

was between the 12th and 41st weeks of gestation, recruited from the district general hospital in Ismailia and Port Said to measure ultrasonographically biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL), then for each measurement separate regression models were fitted to estimate both the mean and the Standard deviation at each gestational age.New Egyptian charts were reported for BPD, HC, AC, and FL. Reference equations for the dating of pregnancy were (...) Fetal Biometric Charts and Reference Equations for Pregnant Women Living in Port Said and Ismailia Governorates in Egypt To construct new fetal biometric charts and equations for some fetal biometric parameters for women between 12th and 41st weeks living in Ismailia and Port Said Governorates in Egypt.This cross-sectional study was carried out on 656 Egyptian women (from Ismailia and Port Said governorates) with an uncomplicated pregnancy, and all were sure of their dates. The selected group

2018 Open access Macedonian journal of medical sciences

79. Fetal growth and incidence of atopic dermatitis in early childhood: Results of the Ulm SPATZ Health Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

1.51, (95% CI 1.01; 2.24) and 1.83 (1.21; 2.76)], high 2nd trimester head- abdominal circumference ratio [1.69 (1.16; 2.48)], and faltering 2nd to 3rd trimester [1.59 (1.04; 2.43)] head circumference were associated with greater AD risk. High 3rd trimester femur length [0.54 (0.31; 0.94)] was associated with lower risk. Using more inclusive exposure cut-points (0.8 SD), lower 1st trimester crown-rump length was also associated with greater AD risk. Our data suggest several different patterns (...) Fetal growth and incidence of atopic dermatitis in early childhood: Results of the Ulm SPATZ Health Study Fetal growth may be a precursory factor in observed association between birthweight and atopic dermatitis (AD), however, recent studies utilizing fetal ultrasound-based data have reported contradictory results. This study aims to clarify previous findings through comprehensive investigation of association between several trimester-specific ultrasound-based anthropometric measures with AD

2018 Scientific reports

80. Neonatal outcomes after fetal exposure to methadone and buprenorphine: national registry studies from the Czech Republic and Norway Full Text available with Trip Pro

citizens for data linkage.The Czech Republic (2000-14) and Norway (2004-13). [Correction added after online publication on 26 April 2018: The Czech Republic (2000-04) corrected to (2000-14).] PARTICIPANTS: Opioid-dependent pregnant Czech (n = 333) and Norwegian (n = 235) women in OMT who received either B or M during pregnancy and their newborns.We linked data from health registries to identify the neonatal outcomes: gestational age, preterm birth, birth weight, length and head circumference, small (...) Neonatal outcomes after fetal exposure to methadone and buprenorphine: national registry studies from the Czech Republic and Norway Opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) is recommended to opioid-dependent females during pregnancy. However, it is not clear which medication should be preferred. We aimed to compare neonatal outcomes after prenatal exposure to methadone (M) and buprenorphine (B) in two European countries.Nation-wide register-based cohort study using personalized IDs assigned to all

2018 Addiction (Abingdon, England)

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