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Fetal Head Circumference

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41. Maternal Urinary Iodine Concentration up to 1.0 mg/L Is Positively Associated with Birth Weight, Length, and Head Circumference of Male Offspring. (PubMed)

Maternal Urinary Iodine Concentration up to 1.0 mg/L Is Positively Associated with Birth Weight, Length, and Head Circumference of Male Offspring. Adequate iodine status in early life is crucial for neurodevelopment. However, little is known about the effects of maternal iodine status during pregnancy on fetal growth. The present study investigated the potential impact of maternal iodine status during pregnancy on offspring birth size. This large prospective cohort study was nested (...) in a Bangladeshi population-based randomized supplementation trial in pregnant women [MINIMat (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab)]. Urine samples obtained at 8 wk of gestation from 1617 women were analyzed for iodine and other elements, such as arsenic and cadmium, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Anthropometric measurements at birth included weight, length, and head and chest circumference. Maternal urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) ranged from 0.020 to 10 mg/L

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2014 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

42. Low birth weight and elevated head-to-abdominal circumference ratio are associated with elevated fetal glycated serum protein concentrations. (PubMed)

Low birth weight and elevated head-to-abdominal circumference ratio are associated with elevated fetal glycated serum protein concentrations. To analyze the association between low birth weight, head-to-abdominal circumference ratio, and insulin resistance in early life.Glycated serum proteins (GSPs) were quantified at delivery in 612 Chinese mother/child pairs serving as a surrogate of maternal and fetal glycemia. Differential ultrasound examination of the fetal's body (head circumference (...) , biparietal diameter, pectoral diameter, abdominal circumference, and femur length) was done in average 1 week prior to delivery. Multivariable regression analysis considering gestational age at delivery, the child's sex, maternal BMI, maternal age at delivery, maternal body weight, and pregnancy-induced hypertension revealed that fetal GSP was inversely associated with birth weight (R² = 0.416; P < 0.001). Fetal GSP was furthermore positively associated with the head-to-abdominal circumference ratio

2011 Journal of Hypertension

43. An abnormal cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) is predictive of early childhood delayed neurodevelopment in the setting of fetal growth restriction

, and a probability value of .00625 was considered significant.Assessments were performed on 198 small-for-gestational-age children, 136 fetal growth-restricted children with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler images and normal cerebroplacental ratio, and 41 fetal growth-restricted children with both abnormal umbilical artery Doppler and cerebroplacental ratio. At 3 years of age, although there were no differences in head circumference, children who also had an abnormal cerebroplacental ratio had persistently (...) An abnormal cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) is predictive of early childhood delayed neurodevelopment in the setting of fetal growth restriction Fetal growth restriction accounts for a significant proportion of perinatal morbidity and death. The cerebroplacental ratio is gaining much interest as a useful tool in differentiating the "at-risk" fetus in both fetal growth restriction and appropriate-for-gestational-age pregnancies. The Prospective Observational Trial to Optimize Pediatric Health

2019 EvidenceUpdates

44. Ultrasound screening for fetal microcephaly following Zika virus exposure

, and available data regarding prenatal diagnosis of microcephaly are based on small numbers of cases of varying etiologies. In cases in which the fetal head circumference (HC) measures >2SD below the mean, we recommend that a detailed neurosonographic examination be performed, 6 as somefetuseswithHC>2SDbelowthemeanduetoinutero infection will have ?ndings such as periventricular and intraparenchymal echogenic foci, ventriculomegaly, cere- bellar hypoplasia, microcephaly, and cortical abnormal- ities. 4,5 (...) head circumference. How canweimproveprediction?UltrasoundObstetGynecol2015[Epubahead of print]. All authors and Committee members have ?led a con?ict of interest disclosure delineating personal, professional, and/or business in- terests that might be perceived as a real or potential con?ict of interest in relation to this publication. Any con?icts have been resolved through a process approved by the Executive Board. The Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine has neither solicited nor accepted any

2016 Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine

45. The Effect of Fetal Hemodynamics on Fetal Growth in Single Ventricle and Transposition of The Great Arteries. (PubMed)

in fetuses with HLHS and in those with SV. MCA-PI was lower in fetuses with HLHS compared with in those with non-HLHS-SV throughout gestation, suggesting different cerebral blood distribution. At the end of gestation, rate of fetal weight gain slowed in those with HLHS and in those with SV (similar to CCO curves), and head circumference growth rate slowed in all groups but controls. CCO, indexed CCO and MCA- and UA-PI did not correlate with any of the birth measurements or with weight gain late (...)  weeks and birth weight were compared. Regression analysis was used to determine the associations of CCO, indexed CCO and MCA- and UA-PI at 30 weeks with birth weight, length and head circumference Z-scores, in addition to weight gain late in gestation. The gestational age of 30 weeks was chosen based on previous studies that found evidence of poor weight gain in fetuses with CHD in late gestation, starting at around that time.CCO increased with gestation in all four groups but the rate was slower

2017 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

46. The World Health Organization Fetal Growth Charts: A Multinational Longitudinal Study of Ultrasound Biometric Measurements and Estimated Fetal Weight. (PubMed)

, even after adjusting for gestational age. Thirty-one women had a miscarriage, and three fetuses had intrauterine death. The 8,203 sets of ultrasound measurements were scrutinized for outliers and leverage points, and those measurements taken at 14 to 40 wk were selected for analysis. A total of 7,924 sets of ultrasound measurements were analyzed by quantile regression to establish longitudinal reference intervals for fetal head circumference, biparietal diameter, humerus length, abdominal (...) circumference, femur length and its ratio with head circumference and with biparietal diameter, and EFW. There was asymmetric distribution of growth of EFW: a slightly wider distribution among the lower percentiles during early weeks shifted to a notably expanded distribution of the higher percentiles in late pregnancy. Male fetuses were larger than female fetuses as measured by EFW, but the disparity was smaller in the lower quantiles of the distribution (3.5%) and larger in the upper quantiles (4.5

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2017 PLoS medicine

47. Fetal growth standards: the NICHD fetal growth study approach in context with INTERGROWTH-21st and the World Health Organization Multicentre Growth Reference Study. (PubMed)

for the best physiological growth for children aged 0-5 years. INTERGROWTH made the same assumption (ie, that there would be no differences internationally among countries or racial/ethnic groups in fetal growth when conditions were optimal). INTERGROWTH found differences in crown-rump length and head circumference among countries but interpreted the differences as not meaningful and presented a pooled standard. The World Health Organization Multicentre Growth Reference Study was designed to create (...) a pooled reference, although they evaluated for and presented country differences, along with discussion of the implications. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study was designed to assess whether racial/ethnic-specific fetal growth standards were needed, in recognition of the fact that fetal size is commonly estimated from dimensions (head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length) in which there are known differences in children

2017 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

48. Association of Maternal Obesity With Longitudinal Ultrasonographic Measures of Fetal Growth: Findings From the NICHD Fetal Growth Studies-Singletons. (PubMed)

-dimensional ultrasonograms to capture weekly fetal growth data throughout the remainder of their pregnancies.On each ultrasonogram, fetal humerus length, femur length, biparietal diameter, head circumference, and abdominal circumference were measured. Fetal growth curves were estimated using linear mixed models with cubic splines. Median differences in the fetal measures at each gestational week of the obese and nonobese participants were examined using the likelihood ratio and Wald tests after adjustment (...) 70.2 mm; P = .01; median humerus length, 62.2 vs 61.6 mm; P = .03). Averaged across gestation, head circumference was significantly larger in fetuses of obese women than those of nonobese women (P = .02). Fetal abdominal circumference was not greater in the obese cohort than in the nonobese cohort but was significantly larger than in fetuses of normal-weight women (with body mass indexes between 19.0-24.9) commencing at 32 weeks (median, 282.1 vs 280.2 mm; P = .04). Starting from 30 weeks

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2017 JAMA pediatrics

49. Maternal plasma n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids during pregnancy and features of fetal health: Fetal growth velocity, birth weight and duration of pregnancy. (PubMed)

from a population-based birth cohort, the Generation R Study. Maternal plasma n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio and n-3 and n-6 PUFA percentage in glycerophospholipids in mid-pregnancy were related to fetal growth velocity calculated from repeatedly measured weight, length and head circumference, birth weight, and duration of pregnancy.A higher maternal mid-pregnancy n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio was associated with a higher growth velocity of the fetal weight (β = 0.082 SD-score/week, 95% CI 0.055; 0.108, P < 0.001 (...) ), length (β = 0.085 SD-score/week, 95% CI 0.052; 0.119, P < 0.001); and head (β = 0.055 SD-score/week, 95% CI 0.019; 0.091, P = 0.003). We also observed positive associations between n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio and birth weight (β = 0.76 SD-score, 95% CI 0.22; 1.29, P = 0.006), and duration of pregnancy (β = 1.32 weeks, 95% CI 0.24; 2.40, P = 0.02).These results are consistent with the hypothesis that a higher n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio is important for fetal health.Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

2017 Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland)

50. Fetal 3D Study (Fetal Body Composition and Volumes Study)

additional image and 3D volume acquisition for later analysis. Ultrasound measurements at each follow-up visit included standard fetal biometrics ((BPD, HC, AC, FL) and the following volumes in the singleton study if they were able to be obtained: 1st trimester: fetus and gestational sac; 2nd and 3rd trimesters: head, cerebellum, face, chest, heart, abdomen, pelvis, arm and thigh. In twins, the volumes collected were 1st trimester: fetus and gestational sac and in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters the thigh (...) Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : Standards for fetal body composition and organ volumes by maternal race/ethnicity [ Time Frame: 3 years ] Growth trajectories in singletons and dichorionic twin pregnancies will be created using two- and selected three-dimensional ultrasound measures. Measures in singletons include fetal body composition from 2D abdominal circumference, arm and thigh volumes; cerebellum; adrenal glands; kidneys; liver; pancreas; lungs; first trimester gestational sac

2017 Clinical Trials

51. A revisit of the fetal foot length and fetal measurements in early pregnancy sonography (PubMed)

A revisit of the fetal foot length and fetal measurements in early pregnancy sonography To present the fetal measurements in relation to the foot length at 10-16 weeks gestation on antenatal ultrasound.We reviewed the fetal measurements in 47 scans performed at 10-16 weeks gestation in women attending routine antenatal care. The fetal measurements and measurement ratios were examined in relation to the foot length.The fetal biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, femur (...) length and foot length increase linearly with the gestational age at 10-16 weeks gestation. The correlation between fetal foot length and fetal biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference and femur length are better than with the crown rump length. The femur length to foot length ratio and the femur length to abdominal circumference ratios increase with the gestational age in an inverse relationship throughout the same period.Fetal foot length is an accurate estimate

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2017 International journal of women's health

52. Prediction of small-for-gestational age by fetal growth rate according to gestational age. (PubMed)

the ultrasonographic parameters that contribute substantially to the birthweight determination.This was a retrospective study of 442 healthy pregnant women with singleton pregnancies. There were 328 adequate-for-gestational age (AGA) neonates and 114 SGA infants delivered between 37+0 and 41+6 weeks of gestation. We compared the biparietal diameters (BPD), head circumferences (HC), abdominal circumferences (AC), femur lengths (FL), and estimated fetal weights (EFW) obtained on each ultrasound to determine which (...) Prediction of small-for-gestational age by fetal growth rate according to gestational age. Small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants should be identified before birth because of an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of fetal growth rate by gestational age on the prediction of SGA and to identify the optimal time to initiate intensive fetal monitoring to detect SGA in low-risk women. We also sought to determine which

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2019 PLoS ONE

53. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging of fetal brain fissures in the growth restricted fetus. (PubMed)

to controls, the trajectory of the right Sylvian fissure depth was significantly decreased (ß = -4.30, 95%CI = -8.03;-0.56, p = 0.024) while its growth rate was slightly increased (ß = 0.02, 95%CI = 0.00;0.04, p = 0.04), after adjustment for GA, head circumference, gender, educational level and parity.The small differences in brain fissure measurements between 22 and 32 weeks GA in FGR warrant further investigation in larger cohorts with postnatal follow-up. (...) Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging of fetal brain fissures in the growth restricted fetus. To examine differences in growth trajectories of fetal brain fissures in the growth restricted fetus (FGR) compared to controls.We selected a subgroup of 227 women with a singleton pregnancy from the Rotterdam Periconceptional Cohort. Participants received three-dimensional ultrasound (3D-US) examinations of the fetal brain at 22, 26 and 32 weeks of gestational age (GA). The left and right Sylvian

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2019 PLoS ONE

54. Ultrasound (in)accuracy: it's in the formulae not in the technique – assessment of accuracy of abdominal circumference measurement in term pregnancies (PubMed)

of fetal weight. Methods: A prospective observational study was performed at a tertiary referral centre. Women who were having their confinement of a term, singleton gestation either by induction of labour or elective caesarean section from 2009-2011 were approached to participate. An ultrasound was performed within 24 hours of delivery measuring the biometric parameters of AC, head circumference (HC), biparietal diameter and femur length. Following delivery the AC, HC and birthweight were measured (...) Ultrasound (in)accuracy: it's in the formulae not in the technique – assessment of accuracy of abdominal circumference measurement in term pregnancies Introduction: Fetal abdominal circumference (AC) is utilised in calculations for the estimation of fetal weight (EFW) and has been proposed as a method of monitoring diabetic pregnancies. We evaluated true ultrasound accuracy by comparing fetal AC biometry with neonatal anthropometry and compared this with standard ultrasound estimations

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2015 Australasian journal of ultrasound in medicine

55. Reduced fetal growth velocities and the association with neonatal outcomes in appropriate-for-gestational-age neonates: a retrospective cohort study. (PubMed)

), biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC) and femur length (FL) were compared between the suboptimal AGA (sAGA) (birth weight centiles 10-50) and optimal AGA (oAGA) (birth weight centiles 50-80) group. We assessed the association between velocities and neonatal outcomes.We included 934 singleton pregnancies. In the suboptimal AGA group, fetal growth velocities were lower (in mm/week): AC 10.72 ± 1.00 vs 11.23 ± 1.00 (p < .001), HC 10.50 ± 0.80 vs 10.68 ± 0.77 (p = 0.001), BPD 3.01 ± 0.28 vs 3.08 (...) restriction of growth potential. We hypothesized that within AGA neonates, reduced fetal growth velocities are associated with adverse neonatal outcome.A retrospective cohort study of singleton pregnancies, in the Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC) between 2010 and 2016. Women had two fetal biometry scans (18-22 weeks and 30-34 weeks of gestational age) and delivered a newborn with a birth weight between the 10th-80th percentile. Differences in growth velocities of the abdominal circumference (AC

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2019 BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

56. Does fetoscopic or open repair for spina bifida affect fetal and postnatal growth? (PubMed)

did not show any significant differences in any fetal growth parameter between the groups over time. There were no significant correlations between duration of surgery or duration of CO2 exposure and any of the biometric percentiles evaluated. Postnatal growth showed no significant differences between the groups in weight, height or head circumference percentiles, at 6-18, 18-30 or > 30 months of age.Babies exposed to fetoscopic or open MMC repair in-utero did not show significant differences (...) ultrasound after fetoscopic (n = 32) or open hysterotomy (n = 34) MMC repair in utero at a single institution between November 2011 and July 2017. Measurements obtained during growth scans on initial evaluation prior to surgery, and those taken at 6 weeks post-surgery, were transformed into percentiles and compared between groups. Additional neonatal and infant anthropometric measurements, including weight, length/height and head circumference, were also transformed into percentiles and compared between

2019 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

57. Fetal Heart Defects and Measures of Cerebral Size. (PubMed)

calculated for first trimester biparietal diameter, second trimester head circumference, fetal weight, birthweight, head circumference, and placental weight.We obtained data from 63 349 pregnancies and identified 295 fetuses with isolated CHDs (major n = 145; minor n = 150). The first trimester mean biparietal diameter Z-scores were not different between those with and those without CHDs. The head circumference mean Z-score difference was -0.13 (95% CI, -0.24 to -0.01; P = .03) in the second trimester (...) Fetal Heart Defects and Measures of Cerebral Size. To estimate the association between fetal congenital heart defects (CHDs) and measures of brain size throughout pregnancy, from the end of the first trimester to birth.The cohort consisted of all fetuses scanned in Western Denmark in 2012 and 2013. Anthropometric measures in fetuses with isolated CHDs diagnosed within 12 months after birth were compared with those in the fetuses without CHDs. Z-scores standardized to gestational age were

2019 Journal of Pediatrics

58. An abnormal cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) is predictive of early childhood delayed neurodevelopment in the setting of fetal growth restriction. (PubMed)

adjustment and p-value of 0.00625 significant.Assessments were performed on 198 SGA children; 136 FGR children with abnormal UA Doppler and normal CPR and 41 FGR children with both abnormal UA Doppler and CPR. At three years of age, while there were no differences in head circumference, children who also had an abnormal CPR had persistently shorter stature (p=0.005) and lower weight (p=0.18). Children from FGR affected pregnancies demonstrated poorer neurodevelopmental outcome than their SGA counterparts (...) An abnormal cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) is predictive of early childhood delayed neurodevelopment in the setting of fetal growth restriction. Fetal growth restriction (FGR) accounts for a significant proportion of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) is gaining much interest as a useful tool in differentiating the "at-risk" fetus in both FGR and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) pregnancies. The Prospective Observational Trial to Optimize Pediatric Health

2019 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

59. High maternal early-pregnancy blood glucose levels are associated with altered fetal growth and increased risk of adverse birth outcomes. (PubMed)

≤0.05 for all). A weaker association of maternal early-pregnancy non-fasting glucose levels with fetal head circumference growth rates was present. Higher maternal early-pregnancy non-fasting glucose levels were also associated with an increased risk of delivering a large-for-gestational-age infant, but decreased risk of delivering a small-for-gestational-age infant (OR 1.28 [95% CI 1.16, 1.41], OR 0.88 [95% CI 0.79, 0.98] per mmol/l increase in maternal early-pregnancy non-fasting glucose levels (...) High maternal early-pregnancy blood glucose levels are associated with altered fetal growth and increased risk of adverse birth outcomes. The study aimed to assess the associations of maternal early-pregnancy blood glucose levels with fetal growth throughout pregnancy and the risks of adverse birth outcomes.In a population-based prospective cohort study among 6116 pregnant women, maternal non-fasting glucose levels were measured in blood plasma at a median 13.2 weeks of gestation (95% range 9.6

2019 Diabetologia

60. Associations between estimated foetal weight discordance and clinical characteristics within dichorionic twins: The NICHD Fetal Growth Studies. (PubMed)

Associations between estimated foetal weight discordance and clinical characteristics within dichorionic twins: The NICHD Fetal Growth Studies. Birthweight discordance is well studied, with less known about longitudinal inter-twin differences in foetal growth.To examine inter-twin per cent differences in EFW (EFW% ), head (HC% ) and abdominal circumference (AC% ), and femur length (FL% ) across gestation in dichorionic twin gestations and explore associated characteristics.Foetal biometrics (...) were assessed by ultrasound and EFW calculated at ≤6 study visits among women with dichorionic twin pregnancies enrolled in the NICHD Fetal Growth Studies cohort (US, 2012-2013). Inter-twin per cent difference was defined: ([Sizelarger twin  - Sizesmaller twin ]/Sizelarger twin  × 100). Linear mixed models evaluated per cent differences in foetal biometrics at 15 weeks and their change per week overall and by maternal/neonatal characteristics in unadjusted and adjusted models.In 140 pregnancies

2019 Paediatric and perinatal epidemiology

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