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Fetal Head Circumference

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41. Fetal Growth Velocity: the NICHD Fetal Growth Studies. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Ultrasound biometric measurements included biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length, and estimated fetal weight was calculated. We used linear mixed models with cubic splines for the fixed effects and random effects to flexibly model ultrasound trajectories. We computed velocity percentiles in 2 ways: (1) difference between 2 consecutive weekly measurements (ie, weekly velocity), and (2) difference between any 2 ultrasounds at a clinically reasonable difference (...) by whether or not estimated fetal weight and estimated fetal weight velocity were <5th or ≥5th percentiles using χ2.Fetal growth velocity was nonmonotonic, with acceleration early in pregnancy, peaking at 13, 14, 15, and 16 weeks for biparietal diameter, head circumference, femur length, and abdominal circumference, respectively. Biparietal diameter, head circumference, and abdominal circumference had a second acceleration at 19-22, 19-21, and 27-31 weeks, respectively. Estimated fetal weight velocity

2018 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

42. Fetal Medicine Foundation fetal and neonatal population weight charts. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, should comprise all babies at a given gestational age, including those still in utero.Two sources of data were used for this study. For both, the inclusion criteria were singleton pregnancy, dating by fetal crown-rump length at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks' gestation, availability of ultrasonographic measurements of fetal head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) and live birth of phenotypically normal neonate. Dataset 1 comprised a sample of 5163 paired measurements (...) Fetal Medicine Foundation fetal and neonatal population weight charts. To develop fetal and neonatal population weight charts. The rationale was that, while reference ranges of estimated fetal weight (EFW) are representative of the whole population, the traditional approach of deriving birth-weight (BW) charts is misleading, because a large proportion of babies born preterm arise from pathological pregnancy. We propose that the reference population for BW charts, as in the case of EFW charts

2018 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

43. Optimal non-invasive diagnosis of fetal achondroplasia combining ultrasonography and circulating cell-free fetal DNA analysis. Full Text available with Trip Pro

(head circumference and femur length) was analyzed in order to develop a strategy in which cffDNA analysis for diagnosis of achondroplasia is offered only in selected cases.Eighty-six blood samples from women at risk for fetal achondroplasia and 65 from controls were collected. The overall sensitivity and specificity of NIPT were 1.00 (95% CI, 0.87-1.00) and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.96-1.00), respectively. Critical reduction in femur length of affected fetuses could be observed from 26 weeks' gestation.HRM (...) Optimal non-invasive diagnosis of fetal achondroplasia combining ultrasonography and circulating cell-free fetal DNA analysis. To assess the performance of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for achondroplasia using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis, and to propose an optimal diagnostic strategy combining ultrasound examination and cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) analysis.In this prospective multicenter study, cffDNA was extracted from blood of pregnant women at risk for fetal

2018 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

44. An abnormal cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) is predictive of early childhood delayed neurodevelopment in the setting of fetal growth restriction (Abstract)

, and a probability value of .00625 was considered significant.Assessments were performed on 198 small-for-gestational-age children, 136 fetal growth-restricted children with abnormal umbilical artery Doppler images and normal cerebroplacental ratio, and 41 fetal growth-restricted children with both abnormal umbilical artery Doppler and cerebroplacental ratio. At 3 years of age, although there were no differences in head circumference, children who also had an abnormal cerebroplacental ratio had persistently (...) An abnormal cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) is predictive of early childhood delayed neurodevelopment in the setting of fetal growth restriction Fetal growth restriction accounts for a significant proportion of perinatal morbidity and death. The cerebroplacental ratio is gaining much interest as a useful tool in differentiating the "at-risk" fetus in both fetal growth restriction and appropriate-for-gestational-age pregnancies. The Prospective Observational Trial to Optimize Pediatric Health

2019 EvidenceUpdates

45. Scientific basis for the standardisation of fetal head measurements by ultrasound: a reproducibility study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Scientific basis for the standardisation of fetal head measurements by ultrasound: a reproducibility study. To compare the standard methods for ultrasound measurement of fetal head circumference (HC) and biparietal diameter (BPD) (outer-to-outer (BPDoo) vs outer-to-inner (BPDoi) caliper placement), and compare acquisition of these measurements in transthalamic (TT) vs transventricular (TV) planes.This study utilized ultrasound images acquired from women participating in the Oxford arm (...) fetal head measurements obtained in TV and TT planes. Neither plane for measuring fetal head showed consistently better reproducibility. Measurement of HC using the ellipse facility was as reproducible as HC calculated from BPD and OFD. OFD by itself was the least reproducible of all fetal head measurements.Measurements of BPDoi and BPDoo are equally reproducible; however, we believe BPDoo should be used in clinical practice as it allows fetal HC to be measured and compared with neonatal HC. For all

2016 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

46. Prediction of small-for-gestational age by fetal growth rate according to gestational age. Full Text available with Trip Pro

the ultrasonographic parameters that contribute substantially to the birthweight determination.This was a retrospective study of 442 healthy pregnant women with singleton pregnancies. There were 328 adequate-for-gestational age (AGA) neonates and 114 SGA infants delivered between 37+0 and 41+6 weeks of gestation. We compared the biparietal diameters (BPD), head circumferences (HC), abdominal circumferences (AC), femur lengths (FL), and estimated fetal weights (EFW) obtained on each ultrasound to determine which (...) Prediction of small-for-gestational age by fetal growth rate according to gestational age. Small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants should be identified before birth because of an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of fetal growth rate by gestational age on the prediction of SGA and to identify the optimal time to initiate intensive fetal monitoring to detect SGA in low-risk women. We also sought to determine which

2019 PLoS ONE

47. Maternal MUAC and fetal outcome in an Indian tertiary care hospital: A prospective observational study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Maternal MUAC and fetal outcome in an Indian tertiary care hospital: A prospective observational study. Studies to date demonstrated the relatedness of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) measurement of pregnant women to their anthropometry/weight. Hence, the objective was to determine whether maternal MUAC at different gestational age predicted birthweight, and if so, to identify which cut-offs provided the best prediction of low birthweight (LBW) in pregnant women cohort. A total of 928 (...) , and head circumference of the neonates. The cut-off limit with the best sensitivity-specificity (54.0 and 59.8, respectively) for MUAC was 23 cm, whereas maternal weight of 55 kg had sensitivity and specificity of 62.5 and 59.9 for predicting LBW. Maternal weight of 55 kg and MUAC value of 23 cm had almost similar sensitivity and specificity for predicting LBW. MUAC (≤23 cm) can be considered as a potential indicator of LBW where weighing of pregnant women is not feasible or when presentation

2020 Maternal & child nutrition

48. A maternal "mixed, high sugar" dietary pattern is associated with fetal growth. Full Text available with Trip Pro

pattern score, baseline BMI (kg/m2 ), and GWG (kg/week) and the following fetal growth outcomes: (a) biparietal diameter (cm), (b) head circumference (cm), (c) abdominal circumference (cm), and (d) femur length (cm). In the pooled LMM, a +1 standard deviation (SD) increase in the mixed, high sugar dietary pattern score was associated with higher biparietal diameter (0.03 cm/+1 SD; p = .007), head circumference (0.07 cm/+1 SD; p = .026), abdominal circumference (0.08 cm/+1 SD; p = .038), and femur (...) A maternal "mixed, high sugar" dietary pattern is associated with fetal growth. This study examined associations between a maternal "mixed, high sugar" dietary pattern during pregnancy and ultrasound-determined fetal growth in 495 urban African women and explored whether these associations were independent of maternal baseline body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). Linear mixed effects modelling (LMM) was used to test the associations between maternal mixed, high sugar dietary

2020 Maternal & child nutrition

49. Cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulins are increased in neonates exposed to Zika virus during foetal life. (Abstract)

as head circumference ≤31.9 cm (boys) and ≤31.5 cm (girls) for term neonates, or ≤2 standard deviations below the mean for premature (<37 weeks) neonates. Subsequently, we identified neonates who underwent LP in the same lab and fulfilled criteria to be controls: age ≤4 days, CSF white blood cell count ≤8/mm3, CSF protein ≤132 mg/dL, CSF red blood cell count ≤1,000/mm3, neither central nervous system illness, nor congenital infection, nor microcephaly. CSF immunoglobulin concentrations were measured (...) Cerebrospinal fluid immunoglobulins are increased in neonates exposed to Zika virus during foetal life. To compare immunoglobulin levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of neonates exposed to Zika virus (ZIKV) during foetal life (cases) with levels in CSF of control neonates.We identified 16 neonates who underwent lumbar puncture (LP), during the ZIKV epidemic (December/2015 to March/2016) whose mothers reported ZIKV clinical symptoms during gestation (cases). Congenital microcephaly was defined

2020 Journal of Infection

50. Ultrasound (in)accuracy: it's in the formulae not in the technique – assessment of accuracy of abdominal circumference measurement in term pregnancies Full Text available with Trip Pro

of fetal weight. Methods: A prospective observational study was performed at a tertiary referral centre. Women who were having their confinement of a term, singleton gestation either by induction of labour or elective caesarean section from 2009-2011 were approached to participate. An ultrasound was performed within 24 hours of delivery measuring the biometric parameters of AC, head circumference (HC), biparietal diameter and femur length. Following delivery the AC, HC and birthweight were measured (...) Ultrasound (in)accuracy: it's in the formulae not in the technique – assessment of accuracy of abdominal circumference measurement in term pregnancies Introduction: Fetal abdominal circumference (AC) is utilised in calculations for the estimation of fetal weight (EFW) and has been proposed as a method of monitoring diabetic pregnancies. We evaluated true ultrasound accuracy by comparing fetal AC biometry with neonatal anthropometry and compared this with standard ultrasound estimations

2015 Australasian journal of ultrasound in medicine

51. The World Health Organization Fetal Growth Charts: A Multinational Longitudinal Study of Ultrasound Biometric Measurements and Estimated Fetal Weight. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, even after adjusting for gestational age. Thirty-one women had a miscarriage, and three fetuses had intrauterine death. The 8,203 sets of ultrasound measurements were scrutinized for outliers and leverage points, and those measurements taken at 14 to 40 wk were selected for analysis. A total of 7,924 sets of ultrasound measurements were analyzed by quantile regression to establish longitudinal reference intervals for fetal head circumference, biparietal diameter, humerus length, abdominal (...) circumference, femur length and its ratio with head circumference and with biparietal diameter, and EFW. There was asymmetric distribution of growth of EFW: a slightly wider distribution among the lower percentiles during early weeks shifted to a notably expanded distribution of the higher percentiles in late pregnancy. Male fetuses were larger than female fetuses as measured by EFW, but the disparity was smaller in the lower quantiles of the distribution (3.5%) and larger in the upper quantiles (4.5

2017 PLoS medicine

52. Association of Maternal Obesity With Longitudinal Ultrasonographic Measures of Fetal Growth: Findings From the NICHD Fetal Growth Studies-Singletons. Full Text available with Trip Pro

-dimensional ultrasonograms to capture weekly fetal growth data throughout the remainder of their pregnancies.On each ultrasonogram, fetal humerus length, femur length, biparietal diameter, head circumference, and abdominal circumference were measured. Fetal growth curves were estimated using linear mixed models with cubic splines. Median differences in the fetal measures at each gestational week of the obese and nonobese participants were examined using the likelihood ratio and Wald tests after adjustment (...) 70.2 mm; P = .01; median humerus length, 62.2 vs 61.6 mm; P = .03). Averaged across gestation, head circumference was significantly larger in fetuses of obese women than those of nonobese women (P = .02). Fetal abdominal circumference was not greater in the obese cohort than in the nonobese cohort but was significantly larger than in fetuses of normal-weight women (with body mass indexes between 19.0-24.9) commencing at 32 weeks (median, 282.1 vs 280.2 mm; P = .04). Starting from 30 weeks

2017 JAMA pediatrics

53. Fetal growth standards: the NICHD fetal growth study approach in context with INTERGROWTH-21st and the World Health Organization Multicentre Growth Reference Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

for the best physiological growth for children aged 0-5 years. INTERGROWTH made the same assumption (ie, that there would be no differences internationally among countries or racial/ethnic groups in fetal growth when conditions were optimal). INTERGROWTH found differences in crown-rump length and head circumference among countries but interpreted the differences as not meaningful and presented a pooled standard. The World Health Organization Multicentre Growth Reference Study was designed to create (...) a pooled reference, although they evaluated for and presented country differences, along with discussion of the implications. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study was designed to assess whether racial/ethnic-specific fetal growth standards were needed, in recognition of the fact that fetal size is commonly estimated from dimensions (head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length) in which there are known differences in children

2017 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

54. The Effect of Fetal Hemodynamics on Fetal Growth in Single Ventricle and Transposition of The Great Arteries. Full Text available with Trip Pro

in fetuses with HLHS and in those with SV. MCA-PI was lower in fetuses with HLHS compared with in those with non-HLHS-SV throughout gestation, suggesting different cerebral blood distribution. At the end of gestation, rate of fetal weight gain slowed in those with HLHS and in those with SV (similar to CCO curves), and head circumference growth rate slowed in all groups but controls. CCO, indexed CCO and MCA- and UA-PI did not correlate with any of the birth measurements or with weight gain late (...)  weeks and birth weight were compared. Regression analysis was used to determine the associations of CCO, indexed CCO and MCA- and UA-PI at 30 weeks with birth weight, length and head circumference Z-scores, in addition to weight gain late in gestation. The gestational age of 30 weeks was chosen based on previous studies that found evidence of poor weight gain in fetuses with CHD in late gestation, starting at around that time.CCO increased with gestation in all four groups but the rate was slower

2017 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

55. A revisit of the fetal foot length and fetal measurements in early pregnancy sonography Full Text available with Trip Pro

A revisit of the fetal foot length and fetal measurements in early pregnancy sonography To present the fetal measurements in relation to the foot length at 10-16 weeks gestation on antenatal ultrasound.We reviewed the fetal measurements in 47 scans performed at 10-16 weeks gestation in women attending routine antenatal care. The fetal measurements and measurement ratios were examined in relation to the foot length.The fetal biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, femur (...) length and foot length increase linearly with the gestational age at 10-16 weeks gestation. The correlation between fetal foot length and fetal biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference and femur length are better than with the crown rump length. The femur length to foot length ratio and the femur length to abdominal circumference ratios increase with the gestational age in an inverse relationship throughout the same period.Fetal foot length is an accurate estimate

2017 International journal of women's health

56. Significance of Foetal Transcerebellar Diameter in Foetal Biometry: A Pilot Study Full Text available with Trip Pro

Significance of Foetal Transcerebellar Diameter in Foetal Biometry: A Pilot Study The most important parameter needed for appropriate management of pregnant women is accurate Gestational Age (GA). Routine sonographic estimation of GA by using Biparietal Diameter (BPD), Femur Length (FL), Abdominal Circumference (AC) and Head Circumference (HC) assumed important role in management of pregnancy. However, these parameters have limitations. BPD and HC are not reliable in case of moulding of foetal (...) head in third trimester. Similarly, femur length is shortened in cases of achondroplasia. Transcerebellar Diameter (TCD) was developed as an alternative parameter of foetal brain growth and for estimation of GA.To evaluate accuracy of predicting GA using Foetal Transcerebellar Diameter (TCD) and to compare between TCD and other existing parameters in evaluating GA in 15 to 40 weeks of gestation.A prospective study was carried out in 100 pregnant women between 15 to 40 weeks of gestation, who came

2017 Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR

57. Fetal 3D Study (Fetal Body Composition and Volumes Study)

additional image and 3D volume acquisition for later analysis. Ultrasound measurements at each follow-up visit included standard fetal biometrics ((BPD, HC, AC, FL) and the following volumes in the singleton study if they were able to be obtained: 1st trimester: fetus and gestational sac; 2nd and 3rd trimesters: head, cerebellum, face, chest, heart, abdomen, pelvis, arm and thigh. In twins, the volumes collected were 1st trimester: fetus and gestational sac and in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters the thigh (...) Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : Standards for fetal body composition and organ volumes by maternal race/ethnicity [ Time Frame: 3 years ] Growth trajectories in singletons and dichorionic twin pregnancies will be created using two- and selected three-dimensional ultrasound measures. Measures in singletons include fetal body composition from 2D abdominal circumference, arm and thigh volumes; cerebellum; adrenal glands; kidneys; liver; pancreas; lungs; first trimester gestational sac

2017 Clinical Trials

58. Maternal plasma n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids during pregnancy and features of fetal health: Fetal growth velocity, birth weight and duration of pregnancy. (Abstract)

from a population-based birth cohort, the Generation R Study. Maternal plasma n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio and n-3 and n-6 PUFA percentage in glycerophospholipids in mid-pregnancy were related to fetal growth velocity calculated from repeatedly measured weight, length and head circumference, birth weight, and duration of pregnancy.A higher maternal mid-pregnancy n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio was associated with a higher growth velocity of the fetal weight (β = 0.082 SD-score/week, 95% CI 0.055; 0.108, P < 0.001 (...) ), length (β = 0.085 SD-score/week, 95% CI 0.052; 0.119, P < 0.001); and head (β = 0.055 SD-score/week, 95% CI 0.019; 0.091, P = 0.003). We also observed positive associations between n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio and birth weight (β = 0.76 SD-score, 95% CI 0.22; 1.29, P = 0.006), and duration of pregnancy (β = 1.32 weeks, 95% CI 0.24; 2.40, P = 0.02).These results are consistent with the hypothesis that a higher n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio is important for fetal health.Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

2017 Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland)

59. The lung to thorax transverse area ratio has a linear correlation with the observed to expected lung area to head circumference ratio in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernias. (Abstract)

The lung to thorax transverse area ratio has a linear correlation with the observed to expected lung area to head circumference ratio in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernias. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between the lung to thorax transverse area ratio (L/T ratio) and the observed to expected lung area to head circumference ratio (O/E LHR), based on the results of a nationwide Japanese survey conducted in 2011, and to evaluate the compatibility (...) of these prognostic predictors of fetal CDH.Two hundred and forty-two prenatally diagnosed isolated CDH patients born between 2006 and 2010 were included in the present analysis. A regression analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between the L/T ratio and the O/E LHR based on 191 simultaneous measurements of these parameters in 120 patients.The linear regression equation between the L/T ratio and the O/E LHR was: L/T ratio=0.0233+(0.00222×O/E LHR), (R=0.847, p<0.0001). According to this equation

2014 Journal of Pediatric Surgery

60. Maternal Urinary Iodine Concentration up to 1.0 mg/L Is Positively Associated with Birth Weight, Length, and Head Circumference of Male Offspring. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Maternal Urinary Iodine Concentration up to 1.0 mg/L Is Positively Associated with Birth Weight, Length, and Head Circumference of Male Offspring. Adequate iodine status in early life is crucial for neurodevelopment. However, little is known about the effects of maternal iodine status during pregnancy on fetal growth. The present study investigated the potential impact of maternal iodine status during pregnancy on offspring birth size. This large prospective cohort study was nested (...) in a Bangladeshi population-based randomized supplementation trial in pregnant women [MINIMat (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab)]. Urine samples obtained at 8 wk of gestation from 1617 women were analyzed for iodine and other elements, such as arsenic and cadmium, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Anthropometric measurements at birth included weight, length, and head and chest circumference. Maternal urinary iodine concentrations (UICs) ranged from 0.020 to 10 mg/L

2014 The Journal of nutrition Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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