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Fetal Head Circumference

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21. Pre-conception and prenatal alcohol exposure from mothers and fathers drinking and head circumference: results from the Norwegian Mother-Child Study (MoBa) (PubMed)

Pre-conception and prenatal alcohol exposure from mothers and fathers drinking and head circumference: results from the Norwegian Mother-Child Study (MoBa) Although microcephaly is a feature of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, it is currently unknown whether low-to-moderate prenatal alcohol exposure affects head circumference. Small magnitude associations reported in observational studies are likely to be misleading due to confounding and misclassification biases. Alternative analytical approaches (...) such as the use of family negative controls (e.g. comparing the effects of maternal and paternal exposure) could help disentangle causal effects. We investigated the association of maternal and paternal alcohol drinking before and early in pregnancy with infant head circumference, using data from 68,244 mother-father-offspring trios from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) (1999-2009). In analyses adjusted for potential confounders, we found no consistent pattern of association between maternal

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2016 Scientific reports

22. Automatic image quality assessment and measurement of fetal head in two-dimensional ultrasound image (PubMed)

bank designed specific for US fetal head structure. Both shape- and anatomic-based features calculated from the segmented head region are then fed into a random forest classifier to determine the quality of the image (e.g., whether the image is acquired from a correct imaging plane), from which fetal head measurements [biparietal diameter (BPD), occipital-frontal diameter (OFD), and head circumference (HC)] are derived. The experimental results show a good performance of our method for US quality (...) Automatic image quality assessment and measurement of fetal head in two-dimensional ultrasound image Owing to the inconsistent image quality existing in routine obstetric ultrasound (US) scans that leads to a large intraobserver and interobserver variability, the aim of this study is to develop a quality-assured, fully automated US fetal head measurement system. A texton-based fetal head segmentation is used as a prerequisite step to obtain the head region. Textons are calculated using a filter

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2017 Journal of Medical Imaging

23. Fetal head circumference, operative delivery, and fetal outcomes: a multi-ethnic population-based cohort study. (PubMed)

Fetal head circumference, operative delivery, and fetal outcomes: a multi-ethnic population-based cohort study. Operative delivery procedures, such as primary cesarean section, vacuum-assisted, and forceps-assisted vaginal delivery increase maternal and fetal morbidity, and the cost of care. We evaluated whether large fetal head circumference (FHC) independently increases risk of such interventions, as well as fetal distress or low Apgar score, in anatomically normal infants.We conducted (...) a population-based retrospective cohort study using Washington State birth certificate data. We included singleton, term infants born to nulliparous mothers from 2003-2009. We compared mode of delivery and fetal outcomes in 10,750 large-FHC (37-41 cm) infants relative to 10,750 average-FHC (34 cm) infants, frequency matched by birth-year.Large-FHC infants were nearly twice as likely to be delivered by primary cesarean section as average-FHC infants (unadjusted relative risk [RR] 1.84, 95% confidence

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2013 BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

24. International standards for newborn weight, length, and head circumference by gestational age and sex: the Newborn Cross-Sectional Study of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project. (PubMed)

) is a population-based project that assessed fetal growth and newborn size in eight geographically defined urban populations. These groups were selected because most of the health and nutrition needs of mothers were met, adequate antenatal care was provided, and there were no major environmental constraints on growth. As part of the Newborn Cross-Sectional Study (NCSS), a component of INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project, we measured weight, length, and head circumference in all newborn infants, in addition (...) International standards for newborn weight, length, and head circumference by gestational age and sex: the Newborn Cross-Sectional Study of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project. In 2006, WHO published international growth standards for children younger than 5 years, which are now accepted worldwide. In the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project, our aim was to complement them by developing international standards for fetuses, newborn infants, and the postnatal growth period of preterm infants.INTERGROWTH-21(st

2014 Lancet

25. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

defects. FAS is characterised by antenatal and postnatal growth retardation, specific facial dysmorphology, and structural and/or functional abnormalities of the central nervous system. This monograph primarily addresses FASDs in children. History and exam presence of risk factors gestation <37 weeks low height, weight, head circumference characteristic facial dysmorphology presence of birth defects developmental delay and behavioural problems mental health problems sibling with similar symptoms (...) hearing or vision impairment poor feeding irritability maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy current maternal alcohol intake higher parity/gravidity higher birth order of child maternal ADH1B*1/ADH1B*3 or ADH1B*1/ADH1B*1 genotype longer history of maternal alcohol consumption increasing maternal age decreased maternal weight, height, and head circumference maternal tobacco use during pregnancy low maternal socioeconomic status maternal FHx of alcohol consumption maternal indigenous ethnicity

2018 BMJ Best Practice

26. Mild fetal ventriculomegaly: diagnosis, evaluation, and management

ultrasound in the third trimester to assess head circumference and rule out sig- ni?cant progression is reasonable. Women should receive counseling from a health care provider, such as an obstetrician, radiologist, maternal- fetal medicine specialist, genetic counselor, or a pediatric neurologist or neurosurgeon with speci?cexpertise in the prenatal diagnosis and prognosis of fetal ven- triculomegaly. Women shouldbeinformedthattheprog- nosis varies widely based on the exact ?ndings of the complete (...) Criteriaforappropriatemeasurementoflateral cerebralventricle 1. Head is inaxial plane 2. Image is magni?ed appropriately, so that fetal head ?lls majority of image 3. Focal zone is at appropriate level 4. Cerebral ventricles are symmetric in appearance 5. Midline falx is imaged 6. Atrium and occipital horn of lateral ventricle are clearly imaged 7. Atrium of lateral ventricle is measured at level of parietooccipital groove 8. Calipers are placed on medial and lateral walls of atrium perpendicular to longaxis of ventricle smfm.org SMFM

2019 Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine

27. Scientific basis for the standardisation of fetal head measurements by ultrasound: a reproducibility study. (PubMed)

Scientific basis for the standardisation of fetal head measurements by ultrasound: a reproducibility study. To compare the standard methods for ultrasound measurement of fetal head circumference (HC) and biparietal diameter (BPD) (outer-to-outer (BPDoo) vs outer-to-inner (BPDoi) caliper placement), and compare acquisition of these measurements in transthalamic (TT) vs transventricular (TV) planes.This study utilized ultrasound images acquired from women participating in the Oxford arm (...) fetal head measurements obtained in TV and TT planes. Neither plane for measuring fetal head showed consistently better reproducibility. Measurement of HC using the ellipse facility was as reproducible as HC calculated from BPD and OFD. OFD by itself was the least reproducible of all fetal head measurements.Measurements of BPDoi and BPDoo are equally reproducible; however, we believe BPDoo should be used in clinical practice as it allows fetal HC to be measured and compared with neonatal HC. For all

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2016 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

28. Fetal Growth Patterns in Pregnancy-Associated Hypertensive Disorders: NICHD Fetal Growth Studies. (PubMed)

constituted the normotensive group. Growth curves for estimated fetal weight and individual biometric parameters including biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, femur and humerus length were calculated for each group using linear mixed models with cubic splines. Global and weekly pairwise comparisons were performed between women with a hypertensive disorder compared with normotensive women to analyze differences while adjusting for confounding variables. Delivery gestational (...) significantly smaller fetal abdominal circumference between 23 to 31 and 33 to 37 weeks' gestation (weekly pair-wise P values <.04). Scattered weekly growth differences were noted on other biometric parameters between these two groups. The consistent differences in estimated fetal weight and abdominal circumference were not observed between women with other hypertensive disorders and those who were normotensive. Women with severe preeclampsia delivered significantly earlier (mean gestational age 35.9 ± 3.2

2019 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

29. Evaluating the accuracy and precision of sonographic fetal weight estimation models in extremely early-onset fetal growth restriction. (PubMed)

% - 49.5%) and random error (median 11.6%; range 9.7% - 23.8%) varied widely across models. The best performing model was Hadlock head circumference-abdominal circumference-femur length (HC-AC-FL), regardless of gestational age, fetal size, fetal presentation or asymmetry, with an overall systematic error of 1.5% and random error of 9.7%. Despite this, it only calculated the estimated fetal weight within 10% of birthweight in 64.6% of cases. There was a weak negative relationship between mean (...) Evaluating the accuracy and precision of sonographic fetal weight estimation models in extremely early-onset fetal growth restriction. Birthweight is a critical predictor of survival in extremely early-onset fetal growth restriction (fetal growth restriction diagnosed pre-28 weeks' gestation, with abnormal umbilical/uterine artery Doppler waveforms), therefore accurate fetal weight estimation is a crucial component of antenatal management. Currently available sonographic fetal weight estimation

2019 Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica

30. Third Trimester Fetal Well-Being Studies: Criteria and Managing Results

if it was unfavourable. Fetal Biometry and Estimated Fetal Weight (EFW) ? Routinely measure: o Biparietal diameter (BPD) o Head circumference (HC) o Abdominal circumference (AC) o Femur length (FL) ? Take at least two measurements of each view and report the best or mean measurement. ? Outliers should trigger the need for a repeat measurement prior to reporting. ? Routinely report the Estimated Fetal Weight (EFW) using Hadlock’s 1 formula (for weight in grams) followed by the Alberta Health gender specific growth (...) , breech). ? If breech, describe the “type” of breech: Third Trimester Fetal Well-Being Studies: Criteria & Managing Results | June 2017 Clinical Practice Guideline Page 3 of 16 Recommendations Component Reporting/Recommendations o Frank o Complete o Incomplete o Footling Note: It is good practice to identify the type of breech at >37 weeks, or the head position if cephalic (flexed vs. military or extended). Once the patient goes into labour, the last known position is relevant, especially

2017 Toward Optimized Practice

31. The influence of fetal head circumference on labor outcome: a population-based register study. (PubMed)

The influence of fetal head circumference on labor outcome: a population-based register study. To investigate the association between postnatal head circumference and the occurrence of the three main indications for instrumental delivery, namely prolonged labor, signs of fetal distress and maternal distress. We also studied the association between postnatal fetal head circumference and the use of vacuum extraction and emergency cesarean section.Population-based register study.Nationwide study (...) in Sweden.A total of 265 456 singleton neonates born to nulliparous women at term between 1999 and 2008 in Sweden.Register study with data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register.Prolonged labor, signs of fetal distress, maternal distress, use of vacuum extraction and emergency cesarean section.The prevalence of each outcome increased gradually as the head circumference increased. Compared with women giving birth to a neonate with average size head circumference (35 cm), women giving birth to an infant

2012 Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica

32. Fetal Head Circumference

Fetal Head Circumference Fetal Head Circumference Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Fetal Head Circumference Fetal Head (...) Circumference Aka: Fetal Head Circumference II. Technique Same view as Biparietal Diameter Less shape dependent Use ellipse III. Equation = BPD + 3mm + OFD x 1.57 Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Fetal Head Circumference." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related Studies (from Trip Database) Related Topics in Radiology About FPnotebook.com is a rapid access, point

2015 FP Notebook

33. Antenatal Corticosteroid Therapy for Fetal Maturation

, Parilla BV, et al. Single vs weekly courses of antenatal corticosteroids for women at risk of preterm delivery: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2001;286:1581–7. [ ] [ ] Pratt L, Waschbusch L, Ladd W, Gangnon R, Hendricks SK. Multiple vs. single betamethasone therapy. Neonatal and maternal effects. J Reprod Med 1999;44:257–64. [ ] Shelton SD, Boggess KA, Murtha AP, Groff AO, Herbert WN. Repeated fetal betamethasone treatment and birth weight and head circumference. Obstet Gynecol 2001;97:301–4 (...) four courses of corticosteroids ( ). Although not consistent, six studies found decreased birth weight and head circumference with repeat courses ( 29–35) and three studies did not ( ). The NICHD 2000 Consensus Panel concluded that studies regarding the possible benefits and risks of repeat courses of antenatal corticosteroids are limited because of their study design and “methodologic inconsistencies.” The NICHD 2000 Consensus Panel noted that, although there is a suggestion of possible benefit

2017 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

34. A large head circumference is more strongly associated with unplanned cesarean or instrumental delivery and neonatal complications than a high birth weight. (PubMed)

A large head circumference is more strongly associated with unplanned cesarean or instrumental delivery and neonatal complications than a high birth weight. Fetal size impacts on perinatal outcomes. We queried whether the fetal head, as the fetal part interfacing with the birth canal, might impact on obstetric outcomes more than birthweight (BW). We examined associations between neonatal head circumference (HC) and delivery mode and risk of perinatal complications as compared to high BW.This (...) was an electronic medical records-based study of term singleton births (37-42 weeks' gestation) from January 2010 through December 2012 (N = 24,780, 6343 primiparae). We assessed risks of unplanned cesarean or instrumental delivery and maternal and fetal complications in cases with HC or BW ≥95th centile (large HC, high BW) vs those with parameters <95th centile (normal). Newborns were stratified into 4 subgroups: normal HC/normal BW (reference, n = 22,548, primiparae 5862); normal HC/high BW (n = 817, P = 213

2015 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

35. Biomarkers of nutrition and stress in pregnant women with a history of eating disorders in relation to head circumference and neurocognitive function of the offspring. (PubMed)

Biomarkers of nutrition and stress in pregnant women with a history of eating disorders in relation to head circumference and neurocognitive function of the offspring. Eating disorders during pregnancy can affect fetal growth and the child's early development, but the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate serum biomarkers of nutrition and stress in pregnant women with previous eating disorders compared to controls and in relation to head (...) -like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein 1) in blood samples collected during early pregnancy and compared between groups (ANOVA, LSD post-hoc test). The results were related to previous data on head circumference at birth and neurocognitive development at five years of age of the offspring (Spearman rank correlation or Pearson correlation test).Serum levels of ferritin in the women with previous anorexia nervosa, but not in those with a history of bulimia nervosa, were significantly

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2015 BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

36. Optimal non-invasive diagnosis of fetal achondroplasia combining ultrasonography and circulating cell-free fetal DNA analysis. (PubMed)

(head circumference and femur length) was analyzed in order to develop a strategy in which cffDNA analysis for diagnosis of achondroplasia is offered only in selected cases.Eighty-six blood samples from women at risk for fetal achondroplasia and 65 from controls were collected. The overall sensitivity and specificity of NIPT were 1.00 (95% CI, 0.87-1.00) and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.96-1.00), respectively. Critical reduction in femur length of affected fetuses could be observed from 26 weeks' gestation.HRM (...) Optimal non-invasive diagnosis of fetal achondroplasia combining ultrasonography and circulating cell-free fetal DNA analysis. To assess the performance of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for achondroplasia using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis, and to propose an optimal diagnostic strategy combining ultrasound examination and cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) analysis.In this prospective multicenter study, cffDNA was extracted from blood of pregnant women at risk for fetal

2018 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

37. Fetal Growth Velocity: the NICHD Fetal Growth Studies. (PubMed)

. Ultrasound biometric measurements included biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length, and estimated fetal weight was calculated. We used linear mixed models with cubic splines for the fixed effects and random effects to flexibly model ultrasound trajectories. We computed velocity percentiles in 2 ways: (1) difference between 2 consecutive weekly measurements (ie, weekly velocity), and (2) difference between any 2 ultrasounds at a clinically reasonable difference (...) by whether or not estimated fetal weight and estimated fetal weight velocity were <5th or ≥5th percentiles using χ2.Fetal growth velocity was nonmonotonic, with acceleration early in pregnancy, peaking at 13, 14, 15, and 16 weeks for biparietal diameter, head circumference, femur length, and abdominal circumference, respectively. Biparietal diameter, head circumference, and abdominal circumference had a second acceleration at 19-22, 19-21, and 27-31 weeks, respectively. Estimated fetal weight velocity

2018 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

38. Pomegranate Juice Supplementation Alters Utero-Placental Vascular Function and Fetal Growth in the eNOS−/− Mouse Model of Fetal Growth Restriction (PubMed)

respectively in both genotypes. Contrary to our hypothesis, the changes in artery function induced by PJ were not associated with an increase in fetal weight. However, PJ supplementation reduced litter size and fetal abdominal and head circumference in both genotypes. Collectively the data do not support maternal PJ supplementation as a safe or effective treatment for FGR. (...) Pomegranate Juice Supplementation Alters Utero-Placental Vascular Function and Fetal Growth in the eNOS−/− Mouse Model of Fetal Growth Restriction The eNOS-/- mouse provides a well-characterized model of fetal growth restriction (FGR) with altered uterine and umbilical artery function and reduced utero- and feto-placental blood flow. Pomegranate juice (PJ), which is rich in antioxidants and bioactive polyphenols, has been posited as a beneficial dietary supplement to promote cardiovascular

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2018 Frontiers in physiology

39. Fetal Medicine Foundation fetal and neonatal population weight charts. (PubMed)

, should comprise all babies at a given gestational age, including those still in utero.Two sources of data were used for this study. For both, the inclusion criteria were singleton pregnancy, dating by fetal crown-rump length at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks' gestation, availability of ultrasonographic measurements of fetal head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) and live birth of phenotypically normal neonate. Dataset 1 comprised a sample of 5163 paired measurements (...) Fetal Medicine Foundation fetal and neonatal population weight charts. To develop fetal and neonatal population weight charts. The rationale was that, while reference ranges of estimated fetal weight (EFW) are representative of the whole population, the traditional approach of deriving birth-weight (BW) charts is misleading, because a large proportion of babies born preterm arise from pathological pregnancy. We propose that the reference population for BW charts, as in the case of EFW charts

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2018 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

40. The lung to thorax transverse area ratio has a linear correlation with the observed to expected lung area to head circumference ratio in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernias. (PubMed)

The lung to thorax transverse area ratio has a linear correlation with the observed to expected lung area to head circumference ratio in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernias. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between the lung to thorax transverse area ratio (L/T ratio) and the observed to expected lung area to head circumference ratio (O/E LHR), based on the results of a nationwide Japanese survey conducted in 2011, and to evaluate the compatibility (...) of these prognostic predictors of fetal CDH.Two hundred and forty-two prenatally diagnosed isolated CDH patients born between 2006 and 2010 were included in the present analysis. A regression analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between the L/T ratio and the O/E LHR based on 191 simultaneous measurements of these parameters in 120 patients.The linear regression equation between the L/T ratio and the O/E LHR was: L/T ratio=0.0233+(0.00222×O/E LHR), (R=0.847, p<0.0001). According to this equation

2014 Journal of Pediatric Surgery

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