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Fetal Head Circumference

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281. Covid-19: Recommendations for GDM screening and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) during pregnancy and postpartum

• There is limited evidence or consensus regarding specific antepartum tests or their frequency 54 • Monitoring type and frequency is influenced by the presence of other pregnancy complications (e.g. antepartum haemorrhage, preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction) as well as severity of maternal hyperglycaemia 24 • Fetal abdominal circumference (AC) greater than or equal to 75% for gestational age, measured at 29 to 33 weeks gestation, correlates with an increased risk for birth of an LGA infant 55 Fetal growth (...) . there is no requirement to alter request for OGTT if this has already been recommended to the woman) SECTION OF GUIDELINE AFFECTED BY UPDATE • Flowchart: Screening and diagnosis of GDM (updated flow available) • Section 2.5 Testing for GDM (updated) • Section 6.3 Discharge planning (updated) UPDATED RECOMMENDATION All women (irrespective of COVID-19 status) • If clinical features of concern emerge during pregnancy (e.g. macrosomia, fetus accelerating through centiles, other concerns), then recommend usual screening

2020 Queensland Health

282. Neurosonography in Neonates and Infants

are expected to follow the parameter with recognition that deviations may occur depending on the clinical situation. Indications Indications for neurosonography in preterm or term neonates and infants include but are not limited to evaluations for the following entities: ? Abnormal increase in head circumference. ? Hemorrhage or parenchymal abnormalities in preterm and term infants. 1–7 ? Ventriculomegaly (hydrocephalus). 1–5 ? Vascular abnormalities. 2–5,8–10 doi:10.1002/jum.15264 © 2020 by the American (...) stroke. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2009; 14: 250–266. 13. van Wezel-Meijler G, De Bruine FT, Steggerda SJ, et al. Ultra- sound detection of white matter injury in very preterm neonates: practical implications. Dev Med Child Neurol 2011; 53(suppl 4): 29–34. 14. Epelman M, Daneman A, Kellenberger CJ, et al. Neonatal enceph- alopathy: a prospective comparison of head US and MRI. Pediatr Radiol 2010; 40:1640–1650. 15. Huang BY, Castillo M. Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury: imaging ?ndings from birth

2020 American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine

283. Mass deworming for soil?transmitted helminths and schistosomiasis among pregnant women: A systematic review and individual participant data meta?analysis Full Text available with Trip Pro

lumbricoides) Growth and development (birth weight, weights, height, head circumference, MUAC, intellectual function) Worm infection Anaemia Mortality Larocque 2006 Randomised Controlled Trial Health centres in the Iquitos region of Peru 1042 participants Single dose of mebendazole (500 mg) plus a daily iron supplement (60 mg elemental iron, ferrous sulphate) Single dose placebo plus a daily iron supplement (60 mg elemental iron, ferrous sulphate) Gestational age Mean infant birthweight (LBW and VLBW (...) . Infection during pregnancy leads to an added demand for nutrients that are critical for foetal growth and development (Abrams & Miller ; Blackwell, Snodgrass, Madimenos & Sugiyama, ). Hookworms, in particular, along with other STH and schistosomes have been associated with reductions in haemoglobin and iron deficiency during pregnancy (Larocque et al., ; Gyorkos, Gilbert, Larocque & Casapía, ; Muhangi et al., ; Nurdia, Sumarni, Suyoko, Hakim & Winkvist, ; Ndyomugyenyi, Kabatereine, Olsen & Magnussen, b

2019 Campbell Collaboration

284. Management of Stillbirth

accident should include vascular ectasia and thrombosis in the umbilical cord, chorionic plate, and stem villi. In addition to the previous findings, for a probable diagnosis, a regional distribution of avascular villi or villi showing stromal karyorrhexis is suggested . Examination of the Stillborn Fetus The general examination of the stillborn fetus should be done promptly, noting any dysmorphic features and obtaining measurements of weight, length, and head circumference . Foot length may (...) of a stillbirth, and strategies for prevention. Background Definition The U.S. National Center for Health Statistics defines fetal death as the delivery of a fetus showing no signs of life as indicated by the absence of breathing, heartbeats, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movements of voluntary muscles . There is not complete uniformity among states with regard to birth weight and gestational age criteria for reporting fetal deaths. However, the suggested requirement is to report fetal deaths

2020 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

285. Management of Hypertension (HTN) in Primary Care

27 of 135 Table 4. Appropriate Cuff Size Based on Patient’s Arm Circumference [23,24] Arm circumference (cm) Cuff size 22-26 Small adult 27-34 Adult 35-44 Large adult 45-52 Very large adult • If the patient is talking, laughing, sneezing or coughing during the BP measurement (activities that affect blood pressure), the reading should be discarded and the measurement repeated. • On the initial clinic visit, blood pressure should be measured in both arms. If there is a consistently large (>10-15 (...) that there are no outcome trials that have used out of office BPs as either entry criteria or as treatment goals, nor have there been randomized trials comparing outcomes when using office versus out of office BPs as treatment goals. Therefore, it is not clear if using out of office BPs to manage hypertension would improve patient outcomes. While we did not identify head-to-head comparison studies between home and ambulatory blood pressure, both approaches seem to improve the predictive value of office blood pressure

2020 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guidelines

286. Risk Factors for Endometrial Cancer - A review of the evidence

Australia Head of Department, Western Australian Gynaecological Cancer Service, WA A/Professor Anne Cust Epidemiologist, Head, Cancer Epidemiology & Prevention Research Group, Sydney School of Public Health, The University of Sydney, NSW A/Professor Louise Keogh Health Sociologist, Centre for Health Equity, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, VIC Dr Maarit Laaksonen Epidemiologist / Biostatistician, Senior Research Fellow, Cancer Epidemiology Research Unit, Centre (...) for Big Data Research in Health, University of New South Wales, NSW A/Professor Marie Pirotta Academic General Practitioner, Victorian Comprehensive Cancer Centre and Department of General Practice, University of Melbourne, VIC Ms Stephanie Perrott Consumer representative, NSW A/Professor Amanda Spurdle Molecular Epidemiologist, Group Leader, Molecular Cancer Epidemiology, QIMR Berghofer, QLD Professor Bernard Stewart Epidemiologist, Head, Cancer Control Program, South Eastern Sydney Public Health

2019 Cancer Australia

287. Bariatric surgery: an HTA report on the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness

, 8 Nevertheless, the above mentioned BMI categories do not apply for all ethnic groups, and BMI has limited diagnostic performance at the individual level (e.g. it does not take into account the type of obesity and underlying fat distribution). 9 Besides BMI, other measures or indicators can be useful in the evaluation of visceral obesity, such as measures and categories of waist circumference. In addition, phenotypic characteristics of the metabolic syndrome (= insulin resistance syndrome) like (...) the presence of (pre- )diabetes, hypertension, a low HDL-cholesterol, high triglycerides, and/or a high waist-circumference might indicate a higher associated risk, as is also the presence of non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis. Insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome are more prevalent in people with visceral adiposity. Obesity clearly does imply risks, may lead to physical and psychological symptoms, can cause functional limitation, the development of co- morbidities and complications, and cause psycho

2019 Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre

288. Management of Cardiovascular Diseases during Pregnancy Full Text available with Trip Pro

and offspring complications 3174 3.3.3 Pregnancy heart team 3176 3.4 Cardiovascular diagnosis in pregnancy 3176 3.4.1 Electrocardiography 3176 3.4.2 Echocardiography 3176 3.4.3 Exercise testing 3177 3.4.4 Ionizing radiation exposure 3177 3.4.5 Chest radiography and computed tomography 3177 3.4.6 Cardiac catheterization 3177 3.4.7 Magnetic resonance imaging 3177 3.5 Genetic testing and counselling 3177 3.5.1 Pre-natal diagnosis 3178 3.6 Foetal assessment 3178 3.6.1 Screening for congenital heart disease 3178 (...) 3.6.2 Assessing foetal wellbeing 3178 3.7 Interventions in the mother during pregnancy 3178 3.7.1 Percutaneous therapy 3178 3.7.2 Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass 3178 3.8 Timing and mode of delivery: risk for mother and child 3179 3.8.1 Timing of delivery 3179 3.8.2 Labour induction 3179 3.8.3 Vaginal or caesarean delivery 3179 3.8.4 Delivery in anticoagulated women (not including mechanical valve; see section 5) 3179 3.8.5 Urgent delivery on therapeutic anticoagulation 3179 3.8.6

2018 European Society of Cardiology

289. Antenatal Corticosteroid Therapy for Improving Neonatal Outcomes

of antenatal corticosteroid therapy are associated with a reduction in respiratory distress syndrome, mechanical ventilation, and use of surfactant (Moderate). 10. Birth weights and head circumferences are decreased in infants exposed to multiple courses compared with those exposed to a single course of antenatal corticosteroid therapy (High). 11. There is limited evidence on the long-term effects of repeated courses of antenatal corticosteroid therapy. Follow-up from a large trial indicated higher risks (...) and adrenal suppression. Intended Users Maternity care providers including midwives, family physicians, and obstetricians. Target Population Pregnant women. Evidence Medline, PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to September 2017. Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms and key words related to pregnancy, prematurity, corticosteroids, and perinatal and neonatal mortality and morbidity were used. Statements from professional organizations including that of the National

2018 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada

290. Prenatal Care

> 10 days 22 weeks 0 days – 27 weeks 6 days 2 > 14 days = 28 weeks 2, 3 > 21 days 1 Measurement method: crown-rump length. 2 Measurement method: biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, or femur length. 3 Because of the risk of redating a small fetus that may be growth restricted, management decisions based on third-trimester US alone are especially problematic and need to be guided by careful consideration of the entire clinical picture and close surveillance. Logistical (...) • Measurement of fundal height • Determination of fetal lie at 36 weeks and subsequent visits • Cervical examination by 42 weeks Depression screening, using the PHQ-9, should be repeated for all pregnant women at their first visit in their third trimester (about 32 weeks). Interventions If fetus is breech at 36 weeks, offer external cephalic version. Routine topics to discuss • Breastfeeding and formula supplementation during the first 6 months • Skin-to-skin contact and infant feeding cues • Rooming

2018 Kaiser Permanente Clinical Guidelines

291. ESC/ESH Management of Arterial Hypertension Full Text available with Trip Pro

= transient ischaemic attack; PAD = peripheral artery disease; SCORE = Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation. Table 6 Risk modifiers increasing cardiovascular risk estimated by the Systemic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) system Social deprivation, the origin of many causes of CVD Obesity (measured by BMI) and central obesity (measured by waist circumference) Physical inactivity Psychosocial stress, including vital exhaustion Family history of premature CVD (occurring at age <55 years in men and <60 years (...) in women) Autoimmune and other inflammatory disorders Major psychiatric disorders Treatment for infection with human immunodeficiency virus Atrial fibrillation LV hypertrophy CKD Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome Social deprivation, the origin of many causes of CVD Obesity (measured by BMI) and central obesity (measured by waist circumference) Physical inactivity Psychosocial stress, including vital exhaustion Family history of premature CVD (occurring at age <55 years in men and <60 years in women

2018 European Society of Cardiology

293. Care around stillbirth and neonatal death

regional differences exist. In New Zealand, perinatal death consists of fetal death (the death of a fetus of from 20 weeks gestation or weighing at least 400 grams if gestation is unknown 7 ) and early neonatal death (the death of a liveborn baby that occurs before the 7 th day of life 5 ). Perinatal related mortality is fetal and neonatal deaths (up to 28 days) at 20 weeks or beyond, or weighing at least 400g if gestation is unknown. Fetal death includes stillbirth and termination of pregnancy 8 (...) in the medical record by obstetric staff. A comprehensive neonatal history including death scene analysis is always required. 2 A detailed external examination of the baby must be performed by a perinatal pathologist, neonatologist or paediatrician where possible. (Please see Appendix D – Clinical examination of baby checklist). 3 Accurate anthropometric parameters of birth weight, length and head circumference plotted on appropriate gender specific birth growth charts. 4 A newborn screening blood sample

2019 Centre of Research Excellence in Stillbirth

294. Understanding the Health Effects of Recreational Cannabis Use: A Focused Practice Question

on the presence of an association between cannabis smoking and lung cancer. 4,5 Positive associations are inconclusive largely due to confounding by tobacco use. 5 Cannabis use may not be associated with head and neck cancers. There is moderate evidence that cannabis use is not associated with the incidence of head and neck cancers. 4 This is based on a meta-analysis that found no association between cannabis use and head and neck cancers when analyzed as a group, and adjusted for tobacco use, age, gender (...) and race (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.021, 95% CI: 0.912 to 1.143). 4 The available evidence did not examine associations between cannabis use and specific head and neck cancers on their own. 4 13 There is uncertainty on the association between cannabis use and other cancers, including cancers in offspring. There is limited evidence that current, frequent or chronic cannabis smoking is associated with non-seminoma-type testicular germ cell tumours. 4 There is insufficient evidence on whether parental

2019 Peel Health Library

297. Transitioning the Breastfeeding Preterm Infant from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit to Home

faltering has been observed in some preterm in- fants in the NICU and in the postdischarge period if they receive exclusive human milk feedings without nutrient and caloric forti?cation. 4,6–10 Of concern, evidence also suggests that such a nutritional de?cit may adversely affect the head circumference, 7,10,11 a ?nding that is associated with poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes. 11,12 In addition, these infants are at risk for developing metabolic bone disease osteopenia or even rickets. 7,10,13 (...) neonate fed post-discharge formula and breast milk after discharge. J Med Assoc Thai 2014;97 Suppl 6: S33–S39. 11. O’Connor DL, Weishuhn K, et al. Post-Discharge Feeding Study Group. Visual development of human milk-fed pre- term infants provided with extra energy and nutrients after hospital discharge. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2012;36: 349–353. 12. Ghods E, Kreissl A, Brandstetter S, et al. Head circum- ference catch-up growth among preterm very low birth weight infants: Effect

2019 Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine

298. Neonatal seizures

anomalies o Head circumference as microcephaly may be indicative of underlying brain malformation o Birthmarks o Somatic abnormalities o Facial dysmorphology • Abnormal neurological examination • Signs of sepsis[refer to Queensland Clinical Guideline Early onset Group B streptococcal disease] 40 Observations • Monitor and record vital signs including heart rate, respiratory rate and effort, oxygen saturations, temperature, colour, blood pressure as indicated (e.g. if phenytoin administered) • Observe (...) or injury 4 Hyperekplexia Neurologic disorder where there is a pronounced startle response to tactile or acoustic stimuli, and hypertonia 5 Hypsarrhythmia Abnormal inter-ictal pattern with electroencephalogram (EEG) high amplitude and irregular waves and spikes with background of chaotic and disorganised activity 1 Ictal Relating to seizures 1 Lissencephaly Rare, gene-linked brain malformation where there is absence of normal convolutions (folds) in the cerebral cortex and an abnormal, small head

2019 Queensland Health

299. AACE/ACE Guidelines for Management of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults and Patients Transitioning from Pediatric to Adult Care

, and individual patient considerations (Grade D; based on expert opinion of the committee). R41. In transition patients, annual measurements of height, weight, BMI, and waist and hip circumference are recommended, measuring bone mineral density and fasting lipids after discontinuing rhGH therapy as a baseline assessment, and subsequently every 2 to 3 years and every year, respectively (Grade D; based on expert opinion of the committee). R42. Adults with GHD have an increased risk of car- diovascular morbidity (...) , rhGH treatment can be con- tinued indefinitely (Grade B; BEL 2). Q9. CAN rhGH BE USED DURING CONCEPTION AND PREGNANCY? R48. Previous studies support the use of rhGH while seeking fertility, and continuing rhGH during preg- nancy does not appear to impact the outcomes of either mother or fetus. However, more data are still needed regarding the safety of rhGH. Routine use of rhGH for conception or continued use during preg- nancy in women with GHD cannot be recommended at this present time (Grade C

2019 American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists

300. Evaluation and Management of the Child and Adult With Fontan Circulation: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association Full Text available with Trip Pro

stiffness. , The Lungs Throughout the first years of life for the child with a single ventricle, the pulmonary vasculature is subjected to multiple alterations likely to affect growth and function. During fetal life, pulmonary flow is altered from normal, and pulmonary vascular development can be affected. Neonatal palliation will frequently result in further alterations (usually an increase) in pulmonary blood flow, whereas the staged cavopulmonary connections will decrease pulmonary blood flow. Flow

2019 American Heart Association

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