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Fetal Head Circumference

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261. Influence of fetal and parental factors on intra-uterine growth measurements: results of the EDEN mother-child cohort. (Abstract)

cohort included 2002 pregnant women with singleton pregnancies attending one of two university hospitals. Data from two routine ultrasound examinations for fetal biometry were recorded, at 20-25 and 30-35 weeks of gestation. Biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), femur length (FL), abdominal circumference (AC) and estimated fetal weight (EFW) were studied as a function of prepregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI), maternal height, paternal height, fetal sex and gestational age.Data (...) Influence of fetal and parental factors on intra-uterine growth measurements: results of the EDEN mother-child cohort. In small-for-gestational-age neonates, parental and fetal characteristics can be used to distinguish between constitutionally small size and growth restriction, which is associated with a higher risk of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to quantify relationships of parental and fetal characteristics with fetal ultrasound measurements.The EDEN mother-child

2011 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

262. The accuracy of sonographic weight estimation as a function of fetal sex. (Abstract)

circumference (AC), femur diaphysis length (FL), biparietal diameter (BPD) and head circumference (HC).In seven out of the eight models tested, the presence of a male fetus was associated with a significantly lower systematic error compared with a female fetus (-0.2 to 2.1% vs. 1.3 to 6%, P<0.001). On multivariate analysis, fetal sex was independently associated with sonographic accuracy so that the likelihood of a weight estimation within 10% of birth weight was 30% higher for male fetuses compared (...) The accuracy of sonographic weight estimation as a function of fetal sex. To determine whether the accuracy of sonographic fetal weight estimation is related to fetal sex.The accuracy of sonographic fetal weight estimation was compared between male and female fetuses using 3672 sonographic weight estimations performed within 3 days prior to delivery. Fetal weight was estimated using eight regression models that are based on different combinations of the following biometric parameters: abdominal

2011 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

263. The use of three-dimensional ultrasound does not improve training in fetal biometric measurements. (Abstract)

The use of three-dimensional ultrasound does not improve training in fetal biometric measurements. To investigate whether three-dimensional (3D) technology offers any advantage over two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound in fetal biometric measurement training.Ten midwives with no hands-on experience in ultrasound were randomized to receive training on 2D or 3D ultrasound fetal biometry assessment. Midwives were taught how to obtain fetal biometric measurements (biparietal diameter (BPD), head (...) circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), and femur length (FL)) by a trainer. Subsequently, each midwife measured the parameters on another 10 fetuses. The same set of measurements was repeated by the trainer. The percentage deviation between the midwives' and the trainer's measurements was determined and compared between training groups. Time required for completion was recorded. Frozen images were reviewed by another sonographer to assess the image quality using a standardized scoring system.The

2011 The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians Controlled trial quality: uncertain

264. The quantitative lung index (QLI): a gestational age-independent sonographic predictor of fetal lung growth. (Abstract)

The quantitative lung index (QLI): a gestational age-independent sonographic predictor of fetal lung growth. We sought to develop a gestational age-independent sonographic parameter to characterize lung growth.Reported descriptors of lung growth, including lung-to-head circumference (HC) ratio (LHR) and observed/expected LHR, were examined. A new index, the quantitative lung index (QLI) was derived using published data on HC and the area of the base of the right lung.Neither the LHR nor (...) the observed/expected LHR proved to be gestational age independent. Right lung growth can be expressed using the following formula: QLI = lung area/(HC/10)^2. The 50th percentile of the QLI remained constant at approximately 1.0 for the gestational age between 16-32 weeks. A small lung (<1st percentile) was defined as a QLI <0.6.Fetal right lung growth can be adequately described using the QLI, independent of gestational age. Further studies are needed to assess the clinical accuracy of the QLI

2011 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

265. Blood Pressure in Different Gestational Trimesters, Fetal Growth, and the Risk of Adverse Birth Outcomes: The Generation R Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

in 8,623 women who were participating in a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life onwards. Blood pressure and fetal growth characteristics were assessed in each trimester of pregnancy. Information on hypertensive complications and adverse birth outcomes was obtained from medical records. The results suggested that higher blood pressure was associated with smaller fetal head circumference and femur length, as well as lower fetal weight from the third trimester onward. An increase (...) Blood Pressure in Different Gestational Trimesters, Fetal Growth, and the Risk of Adverse Birth Outcomes: The Generation R Study. Researchers have suggested that maternal hypertensive disorders during pregnancy affect fetal growth. The authors examined the associations between systolic and diastolic blood pressures in different trimesters of pregnancy and both repeatedly measured fetal growth characteristics and the risks of adverse birth outcomes. The present study (2001-2005) was performed

2011 American Journal of Epidemiology

266. What are the limits of accuracy in fetal weight estimation with conventional biometry in 2D ultrasound? A novel postpartum study. (Abstract)

biometric parameters.This was a prospective multicenter study including 628 singleton pregnancies at term. Inclusion criteria were healthy newborns with no physical or chromosomal malformations. Postpartum measurement of head circumference, abdominal circumference and thigh length was performed. Six 'best-fit' formulae were derived using forward regression analysis in a formula-finding group (n = 419), and their accuracy was compared with birth weight in an evaluation group (n = 209) using percentage (...) What are the limits of accuracy in fetal weight estimation with conventional biometry in 2D ultrasound? A novel postpartum study. Commonly used formulae for fetal weight estimation, including combinations of several biometric parameters, lack accuracy despite efforts to improve them. This study aimed to investigate the limits of fetal weight estimation based on conventional biometric parameters on two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound by developing and evaluating new weight equations using postpartum

2011 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

267. Performance of third trimester ultrasound for the prediction of the small for gestational age fetus and evaluation of contingency screening policies. (Abstract)

Performance of third trimester ultrasound for the prediction of the small for gestational age fetus and evaluation of contingency screening policies. To assess the performance of third-trimester fetal biometry and fetal Doppler studies for the prediction of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates, and to explore contingency strategies using a first-trimester prediction model based on maternal and fetal parameters and third-trimester ultrasound.This was an observational cross-sectional study (...) (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL)) and umbilical artery (UA) and middle cerebral artery Doppler studies were performed routinely in a subgroup (n = 2310). Reference ranges for birth weight were constructed using the cohort of 4702 women, and neonates were classified as small (SGA, ≤ 5th centile) or appropriate (AGA) for gestational age. First-trimester, third-trimester and integrated first- and third-trimester prediction models for SGA were

2011 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

268. Bariatric surgery in Belgium: organisation and payment of care before and after surgery

of healthcare professionals 157 8 Bariatric surgery in Belgium KCE Report 329 Table 22 – Long term supplementation after bariatric surgery according to Farmaka 2016 49 and BMS 2015 50 162 Table 23 – Effects of bariatric surgery on maternal and foetal outcomes (EASO 2017) 38 163 Table 24 – List of 2014 not reimbursed costs for which reimbursement was requested according to BASO Currently not reimbursed costs for which reimbursement is requested in the future (minimal number of visits) 172 Table 25 – Data (...) .(site visits)’ In the period from 2014 until 2016 we evaluated the number of bariatric surgery interventions performed. Per surgeon, we only considered surgeries in which the surgeon was the head of the intervention. Here we consider all surgeries (not only the first surgery per patient). The annual amount of surgeries was averaged per surgeon in this time period in order to make results more robust. We came to the following findings for the considered time period 2014-2016: • 301 surgeons (100

2020 Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre

269. Children and young people exposed prenatally to alcohol

population approach adopted by the Scottish Government, informed by World Health Organization guidance, is designed to reduce general consumption. 2 Alcohol consumption in pregnancy has the potential to cause significant fetal damage. 3-5 While no woman wishes to intentionally harm her unborn child, this preventable cause of damage to the fetus continues to occur for a variety of reasons. In 1973, a cluster of birth defects resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure was first described as a clinical entity (...) occipitofrontal head circumference is <3 rd percentile; a seizure disorder has been diagnosed not due to known postnatal influences; or when brain imaging shows convincing evidence of structural brain abnormalities known to be associated with PAE and other aetiologies have been excluded. 94,95 Although, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan is not required or necessary as a standard approach to assessing an individual suspected to have FASD, it may be an adjunct in determining the extent of effects

2019 SIGN

270. Cerebral palsy in under 25s: assessment and management

of the initial encephalopathy the dyskinetic motor subtype is more common than other subtypes. 1.2.8 Recognise that for cerebral palsy acquired after the neonatal period, the following causes and approximate prevalences have been reported: meningitis: 20% other infections: 30% head injury: 12%. 1.2.9 When assessing the likely cause of cerebral palsy, recognise that independent risk factors: can have a cumulative impact, adversely affecting the developing brain and resulting in cerebral palsy may have (...) of 46cerebral palsy: unusual fidgety movements or other abnormalities of movement, including asymmetry or paucity of movement abnormalities of tone, including hypotonia (floppiness), spasticity (stiffness) or dystonia (fluctuating tone) abnormal motor development, including late head control, rolling and crawling feeding difficulties. 1.3.4 Refer children who are at increased risk of developing cerebral palsy and who have any of the abnormal features listed in recommendation 1.3.3 to a child development

2017 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

271. Factors associated with small head circumference at birth among infants born before the 28th week. Full Text available with Trip Pro

below the median. In multivariable models, microcephaly was associated with nonwhite race, severe intrauterine growth restriction, delivery for preeclampsia, placental infarction, and being female. The risk factors for a head circumference between <1 and >2 SD below the median were similar to those of microcephaly.Characteristics associated with fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia are among the strongest correlates of microcephaly among children born at extremely low gestational ages (...) Factors associated with small head circumference at birth among infants born before the 28th week. We sought to identify risk factors for congenital microcephaly in extremely low gestational age newborns.Demographic, clinical, and placental characteristics of 1445 infants born before the 28th week were gathered and evaluated for their relationship with congenital microcephaly.Almost 10% of newborns (n = 138), rather than the expected 2.2%, had microcephaly defined as a head circumference >2 SD

2010 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

272. Learning curve for the lung area to head circumference ratio measurement in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Learning curve for the lung area to head circumference ratio measurement in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. To assess the learning curve for the fetal lung area to head circumference ratio (LHR) calculation in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH).Three trainees with the theoretical knowledge, but without prior experience in the LHR measurement, were selected. Each trainee and one experienced examiner measured the observed to expected (O/E)-LHR in the lung

2010 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

273. Fetal alcohol syndrome Full Text available with Trip Pro

., , ). Microcephaly is determined by comparing head circumference (often called circumference, or OFC) to appropriate OFC growth charts. Other structural impairments must be observed through techniques by a trained physician. Because imaging procedures are expensive and relatively inaccessible to most people, diagnosis of FAS is not frequently made via structural impairments, except for microcephaly. Evidence of a CNS structural impairment due to prenatal alcohol exposure will result in a diagnosis of FAS (...) Fetal alcohol syndrome Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder - Wikipedia Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from ) "FASD" redirects here. For other uses, see . Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders Baby with fetal alcohol syndrome. , , Symptoms Abnormal appearance, short height, low body weight, , poor coordination, low intelligence, behavior problems Duration Long term Causes Drinking during Based on symptoms Prevention Avoiding drinking alcohol during

2012 Wikipedia

274. Determination of Gestational Age by Ultrasound

and 14th weeks, crown–rump length and biparietal diameter are similar in accuracy. It is recommended that crown-rump length be used up to 84 mm, and the biparietal diameter be used for measurements > 84 mm (II-1 A). 4 If a second- or third-trimester scan is used to determine gestational age, a combination of multiple biometric parameters (biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length) should be used to determine gestational age, rather than a single parameter (II-1 (...) for aneuploidy. A national algorithm for the assignment of gestational age may reduce practice variations across Canada for clinicians and researchers. Potential harms include the possible reassignment of dates when significant fetal pathology (such as fetal growth restriction or macrosomia) result in a discrepancy between ultrasound biometric and clinical gestational age. Such reassignment may lead to the omission of appropriate—or the performance of inappropriate—fetal interventions. Summary Statements 1

2019 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada

275. Macrosomia

, 23). Newborns who are macrosomic because of maternal glucose intolerance tend to have more total body fat, larger shoulder and upper- extremity circumferences, higher upper-extremity skin-fold measurements, and smaller head-to- abdominal-circumference ratios compared with macro- somic newborns of women without diabetes. It has been suggested that this altered fetal body shape is responsible for the higher incidence of shoulder dys- tocia seen among newborns of women with diabetes (23). Regardless (...) published formulae for estimating fetal weight with ultrasonography, and none was superior to the others in a clinically meaningful way (98). Another large study that evaluated 21 formulae found considerable variation in sensitivity (14–99%) and specificity (64–99.8%), but estimates based on three or four biometric parameters performed better than esti- mates based on the abdominal circumference alone (99). In addition to inaccuracy, ultrasonographic determi

2020 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists

276. Disorders of the Hepatic and Mesenteric Circulation Full Text available with Trip Pro

MEDLINE(R) Daily and Ovid MEDLINE(R), Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews—Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, and PsycInfo for the period 2000 through 2018 and limited to the English language. A combination of database-specific subject headings (subject's headings plus text words) was used (see Table 1, Supplementary Digital Content 1, ). The results were downloaded from each database into EndNote X7, and duplicates were removed. To evaluate the level of evidence and strength

2020 American College of Gastroenterology

277. Committee Opinion - Investigation and Management of Prenatally Identified Microcephaly

The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Recommendations 1 When fetal microcephaly is suspected, timely referral to a tertiary ultrasound unit should be undertaken for further assessment and to optimize clinical management options (II-2A). 2 When fetal microcephaly is confirmed by measurement of a head circumference less than or equal to 3 standard deviations below the mean, a thorough and detailed fetal anatomic (...) with fetal microcephaly should include: a Maternal health assessment and inquiries about maternal conditions associated with poor fetal cerebral growth (for example, phenylketonuria) (II-2A) b Detailed review of potential teratogenic and environmental exposures (II-2A) c Detailed family history and evaluation of parental head size (III-A) d Evaluation of potential infectious causes (II-2A) e Discussion of potential additional investigations such as chromosome or single gene analyses, when clinically

2019 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada

278. Treatment of Patients with Schizophrenia

• Past or current neurological or neurocognitive disorders or symptoms • Past physical trauma, including head injuries • Past or current endocrinological disease • Past or current infectious disease, including sexually transmitted diseases, HIV, tuberculosis, hepatitis C, and locally endemic infectious diseases such as Lyme disease • Past or current sleep abnormalities, including sleep apnea • Past or current symptoms or conditions associated with significant pain and discomfort • Additional review

2020 American Psychiatric Association

279. The Prevention, Assessment and Management of in-Hospital Newborn Falls and Drops

(NEWTT+ The Prevention, Assessment and Management of in-Hospital Newborn Falls and Drops A BAPM Framework for Practice 13 ©BAPM2020 Modified GCS) (Appendix -3). Check anterior fontanelle and sutures, pupil size, symmetry and response to light, tone, power, primitive reflexes, measure head circumference and plot 4,516,17,22 . c. Decisions about severity of brain injury, management or prognosis should not be based on Modified GCS scoring alone. d. If any non-accidental injury (NAI) suspected, ensure (...) , Assessment and Management of in-Hospital Newborn Falls and Drops A BAPM Framework for Practice 18 ©BAPM2020 Appendix 2 - Sample proforma for history and assessment of newborn following in-hospital fall or drop Date and time of event Gestation (wk) Age at time of event (h) Birthweight (g) Date and time paediatric team informed Head circumference at birth (cm) Maternal history BMI Underlying medical conditions Known substance misuse Known sedative medications at time of event Any known social concerns

2020 British Association of Perinatal Medicine

280. COVID-19 Ultrasound Practice Suggestions

. Consider saving movie clips for fetal anatomy rather than images to expedite the examination. Adjust the ultrasound examination based upon indications and need. Focus on the following mandated planes unless otherwise indicated: • Fetal head: o BPD/HC o LV/Cavum o Posterior fossa o Upper lip/philtrum • Fetal chest: o 4CV o LVOT o RVOT o 3VT • Fetal abdomen: o AC o Cord insertion o Kidneys o Bladder • Spine: o Axial planes o Sagittal planes • Extremities: o FL o Confirm 4 extremities/hands and feet (...) COVID-19 Ultrasound Practice Suggestions The Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine COVID-19 Ultrasound Practice Suggestions Developed with guidance from Alfred Abuhamad, MD and Joanne Stone, MD 3.24.20 (this is an update from draft posted on 3-23-2020) The following ultrasound practice suggestions are based on expert opinion and intended to supplement existing guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with information on optimizing prenatal ultrasound care in the context

2020 Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine

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