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Fetal Head Circumference

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241. Prospective Validation of Fetal Weight Estimation Using Fractional Limb Volume. Full Text available with Trip Pro

from 390 to 5426 g. Fetal measurements were extracted using volume datasets for biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, femur diaphysis length, fractional arm volume and fractional thigh volume. Fractional limb volumes were manually traced from a central portion of the humerus or femur diaphysis. Mean percentage differences and SDs of the percentage differences were calculated for EFW. The proportion of newborns with EFW within 5 or 10% of BW were compared with an estimate obtained using (...) infants. For all fetuses, the prediction model that incorporated fractional thigh volume correctly classified a greater proportion of EFW within 5% (55.1 vs 43.7%; P = 0.03) or 10% (86.5 vs 75.9%; P < 0.05) of BW when compared with the modified Hadlock model.Fractional thigh volume can be added to two-dimensional sonographic measurements of the head and trunk to improve the precision of fetal weight estimation. This approach permits the inclusion of soft tissue development as part of a weight

2012 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

242. Fetal and Infant Growth and Asthma Symptoms in Preschool Children. The Generation R Study. (Abstract)

Fetal and Infant Growth and Asthma Symptoms in Preschool Children. The Generation R Study. Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of wheezing in childhood.We examined the associations of longitudinally measured fetal and infant growth patterns with the risks of asthma symptoms in preschool children.This study was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort study among 5,125 children. Second- and third-trimester fetal growth characteristics (head circumference, femur length (...) , abdominal circumference, and weight) were estimated by repeated ultrasounds. Infant growth (head circumference, length, and weight) was measured at birth and at the ages of 3, 6, and 12 months. Parental report of asthma symptoms until the age of 4 years was yearly obtained by questionnaires.Both fetal restricted and accelerated growth, defined as a negative or positive change of more than 0.67 standard deviation score, were not associated with asthma symptoms until the age of 4 years. Accelerated weight

2012 American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine

243. Fetal growth in different racial groups. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, though shorter and lighter than Europeans and Negroes, had similar skinfold thickness and weight: height2 ratios and gained as much weight during pregnancy. Their infants, however, were lighter than the others, and had smaller head and limb circumferences, although their linear measurements were the same. Negro and European infants were almost identical in size. We found no effect on any of the fetal measurements which could be attributed to smoking. (...) Fetal growth in different racial groups. Three racial groups of mothers and their newborn babies-- North European 75, Negro 75, and "Indian" Asian 37--were matched for parity, gestational age, sex, maternal age, maternal smoking habits, and social class. Multiple anthropometric measurements, including skinfold thickness, limb circumferences, and various linear measurements were made on the mothers and their infants to determine the effects of race and smoking on fetal size. Indian-Asian mothers

1978 Archives of Disease in Childhood

244. Maternal and fetal nutrition in south India. Full Text available with Trip Pro

weight, and infant length. Overall there was a significant positive correlation between maternal triceps thickness and infant weight, length, and triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness. The correlation with the infant head circumference was less significant. These findings are further evidence that the nutrition of the mother has an important effect on the nutrition of her baby and that malnutrition is an important reason why Indian babies are lighter than European ones. (...) Maternal and fetal nutrition in south India. The relation between the nutrition of the mother and that of her baby was assessed in a south Indian community where malnutrition is common and women do not smoke. Unselected mothers and their infants of over 37 weeks' gestation were studied in two groups: those who paid for their care (150) and a poorer group who did not (172). There were significnat differences between the paying and non-paying groups in maternal triceps skinfold thickness, infant

1978 British medical journal

245. Velocity of head growth during the perinatal period. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, with maximum velocity occurring between 30 and 40 days after birth. The shorter the postconceptional age at birth the later maximum velocity occurred. However, those preterm AFD infants of between 30 and 33 weeks' gestation who were given a high caloric feed showed a similar velocity curve to that of infants of 34-37 weeks of gestation. Cross-sectional data were used to estimate growth velocity of head circumference in the fetus. Two conclusions emerged. First, there is a slowing of head growth velocity (...) Velocity of head growth during the perinatal period. Growth velocity of head circumference was studied longitudinally in different gestational age groups of 222 appropriate-weight-for-dates (AFD) and 94 small-for-dates (SFD) healthy infants during the first 5 months of life. Term AFD and SFD infants showed a steady slowing of growth rate of head circumference from birth. In contrast, preterm AFD infants of less than 36 weeks' gestation showed an increasing velocity of growth followed by slowing

1977 Archives of Disease in Childhood

246. Fetal head circumference growth in children with specific language impairment. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fetal head circumference growth in children with specific language impairment. To characterise fetal brain growth in children with specific language impairment (SLI).A nested case-control study.Perth, Western Australia.Thirty children meeting criteria for SLI at age 10 years were individually matched with a typically developing comparison child on sex, non-verbal ability, fetal gestational age, maternal age at conception, smoking and alcohol intake during pregnancy.Occipitofrontal head (...) circumference (HC) was measured using ultrasonography at approximately 18 weeks gestation. Femur length provided a measure of fetal length. Occipitofrontal HC was measured at birth and at the 1-year postnatal follow-up using a precise paper tape measure, while crown-heel length acted as an index of body length at both time points. Raw data were transformed to z-scores using reference norms.The SLI group had a significantly smaller mean HC than the typically developing comparison children at birth

2010 Archives of Disease in Childhood

247. Sonographic estimation of fetal head circumference - how accurate are we? (Abstract)

Sonographic estimation of fetal head circumference - how accurate are we? To assess the accuracy of sonographic estimation of fetal head circumference (HC).We compared sonographic estimations of fetal HC with actual measurements performed immediately after delivery using 3008 sonographic examinations performed within 3 days prior to delivery. The following measures of accuracy were calculated: correlation with actual HC, systematic error, random error, simple error, mean absolute percentage (...) cephalic index (> 0.81) (odds ratio (OR), 0.3; 95% CI, 0.2-0.4), HC > 90(th) centile (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.6), delivery by vacuum extraction (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8), gestational week (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6-0.9) and male fetal gender (OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.6-0.9) were associated with decreased sonographic accuracy. At term, breech presentation at the time of sonographic examination was associated with a higher sonographic accuracy compared with vertex presentation (-12.0; 95% CI, - 10.5 to - 13.5 vs

2010 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

248. Fetal Thyroid Hormone Level at Birth Is Associated with Fetal Growth. Full Text available with Trip Pro

fetal thyroid hormone at birth (as measured in cord blood) is associated with fetal growth. We also aimed to study whether fetal thyroid hormone at birth is associated with maternal thyroid hormone in the third trimester.In 616 healthy mother-child pairs, TSH, free T(4) (FT4), and free T(3) (FT3) were measured in mothers at 28 wk gestation and in umbilical cord blood at birth. Birth weight, length, head circumference, and tricep and bicep skinfold thicknesses were measured on the babies.Cord FT4 (...) Fetal Thyroid Hormone Level at Birth Is Associated with Fetal Growth. Thyroid function is known to play an important role in fetal neurological development, but its role in regulating fetal growth is not well established. Overt maternal and fetal thyroid disorders are associated with reduced birth weight. We hypothesized that, even in the absence of overt thyroid dysfunction, maternal and fetal thyroid function influence fetal growth.In normal, healthy pregnancies, we aimed to assess whether

2011 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

249. Guidance for antenatal screening and ultrasound in pregnancy in the evolving coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic

for trisomy 21, 18 and 13 but have missed combined screening (11+ 2 -14+ 1 weeks) If seen at: 14+ 2 to17+ 6 perform a dating scan and offer quadruple screening for trisomy 21. Use head circumference (HC) for the quadruple test. 5 18+0 to 20+0 perform anomaly scan and offer quadruple screening for trisomy 21. Use head circumference (HC) for the quadruple test. 20+1 to 23+0 perform anomaly scan only. The anomaly scan is the screening test for trisomy 18 and 13 in this instance. 3.3 Anomaly scan (...) The screening window is 18+ 0 to 23+ 0 . If indicated, refer to Fetal Medicine service in line with FASP guidelines. If gestation is 23+ 1 or greater, perform full clinical ultrasound examination of the fetus irrespective of gestational age and if indicated refer as per local guidelines. 4. Modifications for services 4.1 Capacity Trusts will have differing capacity issues as the pandemic evolves. The advice is to continue with usual national screening programmes as specified for as long as possible

2020 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

250. Clinical care of severe acute respiratory infections – Tool kit

recent internationally, peer-reviewed publications. In 2020, the toolkit was adapted for the COVID-19 pandemic by Janet Diaz (Unit Head, Clinical Care, World Health Emergency Programme, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland), Pryanka Relan (Technical Officer, Clinical Services and Systems, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland), and Teresa Kortz (Consultant, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland). Special thanks as well go to our copyeditor Vivien Stone (Etchingham, UK) and for the design by L’IV Com Sàrl (Villars-sous-Yens, Switzerland (...) and management of key findings from the ABCDE approach. See www.who.int/emergencycare or contact emergencycare@who.int for more information. Clinical Care for Severe Acute Respiratory Infection—Toolkit 16217 ABCDE APPROACH ASSESSMENT FINDINGS IMMEDIATE MANAGEMENT Airway A Unconscious with limited or no air movement If NO TRAUMA: head-tilt and chin-lift, use OPA or NPA to keep airway open, place in recovery position or position of comfort. If possible TRAUMA: use jaw thrust with c-spine protection and place

2020 WHO Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) Pandemic

251. Assisted Vaginal Birth

estimated fetal weight of greater than 4 kg or a clinically big baby head circumference above the 95th percentile occipito–posterior position midpelvic birth or when one‐fifth of the head is palpable per abdomen. High maternal BMI greater than 30, short maternal stature, neonatal birth weight greater than 4 kg and occipito–posterior positions are all indicators of increased failure and require special consideration. , , - At midpelvic stations, particularly station 0 or where rotation is required (...) Delivery. Give access Share full-text access Please review our and check box below to share full-text version of article. I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use Shareable Link Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Copy URL Share a link Share on ). Grade of recommendation: D Does ultrasound have a role in assessment prior to assisted vaginal birth? Ultrasound assessment of the fetal head position prior

2020 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

252. Tracheal diameter at birth in severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia treated by fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion. Full Text available with Trip Pro

) lung area to head circumference ratio (LHR) and the duration of tracheal occlusion. In the CDH group, postnatal follow-up until the age of 22 months (1-70) showed that 5 of 24 neonates had an effort-induced barking cough.A large number of infants with severe CDH surviving after FETO have a degree of tracheomegaly that is associated with the severity of CDH as assessed by pre-FETO LHR. This tracheomegaly does not constitute an obvious clinical problem.Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. (...) Tracheal diameter at birth in severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia treated by fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion. To investigate tracheal dimensional differences seen at birth following fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO) in cases of severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and to report on their clinical follow-up.In chest X-rays, taken within 48 h after birth, we measured the tracheal diameter at the level of the tracheal entry into the chest, 1 cm above the level of the carina

2011 Prenatal diagnosis

253. Maternal milk consumption, fetal growth, and the risks of neonatal complications: the Generation R Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

in a prospective cohort study completed a 293-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire to obtain information about dairy consumption during the first trimester of pregnancy. Fetal head circumference, femur length, and weight were estimated in the second and third trimesters by ultrasonography.Maternal milk consumption of >3 glasses/d was associated with greater fetal weight gain in the third trimester of pregnancy, which led to an 88-g (95% CI: 39, 135 g) higher birth weight than that with milk (...) consumption of 0 to 1 glass/d. In addition, head circumference tended to be 2.3 cm (95% CI: -0.0, 4.6 cm) larger when mothers consumed >3 glasses/d. Maternal milk consumption was not associated with length growth. Maternal protein intake (P for trend = 0.01), but not fat or carbohydrate intake, from dairy products was associated with higher birth weight. This association appeared to be limited to milk (P for trend < 0.01), whereas protein intake from nondairy food or cheese was not associated with birth

2011 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

254. Variants near CCNL1/LEKR1 and in ADCY5 and Fetal Growth Characteristics in Different Trimesters. Full Text available with Trip Pro

life onward in The Netherlands and Australia. Repeated fetal ultrasound examinations were performed to measure head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL), and estimated fetal weight (EFW). Analyses were based on a total group of 3909 subjects.The C-allele of rs900400 was associated in second trimester with smaller fetal HC and FL, and in third trimester with smaller HC, AC, FL, and EFW. For each C-allele, the combined effect estimate for EFW in third trimester (...) Variants near CCNL1/LEKR1 and in ADCY5 and Fetal Growth Characteristics in Different Trimesters. A recent genome-wide association study identified variants near CCNL1/LEKR1 (rs900400) and in ADCY5 (rs9883204) to be associated with birth weight. We examined the associations of these variants with fetal growth characteristics in different trimesters, with a main interest in the timing of the associations and the affected body proportions.We used data from two prospective cohort studies from fetal

2011 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

255. Fetal cardiac dimensions derived by cardio STIC-M from 14-40 weeks of gestation. (Abstract)

constructed based on best-fit equations as a function of gestational age, fetal head circumference and biparietal diameter. Thirty-four volume datasets of abnormal fetal hearts were also separately assessed, many of which showed abnormal cardiac dimensions.This is the first report on normal ranges of fetal cardiac dimensions constructed using the new cardio-STIC-M technology. Preliminary evaluation suggests that these reference ranges may be a useful tool in the assessment of fetal cardiac (...) Fetal cardiac dimensions derived by cardio STIC-M from 14-40 weeks of gestation. To establish normative reference ranges of fetal cardiac dimensions derived from volume datasets acquired using spatiotemporal image correlation with M-mode display (cardio-STIC-M).A cross-sectional study was undertaken on singleton pregnancies with normal fetuses and accurate gestational ages. Cardio-STIC volume datasets were acquired by experienced operators using a high-resolution ultrasound machine; these were

2011 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

256. Standardization of fetal ultrasound biometry measurements: improving the quality and consistency of measurements. Full Text available with Trip Pro

signed ranks test, and variance was assessed using Pitman's test. Interobserver agreement was also assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and all images were scored for quality in a blinded fashion.At baseline the level of agreement and image scoring were high. A significant reduction in the differences between sonographers and the lead sonographer were seen for fetal biometry overall (head circumference, abdominal circumference and femur length) between the first and third (...) Standardization of fetal ultrasound biometry measurements: improving the quality and consistency of measurements. To assess whether a standardization exercise prior to commencing a fetal growth study involving multiple sonographers can reduce interobserver variation.In preparation for an international study assessing fetal growth, nine experienced sonographers from eight countries participated in a standardization exercise consisting of theoretical and practical sessions. Each performed a set

2011 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

257. Biometry and estimated fetal weight by two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasonography: an intra- and inter-observer reliability and agreement study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Biometry and estimated fetal weight by two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasonography: an intra- and inter-observer reliability and agreement study. To evaluate and compare the intraobserver and interobserver reliability and agreement for the biparietal diameter (BPD), abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL) and estimated fetal weight (EFW) obtained by two-dimensional ultrasound (2D-US) and three-dimensional ultrasound (3D-US).Singleton pregnant women between 24 and 40 weeks were (...) invited to participate in this study. They were examined using 2D-US in a blinded manner, twice by one observer, intercalated by a scan by a second observer, to determine BPD, AC and FL. In each of the three examinations, three 3D-US datasets (head, abdomen and thigh) were acquired for measurements of the same parameters. We determined EFW using Hadlock's formula. Systematic errors between 3D-US and 2D-US were examined using the paired t-test. Reliability and agreement were assessed by intraclass

2011 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

258. Fetal omphalocele ratios predict outcomes in prenatally diagnosed omphalocele. (Abstract)

repair. Omphalocele diameter upon antenatal ultrasound was compared with abdominal circumference, femur length, and head circumference, yielding the respective omphalocele (O)/abdominal circumference (AC), O/femur length (FL), and O/head circumference (HC) ratios. The absolute measurements were used to classify giant lesions. Omphalocele ratios and giant omphalocele designations were evaluated as predictors of inability to achieve primary repair.Among 25 included cases, staged or delayed closure (...) Fetal omphalocele ratios predict outcomes in prenatally diagnosed omphalocele. The objective of the study was to evaluate whether ratios considering omphalocele diameter relative to fetal biometric measurements perform better than giant omphalocele designation at predicting inability to achieve neonatal primary surgical closure.Cases of fetal omphalocele that underwent evaluation between May 2003 and July 2010 were identified. Inclusion was restricted to live births with plan for postnatal

2011 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

259. Prediction of intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) associated with small for gestational age: impact of including ultrasound biometry in the customized models. (Abstract)

multiple regression (Cust-chart). The same process was repeated including second-trimester biometric parameters: biparietal diameter, head circumference, femur length and abdominal circumference in the regression models (Cust-plus-USS-chart). The association between small-for-gestational age < 10(th) centile (SGA) pregnancies, defined using the two customized charts or our population-based growth chart (Pop-chart) and IUFD, were compared. Statistical analyses including OR, 95% CI and screening accuracy (...) Prediction of intrauterine fetal death (IUFD) associated with small for gestational age: impact of including ultrasound biometry in the customized models. Customized growth charts derived from maternal demographic characteristics alone have been shown to improve the prediction of pregnancy complications compared to population growth curves. We sought to estimate the impact of adding ultrasound biometric parameters to the customized chart for the prediction of intrauterine fetal death (IUFD

2011 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

260. Neurodevelopment following fetal growth restriction and its relationship with antepartum parameters of placental dysfunction. Full Text available with Trip Pro

to these prenatal characteristics offers potential advantages in identifying mechanisms and timing of critical insults. Based on available studies, lagging head circumference, overall degree of FGR, gestational age, and umbilical artery (UA), aortic and cerebral Doppler parameters are the independent prenatal determinants of infant and childhood neurodevelopment. While head circumference is important independent of gestational age, overall growth delay has the greatest impact in early onset FGR. Gestational age (...) Neurodevelopment following fetal growth restriction and its relationship with antepartum parameters of placental dysfunction. Placental dysfunction leading to fetal growth restriction (FGR) is an important risk factor for neurodevelopmental delay. Recent observations clarify that FGR evolves prenatally from a preclinical phase of abnormal nutrient and endocrine milieu to a clinical phase that differs in characteristics in preterm and term pregnancies. Relating childhood neurodevelopment

2011 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

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