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Fetal Head Circumference

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221. Fetal alcohol-related growth restriction from birth through young adulthood and moderating effects of maternal prepregnancy weight. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, length/height, and head circumference at birth, 6.5 and 13 months, and 7.5, 14, and 19 years.In multiple regression models with repeated measures (adjusted for confounders), prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with longitudinal reductions in weight, height, and weight-for-length/BMI that were largely determined at birth. At low-to-moderate levels of exposure, these effects were more severe in infancy than in later childhood. By contrast, effects persisted among children whose mothers drank (...) at least monthly and among those born to women with alcohol abuse and/or dependence who had consumed ≥ 4 drinks/occasion. In addition, effects on weight, height, and head circumference were markedly stronger among children born to mothers with lower prepregnancy weight.These findings confirm prior studies demonstrating alcohol-related reductions in weight, height, weight-for-height/BMI, and head circumference that persist through young adulthood. Stronger effects were seen among children born

2013 Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

222. Longitudinal measurement of fetal thigh soft tissue parameters and its role in the prediction of birth weight. (Abstract)

abdominal circumference, femur length, biparietal diameter, and head circumference.The fetal abdominal subcutaneous tissue (FAST) and thigh muscle and fat show an increase with gestation. At 28 weeks gestation, the abdominal circumference, thigh fat, FAST, and EFW percentile were found to be significant predictors of BW. A combination of EFW percentile and thigh fat were found to be the optimal multivariate model at 28 weeks for predicting BW. At 37 weeks, BW prediction using EFW percentile, FAST (...) Longitudinal measurement of fetal thigh soft tissue parameters and its role in the prediction of birth weight. The aim of this study was to profile longitudinal changes in thigh muscle and fat with gestation and to determine whether thigh measurements can improve the prediction of birth weight (BW).A prospective longitudinal study of subcutaneous soft tissue measurements was conducted in 328 singleton fetuses at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Estimated fetal weight (EFW) was calculated using

2013 Prenatal diagnosis

223. Fetal biometry: how well can offline measurements from 3D volumes substitute real time 2D measurements? (Abstract)

measurements was similar to that for 2D measurements. Planes from some volumes could not be extracted (7% for head circumference, 9% for abdominal circumference and 11% for femur length). The median time required to perform a full fetal biometric scan was significantly higher for 3D than for 2D (3:04 min vs 1:57 min, respectively; P < 0.001).Fetal measurements derived from 3D volume acquisitions exhibited good agreement with those obtained by real-time 2D scanning, with no extra systematic or random error (...) Fetal biometry: how well can offline measurements from 3D volumes substitute real time 2D measurements? To assess the feasibility, accuracy and reproducibility of manipulating three-dimensional (3D) volume sets in order to reconstruct optimal two-dimensional (2D) planes for fetal biometry throughout gestation and compare them with those derived from real-time 2D scanning.Sixty-five fetuses were evaluated at a gestational age of 14-41 weeks. For each fetus a duplicate set of seven standard fetal

2013 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

224. Does 17-α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate affect fetal biometry and birth weight in twin pregnancy? (Abstract)

been previously included in a randomized clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of 17-OHPC and placebo on neonatal outcomes and preterm birth rates in multiple pregnancy. In the present study, the individual growth patterns of femur length, head circumference and abdominal circumference were compared between fetuses of women who had been randomized to receive weekly injections of either 17-OHPC (n = 52) or placebo (n = 58) at between 16-20 and 36 weeks' gestation.The three biometric variables (...) Does 17-α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate affect fetal biometry and birth weight in twin pregnancy? Increasingly, maternal administration of 17-α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC) is utilized to prevent preterm birth, but the fetal safety of 17-OHPC is still a matter of concern. This study aimed to assess whether exposure to 17-OHPC during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy affects fetal biometry in twin gestations.This study included a subset of women with a twin pregnancy who had

2013 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

225. Fetal Macrosomia

Fetal Macrosomia Fetal Macrosomia Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Fetal Macrosomia Fetal Macrosomia Aka: Fetal (...) Macrosomia , Large for Gestational Age From Related Chapters II. Definition Macrosomia Fetal weight 4500 grams (ranges from 4000-5000 grams) Large for Gestational Age Birth weight above 90th percentile III. Risk Factors: Macrosomia Maternal or Multiparity Prior history of macrosomic infant Post-Dates Gestation Maternal or excessive weight gain Male fetus Parental stature tic disorders Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome Sotos Syndrome IV. Pathophysiology Overgrowth Hallmark of No concurrent vascular disease

2015 FP Notebook

226. Fetal Femur Length

Fetal Femur Length Fetal Femur Length Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Fetal Femur Length Fetal Femur Length Aka: Fetal (...) Femur Length II. Technique Start with transducer at abdominal circumference Move transducer inferiorly to transect Rotate transducer 30 degrees to view femur Exclude distal femoral epiphyses present after 32 weeks Tibia is at times mistaken for femur III. Images Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Fetal Femur Length." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related

2015 FP Notebook

227. Maternal Determinants of HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed Fetal Growth, Birth Outcomes and Early Infant Growth

month post-partum ] weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold, fundal height Fetal growth [ Time Frame: Up to 1 month post-partum ] Pregnancy outcomes [ Time Frame: Up to 1 month post-partum ] spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, preterm delivery, perinatal mortality (death within first 7 days), neonatal mortality (death within first 28 days), small for gestational age, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight Early infant anthropometrics [ Time Frame: Up to 1 month post (...) -partum ] weight, length, head circumference, mid-upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold Eligibility Criteria Go to Information from the National Library of Medicine Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Layout table for eligibility

2012 Clinical Trials

228. A Randomized Air Filter Intervention Study of Air Pollution and Fetal Growth in a Highly Polluted Community

: HEPA Filter HEPA filter(s) placed in the participant's home from approximately 10 weeks gestation until birth. Device: HEPA Filter No Intervention: Control Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : Gestational-age adjusted birthweight [ Time Frame: At birth ] Birthweight [ Time Frame: At birth ] Gestational age [ Time Frame: At birth ] Head circumference [ Time Frame: At birth ] Small for gestational age [ Time Frame: At birth ] <10%ile of birth weight for gestational age Birth length (...) A Randomized Air Filter Intervention Study of Air Pollution and Fetal Growth in a Highly Polluted Community A Randomized Air Filter Intervention Study of Air Pollution and Fetal Growth in a Highly Polluted Community - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies

2012 Clinical Trials

229. Maternal Sleep Disordered Breathing and Fetal Growth

Perspective: Prospective Study Start Date : January 2013 Estimated Primary Completion Date : December 2016 Groups and Cohorts Go to Group/Cohort third trimester pregnant women no intervention Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : birth weight [ Time Frame: at birth ] Secondary Outcome Measures : birth length [ Time Frame: at birth ] Other Outcome Measures: birth head circumference [ Time Frame: at birth ] Eligibility Criteria Go to Information from the National Library of Medicine Choosing (...) Maternal Sleep Disordered Breathing and Fetal Growth Maternal Sleep Disordered Breathing and Fetal Growth - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Maternal Sleep Disordered Breathing and Fetal Growth

2012 Clinical Trials

230. Continuity between fetal and neonatal neurobehavior. (Abstract)

with gravity as a developmental condition sine qua non. Four-dimensional ultrasound is currently being assessed as a functional prenatal screening test for detection of neurological impairment in utero. The Kurjak Antenatal Neurodevelopmental Test (KANET) combines the assessment of fetal behavior, general movements, and three out of four signs that have been postnatally considered as symptoms of possible neurodevelopmental impairment (neurological thumb, overlapping sutures and small head circumference (...) Continuity between fetal and neonatal neurobehavior. The human brain is very sensitive to environmental changes affecting its growth and development. Environmental changes influence neonatal behavior after birth, enabling continuity between prenatal and postnatal behavior, but postnatal adaptation could be considered as discontinuity. Thus there is the question of environmental discontinuity between intrauterine conditions characterized by existence of microgravity and extrauterine life

2012 Seminars in fetal & neonatal medicine

231. Longitudinal reference ranges for fetal ultrasound biometry in twin pregnancies Full Text available with Trip Pro

scans were performed every three weeks, and biparietal and occipitofrontal diameters, head and abdominal circumferences, and femur diaphysis length measurements were obtained for each fetus at each visit. Estimated fetal weight, biparietal/occipitofrontal diameter, head circumference/abdominal circumference, and femur diaphysis length/abdominal circumference ratios were also calculated. Multilevel regression analysis was performed on normalized data.A total of 807 ultrasound examinations were (...) performed in 125 twin pregnancies between 14 and 38 weeks of gestation (6.5 ± 1.4 scans/pregnancy). Regression analysis demonstrated significant correlations for all variables with gestational age, namely log of the biparietal diameter (r = 0.98), log of the occipitofrontal diameter (r = 0.98), log of the head circumference (r = 0.99), log of the abdominal circumference (r = 0.98), square root of the femur length (r = 0.99), log of the estimated fetal weight (r = 0.99), biparietal/occipitofrontal ratio

2012 Clinics

232. Fetal growth and birth size is associated with maternal anthropometry and body composition. (Abstract)

was calculated. Sonographic measurements of the fetus were made at 15, 25 and 35 weeks gestation. Weight, crown-heel length and head circumference were measured at birth. Analyses were confined to 360 (85%) women; 65 women did not complete the study. Maternal height was positively associated with femoral length at 25 and 35 weeks gestation and with head circumference at 35 weeks (all P < 0.02). Maternal weight was positively associated with abdominal circumference and femoral length at 25 weeks (...) , and with larger head and abdominal circumference and longer femur at 35 weeks (all P < 0.02). Maternal lean mass had similar associations to maternal weight and they were both positively associated with estimated fetal weight (all P < 0.02). All three maternal measurements were positively associated with birthweight, length and head circumference. Maternal size was associated with fetal size as early as 25 weeks gestation, with height strongly associated with femoral length, and with weight and lean mass

2012 Maternal & child nutrition

233. Minor fetal sonographic findings in autism spectrum disorder. (Abstract)

fetuses that eventually will develop ASD have minor physical anomalies. This is even truer in pregnant women who already have a child with ASD. Those fetuses have a 20 times higher risk of developing ASD than the general population. The more frequent minor physical changes that may be potentially detected by ultrasound are as follows: changes in head circumference (that become more noticeable after 6 months of age), the ratio between the second and the fourth digits, left handedness, and palatal (...) Minor fetal sonographic findings in autism spectrum disorder. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is more prevalent in the population than ever before. It is debatable whether this is a real increase in incidence, a change in the diagnostic criteria, or both. The diagnosis is usually made by age 3 years; therefore, obstetricians and fetal-maternal specialists generally display limited awareness of the disorder. Unlike fetuses with chromosomal diseases, which have distinctive physical anomalies, some

2012 Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey

234. Antipsychotics During Pregnancy: Relation to Fetal and Maternal Metabolic EffectsAntipsychotics During Pregnancy. Full Text available with Trip Pro

antipsychotics was associated with an increased risk of gestational diabetes (adjusted OR, 1.77 [95% CI, 1.04-3.03]). The risk increase with olanzapine and/or clozapine was of similar magnitude but not statistical significance (adjusted OR, 1.94 [95% CI, 0.97-3.91]). Infants exposed to either group of antipsychotics had increased risks of being SGA on birth weight, whereas only exposure to other antipsychotics yielded increased risks of being SGA for birth length and head circumference. None of the risks (...) for SGA measurements remained significant after adjusting for maternal factors. There were no increased risks of being large for gestational age for birth weight or birth length after exposure to olanzapine and/or clozapine, but the risk increased for head circumference (OR, 3.02 [95% CI, 1.60-5.71]).Women who used antipsychotics during pregnancy had increased risks of gestational diabetes. The increased risks of giving birth to an SGA infant seemed to be an effect of confounders, such as smoking

2012 Archives of General Psychiatry

235. The influence of maternal cortisol and emotional state during pregnancy on fetal intrauterine growth. Full Text available with Trip Pro

%; head circumference at T3: PVE = 10.3%; head circumference at birth PVE = 9.1%) and attachment (BMI at birth: PVE = 6.9%; PI at birth: PVE = 7.2%) had an influence on growth. Analysis of growth between T2 and T3 showed that attachment and cortisol in T3 had an influence on the variation in increase in estimated fetal weight (PVE = 12.5-8.6%).These data indicate basal cortisol levels were more important in T2 whereas emotional state was more important in T3. (...) The influence of maternal cortisol and emotional state during pregnancy on fetal intrauterine growth. This exploratory study investigates the influence of maternal cortisol and emotional state during pregnancy on fetal intrauterine growth (IUG). We expected higher basal cortisol levels, or more depressive and anxious complaints during pregnancy, to be associated with slower IUG and lower birth weight.A total of 91 pregnant women were recruited from the antenatal clinic and were seen once each

2012 Pediatric Research

236. Fetal growth profiles of macrosomic and non-macrosomic infants of women with pregestational or gestational diabetes. (Abstract)

women with DM2 and in 99 women with GDM. Altogether 897 ultrasound examinations were performed and 145 uncomplicated pregnancies with 843 ultrasound examinations were included as controls. Ultrasound data included head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL) and HC/AC ratio.The AC, but not HC and FL, evolved differently in diabetic pregnancies, with a smaller AC in early pregnancy and larger AC at term (significant for DM1 and DM2). The most striking differences were (...) Fetal growth profiles of macrosomic and non-macrosomic infants of women with pregestational or gestational diabetes. To assess fetal growth profiles in an unselected group of pregnant women with either type-1 diabetes (DM1), type-2 diabetes (DM2) or gestational diabetes (GDM), with emphasis on intergroup differences and development of disproportionate fetal growth and macrosomia.Second- and third-trimester longitudinal ultrasound measurements of fetal growth were made in 77 women with DM1, 68

2012 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

237. Occupational exposure to chemicals and fetal growth: the Generation R Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, alkylphenolic compounds and pesticides adversely influenced several domains of fetal growth (fetal weight, fetal head circumference and fetal length). We found a significant association between pesticide and phthalate exposure with a decreased placental weight.Our results suggest that maternal occupational exposure to several chemicals is associated with impaired fetal growth during pregnancy and a decreased placental weight. Further (...) Occupational exposure to chemicals and fetal growth: the Generation R Study. Developmental diseases, such as birth defects, growth restriction and preterm delivery, account for >25% of infant mortality and morbidity. Several studies have shown that exposure to chemicals during pregnancy is associated with adverse birth outcomes. The aim of this study was to identify whether occupational exposure to various chemicals might adversely influence intrauterine growth patterns and placental

2012 Human Reproduction

238. Intra- and interobserver variability in fetal ultrasound measurements. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Intra- and interobserver variability in fetal ultrasound measurements. To assess intra- and interobserver variability of fetal biometry measurements throughout pregnancy.A total of 175 scans (of 140 fetuses) were prospectively performed at 14-41 weeks of gestation ensuring an even distribution throughout gestation. From among three experienced sonographers, a pair of observers independently acquired a duplicate set of seven standard measurements for each fetus. Differences between and within (...) gestation. When expressed as a percentage or Z-score, the 95% limits of agreement for intraobserver difference for head circumference (HC) were ± 3.0% or 0.67; they were ± 5.3% or 0.90 and ± 6.6% or 0.94 for abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL), respectively. The corresponding values for interobserver differences were ± 4.9% or 0.99 for HC, ± 8.8% or 1.35 for AC and ± 11.1% or 1.43 for FL.Although intra- and interobserver variability increases with advancing gestation when expressed

2012 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

239. Imprinted gene expression in fetal growth and development. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of 106 placenta samples, overrepresented with small and large for gestational age cases, from the Rhode Island Child Health Study. We investigated associations between imprinted gene expression and three fetal development parameters: newborn head circumference, birth weight, and size for gestational age. Results from our investigation show that the maternally imprinted/paternally expressed gene ZNF331 inversely associates with each parameter to drive smaller fetal size, while paternally imprinted (...) /maternally expressed gene SLC22A18 directly associates with the newborn head circumference promoting growth. Multidimensional Scaling analysis revealed two clusters within the 22 imprinted genes which are independently associated with fetoplacental development. Our data suggest that cluster 1 genes work by assuring cell growth and tissue development, while cluster 2 genes act by coordinating these processes. Results from this epidemiologic study offer solid support for the key role of imprinting

2012 Placenta

240. Association of Environmental Insecticide Exposure and Fetal Growth With a Bayesian Model Including Multiple Exposure Sources: The PELAGIE Mother-Child Cohort. Full Text available with Trip Pro

on agricultural activities in the women's municipalities of residence. A 0.10-cm decrease in head circumference at birth (95% credibility interval: -0.22, 0.01) was associated with fetal insecticide exposure from agricultural activities in the municipality of residence. Decreases in average birth weight (-27 g; 95% credibility interval: -59, 6) and head circumference (-0.12 cm; 95% credibility interval: -0.26, 0.01) were associated with household insecticide use to treat plants. The present results suggest (...) Association of Environmental Insecticide Exposure and Fetal Growth With a Bayesian Model Including Multiple Exposure Sources: The PELAGIE Mother-Child Cohort. It has been suggested that prenatal exposure to insecticides adversely affects fetal growth, but the overall results have been inconsistent, partly because of the different exposure sources and exposure assessments used. In the French PELAGIE (Perturbateurs Endocriniens: Étude Longitudinale sur les Anomalies de la Grossesse, l'Infertilité

2012 American Journal of Epidemiology

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