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Fetal Head Circumference

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201. Prevalence and Characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Prevalence and Characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. To determine the prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) among first grade students (6- to 7-year-olds) in a representative Midwestern US community.From a consented sample of 70.5% of all first graders enrolled in public and private schools, an oversample of small children (≤ 25th percentile on height, weight, and head circumference) and randomly selected control candidates were examined (...) for physical growth, development, dysmorphology, cognition, and behavior. The children's mothers were interviewed for maternal risk.Total dysmorphology scores differentiate significantly fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) from one another and from unexposed controls. Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) is not as clearly differentiated from controls. Children who had FASD performed, on average, significantly worse on 7 cognitive and behavioral tests and measures. The most

2014 Pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

202. Prediction of small for gestational age neonates: screening by fetal biometry at 30-34 weeks. (Abstract)

hypertension. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine if screening by a combination of maternal factors and Z-scores of fetal head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) or estimated fetal weight (EFW) had a significant contribution to the prediction of SGA neonates.Combined screening by maternal characteristics and obstetric history, with Z-scores of EFW at 30-34 weeks, predicted 79%, 87% and 92% of the SGA neonates that delivered < 5 weeks (...) Prediction of small for gestational age neonates: screening by fetal biometry at 30-34 weeks. To investigate the value of fetal biometry at 30-34 weeks' gestation in the prediction of delivery of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates, in the absence of pre-eclampsia (PE).This was a screening study in 30 849 singleton pregnancies at 30-34 weeks' gestation, comprising 1727 that delivered SGA neonates with a birth weight < 5(th) percentile and 29 122 cases unaffected by SGA, PE or gestational

2014 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

203. Fetal biometry in the Korean population: reference charts and comparison with charts from other populations. (Abstract)

Fetal biometry in the Korean population: reference charts and comparison with charts from other populations. The objectives of this article were to construct size charts for fetal biometry in the Korean population and to identify ethnic differences in fetal biometry.A prospective, cross-sectional study was performed with 986 fetuses between 15 to 40 weeks of gestation. The following biometric variables were measured: biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (...) (AC), and long bones lengths including the femur, tibia, humerus, and ulna. For each measurement, regression models were fitted to estimate the mean and standard deviation at each gestational age. The calculated centiles were compared with centiles from other populations using Z-scores.New charts for the Korean population were presented for the fetal biometric variables. Most of the parameters were similar to those for the Italian population. Also, in comparison with the North American and UK

2014 Prenatal diagnosis

204. Assessment of Antepartum Fetal Growth by Customized “GROW” Curves Versus Noncustomized Growth Curves in Correlation with Neonatal Growth Pattern Full Text available with Trip Pro

Assessment of Antepartum Fetal Growth by Customized “GROW” Curves Versus Noncustomized Growth Curves in Correlation with Neonatal Growth Pattern To study the antepartum fetal growth between customized "GROW" curves and noncustomized growth curves with neonatal growth pattern.Fetal growth scans are performed between 30 and 35 weeks to singleton mother. Estimated fetal weights (EFWs) were determined using ultrasound variables (biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference (...) , and femur length). This EFW is plotted on SONOCARE software [noncustomized growth curves developed by Medialogic solutions (P) Ltd., Chennai, India] and customized "GROW" curves to determine the type of antenatal fetal growth as AGA, small for gestational age (SGA), or large for gestational age (LGA). The fetuses were followed longitudinally till birth, and the newborns' growth patterns were determined according to birth weight at the gestational age of delivery (<10th percentile for gestational age

2014 Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology of India

205. Estimation of Fetal Weight (Overview)

diameter (BPD), and head circumference (HC), both singly and in combination. Obstetric ultrasonography The most modern method for assessing fetal weight in utero involves the use of fetal measurements obtained during obstetrical ultrasonography. The advantage of this technique is that it relies on linear and/or planar measurements of in utero fetal dimensions that are objectively definable and generally reproducible. Findings from multiple studies have shown that ultrasonographic estimates of fetal (...) point estimate), this information cannot be applied successfully to any particular gravida. In addition, all such tables presuppose that the gestational age of the fetus is adequately established; without proper gestational dating, fetal growth curves cannot be appropriately applied even to groups of gravidas. The principal limitations of standard fetal-growth curves that are derived from population-based studies are the following: They apply only to fetuses of normal size for their gestational age

2014 eMedicine.com

206. Fetal Growth Restriction (Overview)

measurements and individual parameters. Assessing individual values is important to identify a fetus that is growing asymmetrically. In the presence of normal head and femur measurements, abdominal circumference (AC) measurements of less than 2 standard deviations below the mean appear to be a reasonable cutoff to consider a fetus asymmetric. Baschat and Weiner showed that a low AC percentile had the highest sensitivity (98.1%) for diagnosing IUGR (birth weight < 10th percentile). The sensitivity of EFW (...) integrated fetal testing for IUGR, in increasing order of severity from 1 (least severe) to 5 (most severe), is as follows: [ ] Situation 1 See the list below: Test results – AC less than fifth percentile, low AC growth rate, high ratio of head circumference to AC; BPS greater than or equal to 8 and AFV normal; abnormal UV and/or cerebroplacental ratio; normal MCA Interpretation – IUGR diagnosed, asphyxia extremely rare, increased risk for intrapartum distress Recommended management – Intervention

2014 eMedicine.com

207. Fetal Growth Restriction (Treatment)

measurements and individual parameters. Assessing individual values is important to identify a fetus that is growing asymmetrically. In the presence of normal head and femur measurements, abdominal circumference (AC) measurements of less than 2 standard deviations below the mean appear to be a reasonable cutoff to consider a fetus asymmetric. Baschat and Weiner showed that a low AC percentile had the highest sensitivity (98.1%) for diagnosing IUGR (birth weight < 10th percentile). The sensitivity of EFW (...) integrated fetal testing for IUGR, in increasing order of severity from 1 (least severe) to 5 (most severe), is as follows: [ ] Situation 1 See the list below: Test results – AC less than fifth percentile, low AC growth rate, high ratio of head circumference to AC; BPS greater than or equal to 8 and AFV normal; abnormal UV and/or cerebroplacental ratio; normal MCA Interpretation – IUGR diagnosed, asphyxia extremely rare, increased risk for intrapartum distress Recommended management – Intervention

2014 eMedicine.com

208. Estimation of Fetal Weight (Treatment)

diameter (BPD), and head circumference (HC), both singly and in combination. Obstetric ultrasonography The most modern method for assessing fetal weight in utero involves the use of fetal measurements obtained during obstetrical ultrasonography. The advantage of this technique is that it relies on linear and/or planar measurements of in utero fetal dimensions that are objectively definable and generally reproducible. Findings from multiple studies have shown that ultrasonographic estimates of fetal (...) point estimate), this information cannot be applied successfully to any particular gravida. In addition, all such tables presuppose that the gestational age of the fetus is adequately established; without proper gestational dating, fetal growth curves cannot be appropriately applied even to groups of gravidas. The principal limitations of standard fetal-growth curves that are derived from population-based studies are the following: They apply only to fetuses of normal size for their gestational age

2014 eMedicine.com

209. Estimation of Fetal Weight (Follow-up)

diameter (BPD), and head circumference (HC), both singly and in combination. Obstetric ultrasonography The most modern method for assessing fetal weight in utero involves the use of fetal measurements obtained during obstetrical ultrasonography. The advantage of this technique is that it relies on linear and/or planar measurements of in utero fetal dimensions that are objectively definable and generally reproducible. Findings from multiple studies have shown that ultrasonographic estimates of fetal (...) point estimate), this information cannot be applied successfully to any particular gravida. In addition, all such tables presuppose that the gestational age of the fetus is adequately established; without proper gestational dating, fetal growth curves cannot be appropriately applied even to groups of gravidas. The principal limitations of standard fetal-growth curves that are derived from population-based studies are the following: They apply only to fetuses of normal size for their gestational age

2014 eMedicine.com

210. Fetal Growth Restriction (Follow-up)

measurements and individual parameters. Assessing individual values is important to identify a fetus that is growing asymmetrically. In the presence of normal head and femur measurements, abdominal circumference (AC) measurements of less than 2 standard deviations below the mean appear to be a reasonable cutoff to consider a fetus asymmetric. Baschat and Weiner showed that a low AC percentile had the highest sensitivity (98.1%) for diagnosing IUGR (birth weight < 10th percentile). The sensitivity of EFW (...) integrated fetal testing for IUGR, in increasing order of severity from 1 (least severe) to 5 (most severe), is as follows: [ ] Situation 1 See the list below: Test results – AC less than fifth percentile, low AC growth rate, high ratio of head circumference to AC; BPS greater than or equal to 8 and AFV normal; abnormal UV and/or cerebroplacental ratio; normal MCA Interpretation – IUGR diagnosed, asphyxia extremely rare, increased risk for intrapartum distress Recommended management – Intervention

2014 eMedicine.com

211. Estimation of Fetal Weight (Diagnosis)

diameter (BPD), and head circumference (HC), both singly and in combination. Obstetric ultrasonography The most modern method for assessing fetal weight in utero involves the use of fetal measurements obtained during obstetrical ultrasonography. The advantage of this technique is that it relies on linear and/or planar measurements of in utero fetal dimensions that are objectively definable and generally reproducible. Findings from multiple studies have shown that ultrasonographic estimates of fetal (...) point estimate), this information cannot be applied successfully to any particular gravida. In addition, all such tables presuppose that the gestational age of the fetus is adequately established; without proper gestational dating, fetal growth curves cannot be appropriately applied even to groups of gravidas. The principal limitations of standard fetal-growth curves that are derived from population-based studies are the following: They apply only to fetuses of normal size for their gestational age

2014 eMedicine.com

212. Fetal Growth Restriction (Diagnosis)

measurements and individual parameters. Assessing individual values is important to identify a fetus that is growing asymmetrically. In the presence of normal head and femur measurements, abdominal circumference (AC) measurements of less than 2 standard deviations below the mean appear to be a reasonable cutoff to consider a fetus asymmetric. Baschat and Weiner showed that a low AC percentile had the highest sensitivity (98.1%) for diagnosing IUGR (birth weight < 10th percentile). The sensitivity of EFW (...) integrated fetal testing for IUGR, in increasing order of severity from 1 (least severe) to 5 (most severe), is as follows: [ ] Situation 1 See the list below: Test results – AC less than fifth percentile, low AC growth rate, high ratio of head circumference to AC; BPS greater than or equal to 8 and AFV normal; abnormal UV and/or cerebroplacental ratio; normal MCA Interpretation – IUGR diagnosed, asphyxia extremely rare, increased risk for intrapartum distress Recommended management – Intervention

2014 eMedicine.com

213. Evidence of second trimester changes in head biometry and brain perfusion in fetuses with congenital heart disease. (Abstract)

Evidence of second trimester changes in head biometry and brain perfusion in fetuses with congenital heart disease. To evaluate the associations between congenital heart disease (CHD) and head biometry and cerebrovascular blood flow dynamics at the time of diagnosis of CHD in the second trimester of pregnancy.This was a study of 95 consecutive fetuses diagnosed with CHD. At the time of diagnosis, fetal biometry was performed and brain perfusion was assessed by middle cerebral artery pulsatility (...) as compared with 10.5% in controls (P < 0.001). Moreover, cases showed significantly smaller biparietal diameter (BPD) and head circumference (HC) Z-scores (-1.61 vs -0.43 and -0.89 vs 0.09, respectively; both P < 0.001), with a higher proportion of BPD and HC measurements below the 5(th) percentile compared with controls (51.6% vs 13.7% and 26.3% vs 4.2%, respectively; both P < 0.001). These findings were more pronounced in those cases with types of CHD associated with compromised oxygenated blood

2014 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

214. The use of ultrasound measurements in environmental epidemiological studies of air pollution and fetal growth Full Text available with Trip Pro

by ultrasound measurements.The six studies published to date found that exposure to certain ambient air pollutants during pregnancy is negatively associated with the growth rates and average attained size of fetal parameters belonging to the growth profile. Fetal parameters may respond to maternal air pollution exposures uniquely, and this response may vary by pollutant and timing of gestational exposure. Current literature suggests that mean changes in head circumference, abdominal circumference, femur (...) The use of ultrasound measurements in environmental epidemiological studies of air pollution and fetal growth Recently, several international research groups have suggested that studies about environmental contaminants and adverse pregnancy outcomes should be designed to elucidate potential underlying biological mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to examine the epidemiological studies addressing maternal exposure to air pollutants and fetal growth during gestation as assessed

2013 Current Opinion in Pediatrics

215. Fetal Growth and Childhood Cancer: A Population-Based Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

: 1.2-3.6]) and connective/soft tissue tumors (OR: 2.1 [95% CI: 1.1-4.4]). In contrast, the risk of acute myeloid leukemia was increased among children born small for gestational age (OR: 1.8 [95% CI: 1.1-3.1]). Children diagnosed with central nervous system tumors at <1 year of age had elevated risk with increasing head circumference (P trend < .001). Those with head circumference >39 cm had the highest risk (OR: 4.7 [95% CI: 2.5-8.7]).In this large, Nordic population-based study, increased risks (...) Fetal Growth and Childhood Cancer: A Population-Based Study. The etiology of childhood cancers is largely unknown. Studies have suggested that birth characteristics may be associated with risk. Our goal was to evaluate the risk of childhood cancers in relation to fetal growth.We conducted a case-control study nested within Nordic birth registries. The study included cancer cases diagnosed in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden among children born from 1967 to 2010 and up to 10 matched controls

2013 Pediatrics

216. Severe Left Heart Obstruction with Retrograde Arch Flow Importantly Influences Fetal Cerebral and Placental Blood Flow. (Abstract)

, the cerebral placental ratio (CPR  =  MCA-PI/ UA-PI) and neonatal head circumference were obtained and expressed as Z-scores.Lower MCA-PI, higher UA-PI and lower CPR were observed in fetal HLHS and isolated coarctation with reversed arch flow (n = 6) (P < 0.001) but not TGA, POTO or isolated coarctation with antegrade arch flow (n = 15) compared with controls. No difference was found between HLHS with anatomical coarctation and those without; however, MCA-PI correlated positively with neonatal head (...) circumference in HLHS with reversed distal arch flow (r = 0.33, P < 0.05).Severe left heart obstruction with reversed aortic arch flow is associated with altered fetal cerebral blood flow, and in these conditions, MCA-PI positively correlates with head growth. Anatomical arch obstruction itself may not be a contributing factor to altered MCA flow in fetal HLHS.Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

2013 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

217. Paternal GNAS mutations lead to severe intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and provide evidence for a role of XLαs in fetal development. Full Text available with Trip Pro

growth retardation (IUGR) and thus small size for gestational age.The aim of the study was to confirm and expand these findings in a large number of patients presenting with either PHP-Ia or PPHP/POH.We collected birth parameters (ie, gestational age, weight, length, and head circumference) of patients with either PHP-Ia (n = 29) or PPHP/POH (n = 26) with verified GNAS mutations. The parental allele carrying the mutation was assessed by investigating the parents or, when a de novo mutation (...) Paternal GNAS mutations lead to severe intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and provide evidence for a role of XLαs in fetal development. Heterozygous GNAS inactivating mutations cause pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP-Ia) when maternally inherited and pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP)/progressive osseous heteroplasia (POH) when paternally inherited. Recent studies have suggested that mutations on the paternal, but not the maternal, GNAS allele could be associated with intrauterine

2013 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

218. Anthropometric protocols for the construction of new international fetal and newborn growth standards: the INTERGROWTH-21<sup>st</sup> Project. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Anthropometric protocols for the construction of new international fetal and newborn growth standards: the INTERGROWTH-21st Project. The primary aim of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project is to construct new, prescriptive standards describing optimal fetal and preterm postnatal growth. The anthropometric measurements include the head circumference, recumbent length and weight of the infants, and the stature and weight of the parents. In such a large, international, multicentre project

2013 BJOG

219. Anthropometric standardisation and quality control protocols for the construction of new, international, fetal and newborn growth standards: the INTERGROWTH-21<sup>st</sup> Project. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Anthropometric standardisation and quality control protocols for the construction of new, international, fetal and newborn growth standards: the INTERGROWTH-21st Project. The primary aim of the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project is to construct new, prescriptive standards describing optimal fetal and preterm postnatal growth. The anthropometric measurements include the head circumference, recumbent length and weight of the infants, and the stature and weight of the parents. In such a large (...) , Kenya, Oman, UK and USA. The intraobserver and inter-observer technical error of measurement values for head circumference range from 0.3 to 0.4 cm, and for recumbent length from 0.3 to 0.5 cm. These standardisation protocols implemented at each study site worldwide ensure that the anthropometric data collected are of the highest quality to construct international growth standards.© 2013 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

2013 BJOG

220. Evaluation of fetal anthropometric measures to predict the risk for shoulder dystocia. (Abstract)

, biparietal diameter (BPD), occipitofrontal diameter (OFD), head circumference, abdominal diameter (AD), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length were analyzed. The influences of independent risk factors were calculated and their combination used in a predictive model.The incidence of shoulder dystocia was 1.14%. Different combinations of sonographic parameters showed comparable ROC curves without advantage for a particular combination. The difference between AD and BPD (AD - BPD) (area under (...) Evaluation of fetal anthropometric measures to predict the risk for shoulder dystocia. To evaluate the quality of anthropometric measures to improve the prediction of shoulder dystocia by combining different sonographic biometric parameters.This was a retrospective cohort study of 12,794 vaginal deliveries with complete sonographic biometry data obtained within 7 days before delivery. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves of various combinations of the biometric parameters, namely

2013 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

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