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are shown. Biometric data were transformed into z-values.Median gestational age at the time of examination was 22.6 (range 19.0-29.7) weeks of gestation. In all cases, the headcircumference (HC) and the femur length (FL) were within the normal range, but the HC-FL ratio was above the 95th centile in 75% of the cases. An exomphalos, macroglossia, and visceromegaly were observed in 67%, 50%, and 83% of the cases, and in 58% and 83%, there were polyhydramnios and placentamegaly respectively. The fetal (...) Novel fetal and maternal sonographic findings in confirmed cases of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. The objective of the study was to examine the prenatal anomalies in fetuses with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS).The study included a retrospective assessment of 12 pregnancies that were seen at three tertiary referral centres (Universities of Tübingen, Bonn, and Cologne/Germany). The genetic mutation, the results of the second trimester ultrasound examination, and the outcome of the pregnancies
there are higher rates of perinatal problems. This study aimed to test for sex differences in the association between foetal growth indices and attention problems at age four, in a large, prospective birth cohort from a middle-income country.A total of 3,749 neonates from the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort (Brazil) with foetal growth indices collected at birth [low birthweight (LBW), small-for-gestational age (SGA), headcircumference (HC), headcircumference-to-abdominal circumference ratio (HC/AC) and ponderal (...) Sex differences in the association between foetal growth and child attention at age four: specific vulnerability of girls. Recent evidence suggests that impaired foetal growth may provide an early indication of increased risk of child attention problems. However, despite both foetal growth and child attention problems differing by sex, few studies have examined sex differences in this association. Furthermore, no studies have been conducted in low- and middle-income countries, where
into frequencies of: <0.2 servings/month, 0.2 servings/month -<0.5 servings/week, 0.5-1 servings/week, and >1 servings/week. We abstracted birthweight, birth length, and headcircumference from medical records. Using generalised linear models with a log link, the Poisson family, and robust standard errors, we estimated relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for low birthweight (LBW, <2500 g) and linear regression models to estimate mean differences for continuous fetal growth indices across seafood (...) Periconceptional Seafood Intake and Fetal Growth. Previous reports of associations of maternal seafood intake with fetal growth were inconsistent. Further, little is known whether associations differ across seafood subtypes or fetal growth indices.Among 3141 participants of the Omega study, a pregnancy cohort study, we investigated associations of periconceptional shell, lean, and fatty fish intake with fetal growth indices. We categorised food frequency questionnaire reported seafood intake
Measuring the Perimeter and Area of the Sylvian Fissure in Fetal Brain during Normal Pregnancies Using 3-Dimensional Ultrasound. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the normal perimeter and area of the three orthogonal planes (axial, sagittal and coronal) of the fetal Sylvian fissure along pregnancy using 3-dimensional (3D) ultrasound.Ultrasound volumes of fetalhead were acquired prospectively in 55 fetuses between 12 and 33 gestational weeks. All volumes were analyzed offline by two (...) examiners separately. The largest axial, sagittal and coronal planes of the Sylvian fissure were identified, and the area and perimeter were measured.Measurements of the Sylvian fissure were demonstrated in 54 out of 55 volumes (98%). In all three planes, a linear growth was demonstrated along gestation. All measurements significantly correlated to gestational age and headcircumference (p < 0.01). The Sylvian fissure was found to grow asymmetrically, more at the anterior-posterior direction than
estimation of fetal weight. The purpose of this phase was to establish normal values for the fetal abdominal and head volumes throughout the third trimester. Phase II was a prospective study that included patients admitted for an elective cesarean section or for induction of labor between 38 and 41 weeks' gestation (n=91). This phase of the study compared the actual birth weight to two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) measurements of the fetus. Conventional 2D ultrasound fetal biometry was performed (...) measuring the biparietal diameter (BPD), headcircumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), and femur diaphysis length (FL). Volume estimates were computed utilizing Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL), and the correlation between measured volumes and actual neonatal weight was calculated.Overall, this longitudinal study consisted of 110 patients between 28 and 41 weeks' gestation. Normal values were computed for the fetal abdomen and head volume throughout the third trimester. Ultrasound
Disproportionate Fetal Growth and the Risk for Congenital Cerebral Palsy in Singleton Births To investigate the association between proportionality of fetal and placental growth measured at birth and the risk for congenital cerebral palsy (CP).We identified all live-born singletons born in Denmark between 1995 and 2003 and followed them from 1 year of age until December 31st, 2008. Information on four indices of fetal growth: ponderal index, headcircumference/ abdominal circumference ratio (...) , placental weight and headcircumference suggesting pre and perinatal conditions contribute to fetal growth restriction in children with CP.
done at birth. Retinal microvasculature was measured using computer software from the retinal photographs.In multiple linear regression models, each 10 μm narrowing in maternal retinal arteriolar caliber was associated with decreases of 1.36 mm in fetalheadcircumference at 32-34 weeks gestation, as well as decreases of 1.50 mm and 2.30 mm in infant headcircumference and birth length at delivery, respectively. Each standard deviation decrease in maternal retinal arteriolar fractal dimension (...) was associated with decreases of 1.55 mm in fetalheadcircumference at 32-34 weeks gestation, as well as decreases of 1.08 mm and 46.42 g in infant headcircumference and birth weight at delivery, respectively.Narrower retinal arteriolar caliber and a sparser retinal vascular network in mothers, reflecting a suboptimal uteroplacental microvasculature during mid-pregnancy, were associated with poorer fetal growth and birth size.
of diagnosis.This was a prospective cohort study including 58 fetuses with CHD, diagnosed at 20-24 weeks' gestation, and 58 normal control fetuses. At the time of diagnosis, we recorded fetalheadcircumference (HC), biparietal diameter, middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (MCA-PI), cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) and brain perfusion by fractional moving blood volume. We classified cases into one of two clinical types defined by the expected levels (high or low) of placental (well-oxygenated) blood perfusion (...) Fetal brain Doppler and biometry at mid-gestation for the early prediction of abnormal brain development at birth in congenital heart disease. Fetuses with congenital heart disease (CHD) show evidence of abnormal brain development before birth, which is thought to contribute to adverse neurodevelopment during childhood. Our aim was to evaluate whether brain development in late pregnancy can be predicted by fetal brain Doppler, head biometry and the clinical form of CHD at the time
, antiretroviral users, publicly assisted, HIV-infected women and to verify its relation to the HIV infection stage.Out of 250 deliveries from HIV-infected mothers that delivered at a tertiary public university hospital in the city of Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil, from November 2001 to May 2012, 74 single pregnancies were selected for study, with ultrasound validated gestational age (GA) and data on birth dimensions: fetal weight (FW), birth length (BL), head and abdominal (...) PRETERM BIRTH AND FETAL GROWTH RESTRICTION IN HIV-INFECTED BRAZILIAN PREGNANT WOMEN Maternal HIV infection and related co-morbidities may have two outstanding consequences to fetal health: mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and adverse perinatal outcomes. After Brazilian success in reducing MTCT, the attention must now be diverted to the potentially increased risk for preterm birth (PTB) and intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR).To determine the prevalence of PTB and IUGR in low income
randomized controlled trial of single compared with multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids in women at risk for preterm birth and in which fetuses administered multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids weighed less, were shorter, and had smaller headcircumferences at birth. All women (n=1,858) and children (n=2,304) enrolled in the Multiple Courses of Antenatal Corticosteroids for Preterm Birth Study were included in the current analysis. Multiple linear regression analyses were (...) undertaken.Compared with placebo, neonates in the antenatal corticosteroids group were born earlier (estimated difference and confidence interval [CI]: -0.428 weeks, CI -0.10264 to -0.75336; P=.01). Controlling for gestational age at birth and confounding factors, multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids were associated with a decrease in birth weight (-33.50 g, CI -66.27120 to -0.72880; P=.045), length (-0.339 cm, CI -0.6212 to -0.05676]; P=.019), and headcircumference (-0.296 cm, -0.45672 to -0.13528; P
showed a similar gradient with infants born to non-smokers being heavier, longer, and with larger headcircumferences than those born to heavy smokers. Co-variance analysis showed that a large part of the effect of maternal smoking is mediated through maternal weight gain with only a very small additional direct effect on the fetus. This suggests that increasing weight gain in smoking mothers might prevent some of the harmful effects of smoking on fetal growth. A randomised controlled trial of diet (...) Cigarette smoking in pregnancy: Associations with maternal weight gain and fetal growth. 1159 mother-infant "pairs" have been studied to examine the inter-relationship of cigarette smoking in the latter half of pregnancy, maternal weight gain, and fetal growth. Non-smokers gained significantly more weight than heavy smokers (greater than 15 cigarettes per day) while light-to-moderate smokers (1-14 cigarettes a day) were intermediate. Birth-weight, length, and headcircumference of the infants
Head growth in fetuses with isolated congenital heart defects: lack of influence of aortic arch flow and ascending aorta oxygen saturation. Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are reported to be associated with a smaller fetalheadcircumference (HC) and neurodevelopmental delay. Recent studies suggest that altered intrauterine brain hemodynamics may explain these findings. Our objectives were to evaluate the pattern of head growth in a large cohort of fetuses with various types of CHD, analyze (...) these patterns according to the type of CHD and estimate the effect of cerebral hemodynamics with advancing gestation in the second and third trimesters.Singleton fetuses with an isolated CHD were selected from three fetal medicine units (n = 436). Cases with placental insufficiency or genetic syndromes were excluded. CHD types were clustered according to the flow and oxygen saturation in the aorta. Z-scores of biometric data were constructed using growth charts of a normal population. HC at different
Growth trajectories of the human embryonic head and periconceptional maternal conditions. Can growth trajectories of the human embryonic head be created using 3D ultrasound (3D-US) and virtual reality (VR) technology, and be associated with second trimester fetalhead size and periconceptional maternal conditions?Serial first trimester headcircumference (HC) and head volume (HV) measurements were used to create reliable growth trajectories of the embryonic head, which were significantly (...) associated with fetalhead size and periconceptional maternal smoking, age and ITALIC! in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment.Fetal growth is influenced by periconceptional maternal conditions.We selected 149 singleton pregnancies with a live born non-malformed fetus from the Rotterdam periconception cohort.Bi-parietal diameter and occipital frontal diameter to calculate HC, HV and crown-rump length (CRL) were measured weekly between 9 + 0 and 12 + 6 weeks
accompanied by reduced birth weight (P <0.05) and headcircumference (P <0.01) at high altitude vs. sea level. Our findings indicate that chronic exposure to hypoxia during pregnancy alters maternal gene expression patterns in general and, in particular, expression of key genes involved in metabolic homeostasis that have been proposed to play a role in the pathophysiology of fetal growth restriction. (...) Inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor Î³: a potential link between chronic maternal hypoxia and impaired fetal growth Chronic exposure to hypoxia raises the risk of pregnancy disorders characterized by maternal vascular dysfunction and diminished fetal growth. In an effort to identify novel pathways for these hypoxia-related effects, we assessed gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from 43 female, high-altitude or sea-level residents
length, and headcircumference, even after women who developed preeclampsia were excluded. Infants born to gravidae with insufficient 25(OH)D or very low calcium intake without elevated PTH or with elevated PTH alone were unaffected.Maternal calcium metabolic stress, rather than low calcium intake or insufficient vitamin D, has an adverse influence on fetal growth. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NIH 0320070046. (...) Maternal calcium metabolic stress and fetal growth. Suboptimal maternal calcium intake and vitamin D status may or may not adversely influence fetal growth.It was hypothesized that maternal calcium metabolic stress in early pregnancy, rather than suboptimal calcium intake or insufficient vitamin D, influences the risk of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births and other aspects of fetal growth. Stress to calcium metabolism was defined as elevated intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) (>62 pg/mL
hospitals over a 10-year period. The measurements obtained in each fetus at each examination included headcircumference (HC), biparietal diameter (BPD), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL). Multilevel mixed effects statistical models were used to evaluate growth in each biometric variable in relation to gestational age, taking account of the serial examinations and the association between the two fetuses in each pregnancy, with separate models constructed for DCDA and MCDA (...) Fetal growth reference ranges in twin pregnancy: analysis of the Southwest Thames Obstetric. To generate reference charts for expected fetal growth in dichorionic diamniotic (DCDA) and monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) twin pregnancies and to compare these with those from singleton pregnancies.This was a retrospective study of biometric measurements from serial ultrasound examinations of twin pregnancies in the second and third trimesters, from 14 weeks' gestation to term, collected by nine
at the age of 6 years. Compared with nulliparous mothers, multiparous mothers had children with higher third trimester fetalheadcircumference, length and weight growth, and lower risks of preterm birth and small-size-for-gestational-age at birth but a higher risk of large-size-for-gestational-age at birth (P<0.05). Children from multiparous mothers had lower rates of accelerated infant growth and lower levels of childhood body mass index, total fat mass percentage, and total and low-density lipoprotein (...) Maternal Parity, Fetal and Childhood Growth, and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors. We examined the associations of maternal parity with fetal and childhood growth characteristics and childhood cardiometabolic risk factors in a population-based prospective cohort study among 9031 mothers and their children. Fetal and childhood growth were repeatedly measured. We measured childhood anthropometrics, body fat distribution, left ventricular mass, blood pressure, blood lipids, and insulin levels
(3258 ± 443 vs 3467 ± 492 g, P < .0001), fat mass (403 ± 175 vs 471 ± 193 g, P < .0001), and lean mass (2855 ± 321 vs 2995 ± 347 g, P < .0001), and smaller length, percent fat mass, and headcircumference. Adjusting for diabetic status, prepregnancy body mass index, smoking, parity, study site, gestational age, and sex, neonates of women who gained ≤5 kg had significantly lower birthweight, lean body mass, fat mass, percent fat mass, headcircumference, and length. There were no significant (...) Inadequate weight gain in overweight and obese pregnant women: what is the effect on fetal growth? We sought to evaluate inadequate gestational weight gain and fetal growth among overweight and obese women.We conducted an analysis of prospective singleton term pregnancies in which 1053 overweight and obese women gained >5 kg (14.4 ± 6.2 kg) or 188 who either lost or gained ≤5 kg (1.1 ± 4.4 kg). Birthweight, fat mass, and lean mass were assessed using anthropometry. Small for gestational age