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Fetal Head Circumference

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181. Maternal Parity, Fetal and Childhood Growth, and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors. (PubMed)

at the age of 6 years. Compared with nulliparous mothers, multiparous mothers had children with higher third trimester fetal head circumference, length and weight growth, and lower risks of preterm birth and small-size-for-gestational-age at birth but a higher risk of large-size-for-gestational-age at birth (P<0.05). Children from multiparous mothers had lower rates of accelerated infant growth and lower levels of childhood body mass index, total fat mass percentage, and total and low-density lipoprotein (...) Maternal Parity, Fetal and Childhood Growth, and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors. We examined the associations of maternal parity with fetal and childhood growth characteristics and childhood cardiometabolic risk factors in a population-based prospective cohort study among 9031 mothers and their children. Fetal and childhood growth were repeatedly measured. We measured childhood anthropometrics, body fat distribution, left ventricular mass, blood pressure, blood lipids, and insulin levels

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2014 Hypertension

182. Prediction of small for gestational age neonates: screening by fetal biometry at 30-34 weeks. (PubMed)

hypertension. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine if screening by a combination of maternal factors and Z-scores of fetal head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) or estimated fetal weight (EFW) had a significant contribution to the prediction of SGA neonates.Combined screening by maternal characteristics and obstetric history, with Z-scores of EFW at 30-34 weeks, predicted 79%, 87% and 92% of the SGA neonates that delivered < 5 weeks (...) Prediction of small for gestational age neonates: screening by fetal biometry at 30-34 weeks. To investigate the value of fetal biometry at 30-34 weeks' gestation in the prediction of delivery of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates, in the absence of pre-eclampsia (PE).This was a screening study in 30 849 singleton pregnancies at 30-34 weeks' gestation, comprising 1727 that delivered SGA neonates with a birth weight < 5(th) percentile and 29 122 cases unaffected by SGA, PE or gestational

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2014 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

183. Assessment of Antepartum Fetal Growth by Customized “GROW” Curves Versus Noncustomized Growth Curves in Correlation with Neonatal Growth Pattern (PubMed)

Assessment of Antepartum Fetal Growth by Customized “GROW” Curves Versus Noncustomized Growth Curves in Correlation with Neonatal Growth Pattern To study the antepartum fetal growth between customized "GROW" curves and noncustomized growth curves with neonatal growth pattern.Fetal growth scans are performed between 30 and 35 weeks to singleton mother. Estimated fetal weights (EFWs) were determined using ultrasound variables (biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference (...) , and femur length). This EFW is plotted on SONOCARE software [noncustomized growth curves developed by Medialogic solutions (P) Ltd., Chennai, India] and customized "GROW" curves to determine the type of antenatal fetal growth as AGA, small for gestational age (SGA), or large for gestational age (LGA). The fetuses were followed longitudinally till birth, and the newborns' growth patterns were determined according to birth weight at the gestational age of delivery (<10th percentile for gestational age

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2014 Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology of India

184. Inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ: a potential link between chronic maternal hypoxia and impaired fetal growth (PubMed)

accompanied by reduced birth weight (P <0.05) and head circumference (P <0.01) at high altitude vs. sea level. Our findings indicate that chronic exposure to hypoxia during pregnancy alters maternal gene expression patterns in general and, in particular, expression of key genes involved in metabolic homeostasis that have been proposed to play a role in the pathophysiology of fetal growth restriction. (...) Inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ: a potential link between chronic maternal hypoxia and impaired fetal growth Chronic exposure to hypoxia raises the risk of pregnancy disorders characterized by maternal vascular dysfunction and diminished fetal growth. In an effort to identify novel pathways for these hypoxia-related effects, we assessed gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from 43 female, high-altitude or sea-level residents

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2014 The FASEB Journal

185. Fetal biometry in the Korean population: reference charts and comparison with charts from other populations. (PubMed)

Fetal biometry in the Korean population: reference charts and comparison with charts from other populations. The objectives of this article were to construct size charts for fetal biometry in the Korean population and to identify ethnic differences in fetal biometry.A prospective, cross-sectional study was performed with 986 fetuses between 15 to 40 weeks of gestation. The following biometric variables were measured: biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (...) (AC), and long bones lengths including the femur, tibia, humerus, and ulna. For each measurement, regression models were fitted to estimate the mean and standard deviation at each gestational age. The calculated centiles were compared with centiles from other populations using Z-scores.New charts for the Korean population were presented for the fetal biometric variables. Most of the parameters were similar to those for the Italian population. Also, in comparison with the North American and UK

2014 Prenatal diagnosis

186. Prevalence and Characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. (PubMed)

Prevalence and Characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. To determine the prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) among first grade students (6- to 7-year-olds) in a representative Midwestern US community.From a consented sample of 70.5% of all first graders enrolled in public and private schools, an oversample of small children (≤ 25th percentile on height, weight, and head circumference) and randomly selected control candidates were examined (...) for physical growth, development, dysmorphology, cognition, and behavior. The children's mothers were interviewed for maternal risk.Total dysmorphology scores differentiate significantly fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) from one another and from unexposed controls. Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) is not as clearly differentiated from controls. Children who had FASD performed, on average, significantly worse on 7 cognitive and behavioral tests and measures. The most

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2014 Pediatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

187. Effect of treatment of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency during pregnancy on fetal growth indices and maternal weight gain: a randomized clinical trial. (PubMed)

. A multivariate regression analysis was performed to examine the independent effect of maternal vitamin D level on fetal growth indices.Mean (±standard deviation) length (intervention group: 49±1.6cm; control group: 48.2±1.7cm; p=0.001), head circumference (intervention group: 35.9±0.7cm; control group: 35.3±1.0cm; p=0.001) and weight (intervention group: 3429±351.9g; control group: 3258.8±328.2g; p=0.01) were higher in the intervention group compared with the control group. Mean maternal weight gain (...) was higher in the intervention group compared with the control group (13.3±2.4kg vs 11.7±2.7kg; p=0.006). Multivariate regression analysis for maternal weight gain, neonatal length, neonatal weight and neonatal head circumference showed an independent correlation with maternal vitamin D level.Treatment of low serum vitamin D during pregnancy improves fetal growth indices and maternal weight gain.Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

2014 European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

188. Cigarette smoking in pregnancy: Associations with maternal weight gain and fetal growth. (PubMed)

Cigarette smoking in pregnancy: Associations with maternal weight gain and fetal growth. 1159 mother-infant "pairs" have been studied to examine the inter-relationship of cigarette smoking in the latter half of pregnancy, maternal weight gain, and fetal growth. Non-smokers gained significantly more weight than heavy smokers (greater than 15 cigarettes per day) while light-to-moderate smokers (1-14 cigarettes a day) were intermediate. Birth-weight, length, and head circumference of the infants (...) showed a similar gradient with infants born to non-smokers being heavier, longer, and with larger head circumferences than those born to heavy smokers. Co-variance analysis showed that a large part of the effect of maternal smoking is mediated through maternal weight gain with only a very small additional direct effect on the fetus. This suggests that increasing weight gain in smoking mothers might prevent some of the harmful effects of smoking on fetal growth. A randomised controlled trial of diet

1976 Lancet

189. Estimation of Fetal Weight (Overview)

diameter (BPD), and head circumference (HC), both singly and in combination. Obstetric ultrasonography The most modern method for assessing fetal weight in utero involves the use of fetal measurements obtained during obstetrical ultrasonography. The advantage of this technique is that it relies on linear and/or planar measurements of in utero fetal dimensions that are objectively definable and generally reproducible. Findings from multiple studies have shown that ultrasonographic estimates of fetal (...) and newborns as well as for preterm infants in the postnatal growth period by using data from 20,486 gravidas, a subset of pregnant women in the Newborn Cross-Sectional Study (NCSS) from the multinational population-based INTERGROWTH-21st Project. [ ] The investigators calculated sex-specific observed and smoothed centiles for the parameters of birth weight, length, and head circumference for gestational age at birth (the observed and smoothed centiles were nearly identical) and created 3rd, 10th, 50th

2014 eMedicine.com

190. Fetal Growth Restriction (Overview)

integrated fetal testing for IUGR, in increasing order of severity from 1 (least severe) to 5 (most severe), is as follows: [ ] Situation 1 See the list below: Test results – AC less than fifth percentile, low AC growth rate, high ratio of head circumference to AC; BPS greater than or equal to 8 and AFV normal; abnormal UV and/or cerebroplacental ratio; normal MCA Interpretation – IUGR diagnosed, asphyxia extremely rare, increased risk for intrapartum distress Recommended management – Intervention (...) . Fetal Diagn Ther . 2000 Jan-Feb. 15(1):8-19. . Gardosi J, Mul T, Mongelli M, Fagan D. Analysis of birthweight and gestational age in antepartum stillbirths. Br J Obstet Gynaecol . 1998 May. 105(5):524-30. . Campbell S, Thoms A. Ultrasound measurement of the fetal head to abdomen circumference ratio in the assessment of growth retardation. Br J Obstet Gynaecol . 1977 Mar. 84(3):165-74. . Dashe JS, McIntire DD, Lucas MJ, Leveno KJ. Effects of symmetric and asymmetric fetal growth on pregnancy outcomes

2014 eMedicine.com

191. Fetal Growth Restriction (Diagnosis)

integrated fetal testing for IUGR, in increasing order of severity from 1 (least severe) to 5 (most severe), is as follows: [ ] Situation 1 See the list below: Test results – AC less than fifth percentile, low AC growth rate, high ratio of head circumference to AC; BPS greater than or equal to 8 and AFV normal; abnormal UV and/or cerebroplacental ratio; normal MCA Interpretation – IUGR diagnosed, asphyxia extremely rare, increased risk for intrapartum distress Recommended management – Intervention (...) . Fetal Diagn Ther . 2000 Jan-Feb. 15(1):8-19. . Gardosi J, Mul T, Mongelli M, Fagan D. Analysis of birthweight and gestational age in antepartum stillbirths. Br J Obstet Gynaecol . 1998 May. 105(5):524-30. . Campbell S, Thoms A. Ultrasound measurement of the fetal head to abdomen circumference ratio in the assessment of growth retardation. Br J Obstet Gynaecol . 1977 Mar. 84(3):165-74. . Dashe JS, McIntire DD, Lucas MJ, Leveno KJ. Effects of symmetric and asymmetric fetal growth on pregnancy outcomes

2014 eMedicine.com

192. Estimation of Fetal Weight (Diagnosis)

diameter (BPD), and head circumference (HC), both singly and in combination. Obstetric ultrasonography The most modern method for assessing fetal weight in utero involves the use of fetal measurements obtained during obstetrical ultrasonography. The advantage of this technique is that it relies on linear and/or planar measurements of in utero fetal dimensions that are objectively definable and generally reproducible. Findings from multiple studies have shown that ultrasonographic estimates of fetal (...) and newborns as well as for preterm infants in the postnatal growth period by using data from 20,486 gravidas, a subset of pregnant women in the Newborn Cross-Sectional Study (NCSS) from the multinational population-based INTERGROWTH-21st Project. [ ] The investigators calculated sex-specific observed and smoothed centiles for the parameters of birth weight, length, and head circumference for gestational age at birth (the observed and smoothed centiles were nearly identical) and created 3rd, 10th, 50th

2014 eMedicine.com

193. Fetal Growth Restriction (Treatment)

integrated fetal testing for IUGR, in increasing order of severity from 1 (least severe) to 5 (most severe), is as follows: [ ] Situation 1 See the list below: Test results – AC less than fifth percentile, low AC growth rate, high ratio of head circumference to AC; BPS greater than or equal to 8 and AFV normal; abnormal UV and/or cerebroplacental ratio; normal MCA Interpretation – IUGR diagnosed, asphyxia extremely rare, increased risk for intrapartum distress Recommended management – Intervention (...) . Fetal Diagn Ther . 2000 Jan-Feb. 15(1):8-19. . Gardosi J, Mul T, Mongelli M, Fagan D. Analysis of birthweight and gestational age in antepartum stillbirths. Br J Obstet Gynaecol . 1998 May. 105(5):524-30. . Campbell S, Thoms A. Ultrasound measurement of the fetal head to abdomen circumference ratio in the assessment of growth retardation. Br J Obstet Gynaecol . 1977 Mar. 84(3):165-74. . Dashe JS, McIntire DD, Lucas MJ, Leveno KJ. Effects of symmetric and asymmetric fetal growth on pregnancy outcomes

2014 eMedicine.com

194. Estimation of Fetal Weight (Treatment)

diameter (BPD), and head circumference (HC), both singly and in combination. Obstetric ultrasonography The most modern method for assessing fetal weight in utero involves the use of fetal measurements obtained during obstetrical ultrasonography. The advantage of this technique is that it relies on linear and/or planar measurements of in utero fetal dimensions that are objectively definable and generally reproducible. Findings from multiple studies have shown that ultrasonographic estimates of fetal (...) and newborns as well as for preterm infants in the postnatal growth period by using data from 20,486 gravidas, a subset of pregnant women in the Newborn Cross-Sectional Study (NCSS) from the multinational population-based INTERGROWTH-21st Project. [ ] The investigators calculated sex-specific observed and smoothed centiles for the parameters of birth weight, length, and head circumference for gestational age at birth (the observed and smoothed centiles were nearly identical) and created 3rd, 10th, 50th

2014 eMedicine.com

195. Estimation of Fetal Weight (Follow-up)

diameter (BPD), and head circumference (HC), both singly and in combination. Obstetric ultrasonography The most modern method for assessing fetal weight in utero involves the use of fetal measurements obtained during obstetrical ultrasonography. The advantage of this technique is that it relies on linear and/or planar measurements of in utero fetal dimensions that are objectively definable and generally reproducible. Findings from multiple studies have shown that ultrasonographic estimates of fetal (...) and newborns as well as for preterm infants in the postnatal growth period by using data from 20,486 gravidas, a subset of pregnant women in the Newborn Cross-Sectional Study (NCSS) from the multinational population-based INTERGROWTH-21st Project. [ ] The investigators calculated sex-specific observed and smoothed centiles for the parameters of birth weight, length, and head circumference for gestational age at birth (the observed and smoothed centiles were nearly identical) and created 3rd, 10th, 50th

2014 eMedicine.com

196. Fetal Growth Restriction (Follow-up)

integrated fetal testing for IUGR, in increasing order of severity from 1 (least severe) to 5 (most severe), is as follows: [ ] Situation 1 See the list below: Test results – AC less than fifth percentile, low AC growth rate, high ratio of head circumference to AC; BPS greater than or equal to 8 and AFV normal; abnormal UV and/or cerebroplacental ratio; normal MCA Interpretation – IUGR diagnosed, asphyxia extremely rare, increased risk for intrapartum distress Recommended management – Intervention (...) . Fetal Diagn Ther . 2000 Jan-Feb. 15(1):8-19. . Gardosi J, Mul T, Mongelli M, Fagan D. Analysis of birthweight and gestational age in antepartum stillbirths. Br J Obstet Gynaecol . 1998 May. 105(5):524-30. . Campbell S, Thoms A. Ultrasound measurement of the fetal head to abdomen circumference ratio in the assessment of growth retardation. Br J Obstet Gynaecol . 1977 Mar. 84(3):165-74. . Dashe JS, McIntire DD, Lucas MJ, Leveno KJ. Effects of symmetric and asymmetric fetal growth on pregnancy outcomes

2014 eMedicine.com

197. The Fetus as a Patient: Prenatal Diagnosis and Fetal Therapy (Diagnosis)

at the level of the thalami, including the cavum septum pellucidum, should not be used in cases of hydrocephalus or abnormal head shape or late in the third trimester when the head may be engaged. Measures such as a corrected BPD have been devised to take into account differences in head shape. Abdominal circumference is the length of the outer perimeter of the fetal abdomen measured at the level of the stomach and intrahepatic umbilical vein on a transverse scan. This measure should not be used in cases (...) decelerations start with the onset of uterine contractions, reach the nadir at the time of peak of the contraction, and end simultaneously. These are benign and are seen in late labor from fetal head compression. Variable decelerations vary in their timing and relation with uterine contractions and occur in response to cord compression. They are benign unless they are associated with severe or prolonged bradycardia, are less than 60 beats/min, last more than 60 seconds, are associated with an overshoot

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

198. The Fetus as a Patient: Prenatal Diagnosis and Fetal Therapy (Follow-up)

at the level of the thalami, including the cavum septum pellucidum, should not be used in cases of hydrocephalus or abnormal head shape or late in the third trimester when the head may be engaged. Measures such as a corrected BPD have been devised to take into account differences in head shape. Abdominal circumference is the length of the outer perimeter of the fetal abdomen measured at the level of the stomach and intrahepatic umbilical vein on a transverse scan. This measure should not be used in cases (...) decelerations start with the onset of uterine contractions, reach the nadir at the time of peak of the contraction, and end simultaneously. These are benign and are seen in late labor from fetal head compression. Variable decelerations vary in their timing and relation with uterine contractions and occur in response to cord compression. They are benign unless they are associated with severe or prolonged bradycardia, are less than 60 beats/min, last more than 60 seconds, are associated with an overshoot

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

199. The Fetus as a Patient: Prenatal Diagnosis and Fetal Therapy (Treatment)

at the level of the thalami, including the cavum septum pellucidum, should not be used in cases of hydrocephalus or abnormal head shape or late in the third trimester when the head may be engaged. Measures such as a corrected BPD have been devised to take into account differences in head shape. Abdominal circumference is the length of the outer perimeter of the fetal abdomen measured at the level of the stomach and intrahepatic umbilical vein on a transverse scan. This measure should not be used in cases (...) decelerations start with the onset of uterine contractions, reach the nadir at the time of peak of the contraction, and end simultaneously. These are benign and are seen in late labor from fetal head compression. Variable decelerations vary in their timing and relation with uterine contractions and occur in response to cord compression. They are benign unless they are associated with severe or prolonged bradycardia, are less than 60 beats/min, last more than 60 seconds, are associated with an overshoot

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

200. The Fetus as a Patient: Prenatal Diagnosis and Fetal Therapy (Overview)

at the level of the thalami, including the cavum septum pellucidum, should not be used in cases of hydrocephalus or abnormal head shape or late in the third trimester when the head may be engaged. Measures such as a corrected BPD have been devised to take into account differences in head shape. Abdominal circumference is the length of the outer perimeter of the fetal abdomen measured at the level of the stomach and intrahepatic umbilical vein on a transverse scan. This measure should not be used in cases (...) decelerations start with the onset of uterine contractions, reach the nadir at the time of peak of the contraction, and end simultaneously. These are benign and are seen in late labor from fetal head compression. Variable decelerations vary in their timing and relation with uterine contractions and occur in response to cord compression. They are benign unless they are associated with severe or prolonged bradycardia, are less than 60 beats/min, last more than 60 seconds, are associated with an overshoot

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

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