How to Trip Rapid Review

Step 1: Select articles relevant to your search (remember the system is only optimised for single intervention studies)

Step 2: press

Step 3: review the result, and maybe amend the or if you know better! If we're unsure of the overall sentiment of the trial we will display the conclusion under the article title. We then require you to tell us what the correct sentiment is.

426 results for

Fetal Foot Measurement

by
...
Latest & greatest
Alerts

Export results

Use check boxes to select individual results below

SmartSearch available

Trip's SmartSearch engine has discovered connected searches & results. Click to show

161. Safety of Probiotics to Reduce Risk and Prevent or Treat Disease

be assessed and reported in primary studies, and reviews should consider all studies measuring the outcome regardless of whether the study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention or the occurrence of adverse events. Long-term effects of probiotic interventions are largely unknown, and there is a need to evaluate long-term interventions. In addition, large cohort studies following self-selected use of probiotic organisms are needed to fully understand the efficacy and safety

2011 EvidenceUpdates

162. Neovascular Membranes, Subretinal (Overview)

: what's new. Ann Acad Med Singapore . 2002 May. 31(3):399-404. . Hunt DW, Margaron P. Status of therapies in development for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. IDrugs . 2003 May. 6(5):464-9. . Hooper CY, Guymer RH. New treatments in age-related macular degeneration. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol . 2003 Oct. 31(5):376-91. . Frennesson C, Nilsson SE. [Age-related macular degeneration--new possibilities for prophylactic measures]. Lakartidningen . 2002 Aug 8. 99(32-33):3194-7. . Fong DS. Age (...) . Br J Ophthalmol . 1996 Apr. 80(4):314-8. . . Castellarin AA, Nasir M, Sugino IK, Zarbin MA. Progressive presumed choriocapillaris atrophy after surgery for age-related macular degeneration. Retina . 1998. 18(2):143-9. . Zhang X, Bok D. Transplantation of retinal pigment epithelial cells and immune response in the subretinal space. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci . 1998 May. 39(6):1021-7. . Algvere PV, Berglin L, Gouras P, Sheng Y. Transplantation of fetal retinal pigment epithelium in age-related

2014 eMedicine.com

163. Normal Labor and Delivery (Overview)

contractions and ends with complete cervical dilatation at 10 cm Divided into a latent phase and an active phase The latent phase begins with mild, irregular uterine contractions that soften and shorten the cervix Contractions become progressively more rhythmic and stronger The active phase usually begins at about 3-4 cm of cervical dilation and is characterized by rapid cervical dilation and descent of the presenting fetal part Second stage of labor Begins with complete cervical dilatation and ends (...) with the delivery of the fetus In nulliparous women, the second stage should be considered prolonged if it exceeds 3 hours if regional anesthesia is administered or 2 hours in the absence of regional anesthesia In multiparous women, the second stage should be considered prolonged if it exceeds 2 hours with regional anesthesia or 1 hour without it [ ] Third stage of labor The period between the delivery of the fetus and the delivery of the placenta and fetal membranes Delivery of the placenta often takes less

2014 eMedicine.com

164. Assessment of Neuromuscular Transmission (Follow-up)

foot muscle. If facilitation less than 100% is seen in a hand muscle, another hand muscle should be tested. Nerve stimulation at 20 Hz may be used instead of voluntary contraction to activate the muscle, although the authors find the voluntary contraction technique to be more sensitive and less painful. The size of the maximum CMAP after stimulation for 5-7 seconds is compared with that of the initial response (see image below). Measuring the area of these CMAPs is difficult, so the amplitudes (...) . Bradycardia is a possible adverse effect, particularly in elderly patients, and ECG monitoring is advisable in this patient population. should be available at the bedside when performing the Tensilon test. Supportive respiratory measures should also be readily available when administering Tensilon because some patients are rather sensitive to even a small dose. Worsening weakness after administration of these doses of Tensilon (a paradoxical response) is also indicative of impaired neuromuscular

2014 eMedicine.com

165. Plantar Fasciitis (Follow-up)

-Lange NV, Schöll J, Vester JC. Comparison of radial versus focused extracorporeal shock waves in plantar fasciitis using functional measures. Foot Ankle Int . 2010 Jan. 31(1):1-9. . Greve JM, Grecco MV, Santos-Silva PR. Comparison of radial shockwaves and conventional physiotherapy for treating plantar fasciitis. Clinics (Sao Paulo) . 2009. 64(2):97-103. . . Zhiyun L, Tao J, Zengwu S. Meta-analysis of high-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy in recalcitrant plantar fasciitis. Swiss Med Wkly (...) , Paul JP. In vitro method for quantifying the effectiveness of the longitudinal arch support mechanism of a foot orthosis. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) . 1995 Jul. 10(5):245-252. . Lee SY, McKeon P, Hertel J. Does the use of orthoses improve self-reported pain and function measures in patients with plantar fasciitis? A meta-analysis. Phys Ther Sport . 2009 Feb. 10(1):12-8. . Baldassin V, Gomes CR, Beraldo PS. Effectiveness of prefabricated and customized foot orthoses made from low-cost foam

2014 eMedicine Surgery

166. Clubfoot (Diagnosis)

and calcaneocuboid joint capsules commonly are seen. Contractures are seen in the calcaneofibular, talofibular, (ankle) deltoid, long and short plantar, spring, and bifurcate ligaments. The plantar fascial contracture contributes to the cavus, as does contracture of fascial planes in the foot. Previous Next: Pathophysiology Various theories of the pathogenesis of clubfeet have been advanced, including the following: Arrest of fetal development in the fibular stage Defective cartilaginous anlage of the talus (...) (or myofibrosis) may occur secondary to increased fibrous tissue in muscles and ligaments. In fetal and cadaveric studies, Ponseti also found the collagen in all of the ligamentous and tendinous structures (except the Achilles [calcaneal] tendon), and it was very loosely crimped and could be stretched. The Achilles tendon, on the other hand, was made up of tightly crimped collagen and was resistant to stretching. Zimny et al found myoblasts in medial fascia on electron microscopy and postulated

2014 eMedicine Surgery

167. Congenital Spinal Deformity (Diagnosis)

and the associated malformations in other organ systems commonly identified. Human development in utero (gestation) has been divided into the embryonic period and the fetal period. The embryonic period is considered to be the time from fertilization to the end of week 8 of gestation. The remainder of gestation is called the fetal period. By the end of the embryonic period, all of the major organ systems have been established, and the basic body plan is complete. In the early embryo, the mesoderm on either side (...) the spine and spinal cord. Such defects may occur antenatally, postnatally, or both and can be grouped into the following three categories: Disruption - This refers to the destruction of an anatomic feature that formed normally during the embryonic period; amniotic band syndrome is an example Deformation - This is an alteration in the shape or structure of an individual vertebra or of the entire spine during the fetal or postnatal period, after the involved region's initial, normal differentiation

2014 eMedicine Surgery

168. Cancer and Rehabilitation (Overview)

of the patient with cancer are described below. Preventive interventions Preventive (or "preventative") interventions lessen the effect of expected disabilities and emphasize patient education. Preventive measures also include approaches to improving the patient's physical functioning and general health status. In addition, psychological counseling before treatment can assist with the early identification of adjustment issues to allow for prompt intervention. Restorative interventions Restorative (...) exercise, sports, psychoeducation, and information. Measurements were performed before and after 6 weeks of rehabilitation to assess symptom-limited bicycle ergometry performance, muscle force, and QOL (on the RAND-36 instrument, Rotterdam Symptom Checklist [RSCL], and Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory [MFI]). Statistically significant improvements were found in symptom-limited bicycle ergometry performance, muscle force, and several domains of the QOL instruments (RAND-36, RSCL, and MFI

2014 eMedicine.com

169. Breech Presentation (Overview)

, and the entire fetus is extracted. Total breech extraction should be used only for a noncephalic second twin; it should not be used for a singleton fetus because the cervix may not be adequately dilated to allow passage of the fetal head. Total breech extraction for the singleton breech is associated with a birth injury rate of 25% and a mortality rate of approximately 10%. Total breech extractions are sometimes performed by less experienced accoucheurs when a foot unexpectedly prolapses through the vagina (...) subjects in the planned vaginal delivery group, 591 (56.7%) had vaginal deliveries. Indications for cesarean delivery included: fetopelvic disproportion or failure to progress in labor (226), nonreassuring fetal heart rate tracing (129), footling breech (69), request for cesarean delivery (61), obstetrical or medical indications (45), or cord prolapse (12). The composite measurement of either perinatal mortality or serious neonatal morbidity by 6 weeks of life was significantly lower in the planned

2014 eMedicine.com

170. Assessment of Neuromuscular Transmission (Overview)

foot muscle. If facilitation less than 100% is seen in a hand muscle, another hand muscle should be tested. Nerve stimulation at 20 Hz may be used instead of voluntary contraction to activate the muscle, although the authors find the voluntary contraction technique to be more sensitive and less painful. The size of the maximum CMAP after stimulation for 5-7 seconds is compared with that of the initial response (see image below). Measuring the area of these CMAPs is difficult, so the amplitudes (...) . Bradycardia is a possible adverse effect, particularly in elderly patients, and ECG monitoring is advisable in this patient population. should be available at the bedside when performing the Tensilon test. Supportive respiratory measures should also be readily available when administering Tensilon because some patients are rather sensitive to even a small dose. Worsening weakness after administration of these doses of Tensilon (a paradoxical response) is also indicative of impaired neuromuscular

2014 eMedicine.com

171. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury (Overview)

physical examination. Lachman test The Lachman test is the most sensitive test for acute ACL rupture. It is performed with the knee in 30° of flexion, with the patient lying supine. The amount of displacement (in mm) and the quality of endpoint are assessed (eg, firm, marginal, soft). Asymmetry in side-to-side laxity or a soft endpoint is indicative of an ACL tear. Although difficult to measure, a side-to-side difference of greater than 3 mm is considered abnormal. Pivot shift test The pivot shift test (...) is performed by extending an ACL-deficient knee, which results in a small amount of anterior translation of the tibia in relation to the femur. During flexion, the translation reduces, resulting in the "shifting or pivoting" of the tibia into its proper alignment on the femur. It is performed with the leg extended and the foot in internal rotation, and a valgus stress is applied to the tibia. Anterior drawer test The anterior drawer test is performed with the knee at 90° flexion, with the patient lying

2014 eMedicine.com

172. Childhood Habit Behaviors and Stereotypic Movement Disorder (Diagnosis)

-behavioral pediatrician, a child psychologist, or a child psychiatrist may be indicated. See and for more detail. Management Childhood habits that do not interfere with everyday functioning often require no treatment. However, those that cause substantial distress, social isolation, or physical injury may warrant a therapeutic intervention. Treatments may include the following: Physical measures (eg, helmets, dental occlusion splints) Behavioral therapy (mainstay of treatment) Pharmacotherapy Effective (...) behavior in their lifetime. For example, habits can range from seemingly benign behaviors, such as nail biting or foot tapping, to more noticeable physically damaging behaviors, such as teeth grinding (bruxism) and hair pulling. Habit disorders, now subsumed under the diagnostic term stereotypic movement disorder, consist of repetitive, seemingly driven, and nonfunctional motor behaviors that interfere with normal activities or that result in bodily injury. Fortunately, many childhood habits are benign

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

173. Spina Bifida (Overview)

, and the placode-containing remnants of nervous tissue can be observed in the center of the lesion, which is filled with cerebrospinal fluid. Myelomeningocele in a newborn. Blood tests, amniocentesis, or both can be used to screen for neural tube defects. These typically are used in combination with fetal ultrasonography. (See Workup.) Prenatal detection and postatal closure in the first few days of life are clinically associated with lower levels of care and fewer complications in spina bifida. [ ] Treatment (...) of coordinating with multiple doctors and can ensure the availability of necessary services. Transitioning from pediatric to adult care has been reported to maintain quality-of-life measures. [ , ] The physical medicine and rehabilitation specialist assumes a significant role in coordinating the many treatment components that together allow patients to gain maximum function and, particularly, independence. (See Treatment.) Participation in the care of patients with major, chronic physical disabilities

2014 eMedicine Surgery

174. Wrist Arthroscopy (Overview)

carpal bones, multiple articular surfaces with extrinsic and intrinsic ligaments, and a triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC)—all within a 5-cm interval. Surgeons who use wrist arthroscopy are able to directly visualize cartilage, synovial tissue, and ligaments under bright illumination and magnification. Most acute wrist sprains in which radiographic findings are normal resolve after conservative measures. However, the evaluation of the patient who does not improve after such treatment (...) . 2018 Nov. 220:38-50. . Ekman EF, Poehling GG. Principles of arthroscopy and wrist arthroscopy equipment. Hand Clin . 1994 Nov. 10(4):557-66. . Gillis JA, Kakar S. Volar Midcarpal Portals in Wrist Arthroscopy. J Hand Surg Am . 2019 Mar 19. . Berger RA, Landsmeer JM. The palmar radiocarpal ligaments: a study of adult and fetal human wrist joints. J Hand Surg Am . 1990 Nov. 15 (6):847-54. . Slutsky DJ. Distal radioulnar joint arthroscopy and the volar ulnar portal. Tech Hand Up Extrem Surg . 2007 Mar

2014 eMedicine Surgery

175. Tibial Bowing (Overview)

) Dysplasias The developmental etiology of posteromedial bowing is unknown, but most authors believe it occurs secondary to abnormal fetal positioning, with the dorsiflexed foot plastered against the anterior aspect of the tibia. Primary abnormal embryologic development, such as limb bud or circulatory abnormalities and intrauterine fracture, [ ] has also been suggested as a possible developmental etiology. Previous Next: Epidemiology The true incidence of tibial bowing is unknown. It is generally agreed (...) of the tibia and . [ ] Anteromedial bowing is associated with . The focus of this article is posteromedial tibial bowing. Posteromedial bowing is a congenital bowing of the tibia (with the apex directed posteriorly and medially) and a calcaneovalgus foot deformity. [ , , ] Both of these deformities tend to resolve with little clinical disability; however, a leg-length inequality commonly develops that often requires treatment. [ ] If a significant leg-length inequality results, the patient will have

2014 eMedicine Surgery

176. Wrist Arthroscopy (Diagnosis)

carpal bones, multiple articular surfaces with extrinsic and intrinsic ligaments, and a triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC)—all within a 5-cm interval. Surgeons who use wrist arthroscopy are able to directly visualize cartilage, synovial tissue, and ligaments under bright illumination and magnification. Most acute wrist sprains in which radiographic findings are normal resolve after conservative measures. However, the evaluation of the patient who does not improve after such treatment (...) . 2018 Nov. 220:38-50. . Ekman EF, Poehling GG. Principles of arthroscopy and wrist arthroscopy equipment. Hand Clin . 1994 Nov. 10(4):557-66. . Gillis JA, Kakar S. Volar Midcarpal Portals in Wrist Arthroscopy. J Hand Surg Am . 2019 Mar 19. . Berger RA, Landsmeer JM. The palmar radiocarpal ligaments: a study of adult and fetal human wrist joints. J Hand Surg Am . 1990 Nov. 15 (6):847-54. . Slutsky DJ. Distal radioulnar joint arthroscopy and the volar ulnar portal. Tech Hand Up Extrem Surg . 2007 Mar

2014 eMedicine Surgery

177. Spina Bifida (Diagnosis)

, and the placode-containing remnants of nervous tissue can be observed in the center of the lesion, which is filled with cerebrospinal fluid. Myelomeningocele in a newborn. Blood tests, amniocentesis, or both can be used to screen for neural tube defects. These typically are used in combination with fetal ultrasonography. (See Workup.) Prenatal detection and postatal closure in the first few days of life are clinically associated with lower levels of care and fewer complications in spina bifida. [ ] Treatment (...) of coordinating with multiple doctors and can ensure the availability of necessary services. Transitioning from pediatric to adult care has been reported to maintain quality-of-life measures. [ , ] The physical medicine and rehabilitation specialist assumes a significant role in coordinating the many treatment components that together allow patients to gain maximum function and, particularly, independence. (See Treatment.) Participation in the care of patients with major, chronic physical disabilities

2014 eMedicine Surgery

178. Congenital Spinal Deformity (Follow-up)

and the associated malformations in other organ systems commonly identified. Human development in utero (gestation) has been divided into the embryonic period and the fetal period. The embryonic period is considered to be the time from fertilization to the end of week 8 of gestation. The remainder of gestation is called the fetal period. By the end of the embryonic period, all of the major organ systems have been established, and the basic body plan is complete. In the early embryo, the mesoderm on either side (...) the spine and spinal cord. Such defects may occur antenatally, postnatally, or both and can be grouped into the following three categories: Disruption - This refers to the destruction of an anatomic feature that formed normally during the embryonic period; amniotic band syndrome is an example Deformation - This is an alteration in the shape or structure of an individual vertebra or of the entire spine during the fetal or postnatal period, after the involved region's initial, normal differentiation

2014 eMedicine Surgery

179. Tibial Bowing (Diagnosis)

) Dysplasias The developmental etiology of posteromedial bowing is unknown, but most authors believe it occurs secondary to abnormal fetal positioning, with the dorsiflexed foot plastered against the anterior aspect of the tibia. Primary abnormal embryologic development, such as limb bud or circulatory abnormalities and intrauterine fracture, [ ] has also been suggested as a possible developmental etiology. Previous Next: Epidemiology The true incidence of tibial bowing is unknown. It is generally agreed (...) of the tibia and . [ ] Anteromedial bowing is associated with . The focus of this article is posteromedial tibial bowing. Posteromedial bowing is a congenital bowing of the tibia (with the apex directed posteriorly and medially) and a calcaneovalgus foot deformity. [ , , ] Both of these deformities tend to resolve with little clinical disability; however, a leg-length inequality commonly develops that often requires treatment. [ ] If a significant leg-length inequality results, the patient will have

2014 eMedicine Surgery

180. Brachial Plexus Injuries, Obstetrical (Follow-up)

in BRBPP patients requiring surgical management, sural nerve grafts can be harvested as the first stage of the procedure. This sequence allows initial prone patient positioning to facilitate sural nerve graft harvest, followed by supine positioning for brachial plexus exposure and reconstruction. Sural nerve harvest for graft material results in minimal donor-site morbidity but does create a permanent insensate patch at the lateral foot, which, though measurable, often goes unnoticed by patients (...) , and nerve grafting or nerve transfer. Preparation for surgery Given the complexity and length involved with brachial plexus reconstruction procedures, appropriate preoperative planning can improve efficiency and outcomes. Safety measures, such as suturing the nasotracheal tube to the nasal septum and placing a clear plastic drape over the patient’s face, may prevent disastrous and avoidable airway complications. The patient should be appropriately positioned, with all pressure points effectively padded

2014 eMedicine Surgery

To help you find the content you need quickly, you can filter your results via the categories on the right-hand side >>>>