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Fetal Foot Measurement

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721. X-ray computed tomography

, and formerly known as a computerized axial tomography scan or CAT scan , makes use of computer-processed combinations of many measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional ( ) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting. is used to further generate a volume of the inside of the object from a large series of two-dimensional images taken around a single . is the most common application of X-ray CT. Its cross (...) in the subsequent risk of cancer. Estimated lifetime cancer mortality risks from an abdominal CT of a 1-year-old is 0.1% or 1:1000 scans. The risk for someone who is 40 years old is half that of someone who is 20 years old with substantially less risk in the elderly. The estimates that the risk to a fetus being exposed to 10 mGy (a unit of radiation exposure, see ) increases the rate of cancer before 20 years of age from 0.03% to 0.04% (for reference a CT pulmonary angiogram exposes a fetus to 4 mGy). A 2012

2012 Wikipedia

722. Rheumatoid arthritis

, dryness of the cornea can lead to and loss of vision. Preventive treatment of severe dryness with measures such as blockage is important. [ ] Liver [ ] Liver problems in people with rheumatoid arthritis may be due to the underlying disease process or as a result of the medications used to treat the disease. A coexisting autoimmune liver disease, such as or may also cause problems. Neurological [ ] and may occur. The most common problem is caused by compression of the median nerve by swelling around (...) are involved in inflammation in RA, because blocking TNF does not benefit all persons and all tissues, particularly lung disease and nodules may get worse. Blocking IL-1, and have beneficial effects and may be important. Diagnosis [ ] Imaging [ ] X-ray of the hand in rheumatoid arthritis. Appearance of synovial fluid from a joint with inflammatory arthritis. Closeup of in rheumatoid arthritis. of the hands and feet are generally performed when many joints affected. In RA, there may be no changes

2012 Wikipedia

723. Randomized controlled trial Full Text available with Trip Pro

that limited the general applicability of this conclusion was that the aircraft were parked on the ground, and participants had only jumped about two feet. Advantages [ ] RCTs are considered to be the most reliable form of in the that influences healthcare policy and practice because RCTs reduce spurious causality and bias. Results of RCTs may be combined in which are increasingly being used in the conduct of . Some examples of scientific organizations' considering RCTs or systematic reviews of RCTs (...) experts to measure the impact of development interventions worldwide. at research organizations including (J-PAL) and have used RCTs to measure the effectiveness of poverty, health, and education programs in the developing world. While RCTs can be useful in policy evaluation, it is necessary to exercise care in interpreting the results in social science settings. For example, interventions can inadvertently induce socioeconomic and behavioral changes that can confound the relationships (Bhargava, 2008

2012 Wikipedia

724. Radiology

evaluated with less concern about damage from the techniques employed, allowing early detection and diagnosis of many fetal anomalies. Growth can be assessed over time, important in patients with chronic disease or pregnancy-induced disease, and in multiple pregnancies (twins, triplets, etc.). Color-flow Doppler ultrasound measures the severity of and is used by cardiologists for dynamic evaluation of the heart, heart valves and major vessels. , for example, of the may be a warning sign for an impending (...) be measured. The principal imaging devices are the and the PET Scanner, which detect the radiation emitted by the tracer in the body and display it as an image. With computer processing, the information can be displayed as axial, coronal and sagittal images (single-photon emission computed tomography - SPECT or Positron-emission tomography - PET). In the most modern devices, nuclear medicine images can be fused with a CT scan taken quasisimultaneously, so the information can be overlaid or coregistered

2012 Wikipedia

725. Craniosynostosis Full Text available with Trip Pro

[ ] : an abnormal skull shape, small upper jaw, and fusion of the fingers and toes. : A craniofacial birth abnormalities with bilateral coronal suture fusion. Anterior and posterior of skull shortness, flat cheek bones and a flat nose are their features. : abnormalities of the skull, hands, and feet wide-set, bulging eyes, an underdeveloped upper jaw, beaked nose. : short or broad head. the eyes may be spaced wide apart and have palpebral ptosis (droopy eyelids), and fingers may be abnormally short and webbed (...) whether there might be an intrinsic factor causing the premature fusion of the sutures. Brain structures of children with craniosynostosis were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging. Differences were seen compared with the brain structures of normal children. The question now is whether these differences are caused by the craniosynostosis, or are the cause of craniosynostosis. Biomechanical factors [ ] Biomechanical factors include fetal head constraint during pregnancy. It has been found

2012 Wikipedia

726. Minamata disease

Minamata disease Minamata disease - Wikipedia Minamata disease From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Minamata disease The hand of , a Minamata disease victim , , Minamata disease ( : 水俣病 , : Minamata-byō ) , sometimes referred to as Chisso-Minamata disease ( チッソ水俣病 , Chisso-Minamata-byō ) , is a syndrome caused by severe . Signs and symptoms include , in the hands and feet, general , , and damage to and . In extreme cases, , , , and follow within weeks of the onset of symptoms. A form (...) hospital for detailed examinations. A more complete picture of the symptoms exhibited by patients was gradually uncovered. The disease developed without any prior warning, with patients complaining of a loss of sensation and numbness in their hands and feet. They became unable to grasp small objects or fasten buttons. They could not run or walk without stumbling, their voices changed in pitch, and many patients complained of difficulties seeing, hearing, and swallowing. In general, these symptoms

2012 Wikipedia

727. Pelvic girdle pain

be associated with bladder and/or bowel dysfunction. A feeling of the symphysis pubis giving way. Stooped back when standing. Malalignment of pelvic and/or back joints. Struggle to sit or stand. Pain may also radiate down the inner thighs. Waddling or shuffling gait. Audible ‘clicking’ sound coming from the pelvis. Severity [ ] The severity and instability of the pelvis can be measured on a three level scale. Pelvic type 1: The pelvic ligaments support the pelvis sufficiently. Even when the muscles are used (...) are not a predictor of PGP during pregnancy. Gait changes [ ] The pregnant woman has a different pattern of " ". The step lengthens as the pregnancy progresses due to weight gain and changes in posture. Both the length and height of the footstep shortens with PGP. Sometimes the foot can turn inwards due to the rotation of the hips when the pelvic joints are unstable. On average, a woman's foot can grow by a half size or more during pregnancy. Pregnancy hormones that are released to adapt the bodily changes also

2012 Wikipedia

728. Parkinson's disease Full Text available with Trip Pro

difficulty in carrying out two independent motor activities at the same time and can be made worse by emotional stress or concurrent illnesses. Paradoxically patients with Parkinson's disease can often ride a bicycle or climb stairs more easily than walk on a level. While most physicians may readily notice bradykinesia, formal assessment requires a patient to do repetitive movements with their fingers and feet. is stiffness and resistance to limb movement caused by increased , an excessive and continuous (...) being related to the severity of PD. Other recognized motor signs and symptoms include gait and posture disturbances such as (rapid shuffling steps and a when walking with no flexed arm swing). Freezing of gait (brief arrests when the feet seem to get stuck to the floor, especially on turning or changing direction), a slurred monotonous quiet voice, mask-like facial expression, and handwriting that gets smaller and smaller are other common signs. Neuropsychiatric Parkinson's disease can cause

2012 Wikipedia

729. Short-term effects of alcohol

, or other – range from a decrease in anxiety and motor skills and at lower doses to (drunkenness), stupor, unconsciousness, anterograde amnesia (memory "blackouts"), and central nervous system depression at higher doses. are highly permeable to alcohol, so once alcohol is in the bloodstream, it can diffuse into nearly every cell in the body. The concentration of alcohol in blood is measured via (BAC). The amount and circumstances of consumption play a large role in determining the extent (...) and pleasure seeking. Another one of alcohol's agreeable effects is body relaxation, which is possibly caused by transmitting electrical signals in an -pattern; such waves are actually observed (with the aid of ) whenever the body is relaxed. [ ] Short-term effects of alcohol include the risk of injuries, violence, and fetal damage. Alcohol has also been linked with lowered inhibitions, although it is unclear as to what degree this is chemical or psychological as studies with can often duplicate the social

2012 Wikipedia

730. Serotonin

subordinate males and females (as measured by the levels of 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the cerebro-spinal fluid). Dominance status and cerebro-serotonin levels appear to be positively correlated. When dominant males were removed from such groups, subordinate males begin competing for dominance. Once new dominance hierarchies were established, serotonin levels of the new dominant individuals also increased to double those in subordinate males and females. The reason why serotonin levels (...) , in adulthood, such things as body fatness, blood lipids, blood pressure, atherosclerosis, behavior, learning and longevity. Rodent experiment shows that neonatal exposure to SSRI's makes persistent changes in the serotonergic transmission of the brain resulting in behavioral changes, which are reversed by treatment with antidepressants. By treating normal and lacking the serotonin transporter with fluoxetine scientists showed that normal emotional reactions in adulthood, like a short latency to escape foot

2012 Wikipedia

731. Bicornuate uterus

, , disruptions to fetal growth, , , (which can lead to ). This is due to the distortion of the normal shape of the uterus, distortion of the cervix leading to , or under-vascularization of the as the pregnancy requires more blood supply. In some cases, the nonpregnant horn can during labor, necessitating emergency surgery. Fetuses developing in bicornuate uteri are more likely to present or , with the fetal head in one horn and the feet in the other. This will often necessitate cesarean delivery (...) be distinguished from a septate uterus by the angle between the cornua (intercornual angle): less than 75 degrees in a septate uterus, and greater than 105 degrees in a bicornuate uterus. Measuring the depth of the cleft between the cornua (fundal cleft) may also assist in diagnosis; a cleft of over 1 centimetre (0.39 in) is indicative of bicornuate uterus. Classification [ ] Bicornuate uterus is typically classified based on whether or not the division extends to the external cervical os. Bicornuate uteri

2012 Wikipedia

732. Bhopal disaster Full Text available with Trip Pro

the lawsuit blaming UCC for causing soil and water pollution around the site of the plant and ruled that responsibility for remedial measures or related claims rested with the State Government and not with UCC. In 2005, the state government invited various Indian architects to enter their "concept for development of a memorial complex for Bhopal gas tragedy victims at the site of Union Carbide". In 2011, a conference was held on the site, with participants from European universities which was aimed (...) in two- and four-story buildings in what is called the "widow's colony" outside Bhopal. The water did not reach the upper floors and it was not possible to keep cattle which were their primary occupation. Infrastructure like buses, schools, etc. were missing for at least a decade. Economic rehabilitation Immediate relieves were decided two days after the tragedy. Relief measures commenced in 1985 when food was distributed for a short period along with ration cards. government's finance department

2012 Wikipedia

733. Automobile safety Full Text available with Trip Pro

distance from the vehicle in front to alert the driver of an unintended departure from the intended lane of travel systems or which restore traction if driven wheels begin to spin , which intervenes to avert an impending loss of control systems systems systems measurement and speed governance systems system notify a driver how close their vehicle is to an object - usually providing a distance measurement, to the inch, as to how close they are. Crashworthiness [ ] This section does not any . Please help (...) advocated the use of and padded . Strickland founded the Automobile Safety League of America. In 1934, performed the first barrier . In 1936, the Hudson Terraplane came with the first back-up brake system. Should the hydraulic brakes fail, the brake pedal would activate a set of mechanical brakes for the back wheels. In 1937, , , , and added such items as a flat, smooth dash with recessed controls, rounded door handles, a windshield wiper control made of rubber, and the back of the front seat heavily

2012 Wikipedia

734. Bone

and the . [ ] Endochondral ossification begins with points in the cartilage called "primary ossification centers." They mostly appear during fetal development, though a few short bones begin their primary ossification after . They are responsible for the formation of the diaphyses of long bones, short bones and certain parts of irregular bones. Secondary ossification occurs after birth, and forms the of long bones and the extremities of irregular and flat bones. The diaphysis and both epiphyses of a long bone (...) . This region, farthest from the marrow cavity, consists of typical hyaline cartilage that as yet shows no sign of transforming into bone. Zone of cell proliferation. A little closer to the marrow cavity, chondrocytes multiply and arrange themselves into longitudinal columns of flattened lacunae. Zone of cell hypertrophy. Next, the chondrocytes cease to divide and begin to hypertrophy (enlarge), much like they do in the primary ossification center of the fetus. The walls of the matrix between lacunae become

2012 Wikipedia

735. Local anesthetic

cases, clonic cramps resembling an epileptic insult may occur. On the other hand, fear of administration can also result in accelerated, shallow breathing, or . The patient may feel a tingling sensation in hands and feet or a sense of light-headedness and increased chest pressure. Hence, it is crucial for the medical professional administrating the local anaesthesia, especially in the form of an injection, to ensure that the patient is in a comfortable setting and has any potential fears alleviated (...) on pregnant women. However, there is some concern with the behavioral effects of lidocaine on offspring in rats. During pregnancy, it is not common for local anesthetics to have any adverse effect on the fetus. Despite this, risks of toxicity may be higher in pregnancy due to an increase in unbound fraction of local anesthetic and physiological changes increase the transfer of local anesthetic into the central nervous system. Hence, it is recommended that pregnant women use a lower dose of local

2012 Wikipedia

736. Liver

metabolism, ammonia detoxification, and bile production and secretion. has now been identified to be playing a key role in this phenomenon. At birth, the liver comprises roughly 4% of body weight and weighs on average about 120 g (4 oz). Over the course of further development, it will increase to 1.4–1.6 kg (3.1–3.5 lb) but will only take up 2.5–3.5% of body weight. Fetal blood supply [ ] In the growing fetus, a major source of blood to the liver is the , which supplies nutrients to the growing fetus (...) . The umbilical vein enters the abdomen at the umbilicus and passes upward along the free margin of the falciform ligament of the liver to the inferior surface of the liver. There, it joins with the left branch of the portal vein. The carries blood from the left portal vein to the left hepatic vein and then to the , allowing placental blood to bypass the liver. In the fetus, the liver does not perform the normal digestive processes and filtration of the infant liver because nutrients are received directly

2012 Wikipedia

737. Cocaine

-motivational deficits upon cessation of cocaine use. During pregnancy Cocaine is known to have a number of deleterious effects during pregnancy. Pregnant people who use cocaine have an elevated risk of , a condition where the placenta detaches from the uterus and causes bleeding. Due to its vasoconstrictive and hypertensive effects, they are also at risk for and . Cocaine is also teratogenic, meaning that it can cause birth defects and fetal malformations. In-utero exposure to cocaine is associated (...) of poisoning, or assist in the forensic investigation of a traffic or other criminal violation or a sudden death. Most commercial cocaine immunoassay screening tests cross-react appreciably with the major cocaine metabolites, but chromatographic techniques can easily distinguish and separately measure each of these substances. When interpreting the results of a test, it is important to consider the cocaine usage history of the individual, since a chronic user can develop tolerance to doses that would

2012 Wikipedia

738. Cerebral palsy

if it is effective and safe. Contents Signs and symptoms [ ] Cerebral palsy is defined as "a group of permanent disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation, that are attributed to non-progressive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain." While movement problems are the central feature of CP, difficulties with thinking, learning, feeling, communication and behavior often co-occur, with 28% having epilepsy, 58% having difficulties with communication (...) issues can be mistaken for being symptoms of cerebral palsy, and so may not be treated correctly. Related conditions can include , or other communication disorders, sensory impairments, , , or behavioural disorders. [ ] Seizure management is more difficult in people with CP as seizures often last longer. The associated disorders that co-occur with cerebral palsy may be more disabling than the motor function problems. Causes [ ] showing a fetal ( ) vein thrombosis, in a case of . This is associated

2012 Wikipedia

739. Childbirth Full Text available with Trip Pro

of the fetal head. The vagina is called a 'birth canal' when the baby enters this passage. Station refers to the relationship of the fetal presenting part to the level of the ischial spines. When the presenting part is at the ischial spines the station is 0 (synonymous with engagement). If the presenting fetal part is above the spines, the distance is measured and described as minus stations, which range from −1 to −4 cm. If the presenting part is below the ischial spines, the distance is stated as plus (...) forceps. In addition, women were less likely to use pain medications, were more likely to be satisfied, and had slightly shorter labours. Their babies were less likely to have low five-minute ." Fetal monitoring [ ] External monitoring [ ] For of the fetus during childbirth, a simple or (" ") can be used. A method of external (noninvasive) fetal (EFM) during childbirth is , using a cardiotocograph that consists of two sensors: The heart (cardio) sensor is an , similar to a , that continuously emits

2012 Wikipedia

740. Chemotherapy

. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and . ( May 2018 ) Chemotherapy A woman being treated with chemotherapy for . Cold mittens and are placed on her hands and feet to reduce harm to her nails. Other names chemo [ ] Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx ) is a type of that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs ( ) as part of a standardized . Chemotherapy may be given with a intent (which almost always involves combinations of drugs), or it may aim to prolong (...) to decrease tumor load and increase life expectancy. For these regimens, in general, a better toxicity profile is expected. : 55–59 All require that the recipient be capable of undergoing the treatment. is often used as a measure to determine whether a person can receive chemotherapy, or whether dose reduction is required. Because only a fraction of the cells in a tumor die with each treatment ( ), repeated doses must be administered to continue to reduce the size of the tumor. Current chemotherapy

2012 Wikipedia

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