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Fetal Foot Measurement

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701. Prader-Willi syndrome Full Text available with Trip Pro

food supervision, exercise program, counseling Medication Frequency 1 in 10,000–30,000 people Prader–Willi syndrome ( PWS ) is a due to loss of function of specific genes. In , symptoms include , poor feeding, and slow development. Beginning in childhood, the person becomes constantly hungry, which often leads to and . Also, mild to moderate and behavioral problems are typical. Often, the forehead is narrow, hands and feet are small, height is short, skin is light in color, and most of the affected (...) , hypogonadism, developmental and cognitive delays, hyperphagia and obesity, short stature, and behavioral and psychiatric disturbances. Holm et al. (1993) describe the following features and signs as indicators of PWS, although not all will be present. Uterus and birth [ ] Reduced fetal movement Frequent abnormal fetal position Occasional (excessive amniotic fluid) Often or births Feeding difficulties (due to poor muscle tone affecting ) Difficulties establishing respiration Childhood [ ] Delayed milestones

2012 Wikipedia

702. Polychlorinated biphenyl

in the per cubic meter range, higher in suburban and urban areas, and highest in city centres, where they can reach 1 /m 3 or more. [ ] In , an atmospheric concentration of 1.9 ng/m 3 has been measured, and this source alone was estimated to account for 120 kg/year of PCBs entering . In 2008, concentrations as high as 35 /m 3 , 10 times higher than the EPA guideline limit of 3.4 ng/m 3 , have been documented inside some houses in the U.S. Volatilization of PCBs in soil was thought to be the primary (...) that was not measured in this study. Temperature dependent [ ] Temperature plays a key role in the ecology, physiology and metabolism of aquatic species. The rate of PCB metabolism was temperature dependent in ( Perca flavescens ). In fall and winter, only 11 out of 72 introduced PCB congeners were excreted and had of more than 1,000 days. During spring and summer when the average daily water temperature was above 20 °C, persistent PCBs had halflives of 67 days. The main excretion processes were fecal egestion

2012 Wikipedia

703. Poliomyelitis

, but transmission is possible as long as the virus remains in the saliva or feces. Factors that increase the risk of polio infection or affect the severity of the disease include , , physical activity immediately following the onset of paralysis, skeletal muscle injury due to of vaccines or therapeutic agents, and . Although the virus can cross the during pregnancy, the fetus does not appear to be affected by either maternal infection or polio vaccination. Maternal antibodies also cross the , providing (...) (cVDPV) outnumbered wild poliovirus cases for the first time, due to wild polio cases hitting record lows and relaxed vaccination levels. Most have switched to inactivated polio vaccine, which cannot revert, either as the sole vaccine against poliomyelitis or in combination with oral polio vaccine. Treatment There is no for polio. The focus of modern treatment has been on providing relief of symptoms, speeding recovery and preventing complications. Supportive measures include to prevent infections

2012 Wikipedia

704. Anaerobic infection

. Bacteroides fragilis ). Clostridium perfringens can cause of brain abscesses and meningitis following intracranial surgery or head trauma. The anaerobes often isolated from complicating respiratory and dental infections are anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli (AGNB, including , Porphyromonas , Bacteroides), Fusobacterium and spp. Microaerophilic and other streptococci are also often isolated. are rarely isolated. At the stage of encephalitis, antimicrobial therapy and utilization of measures to lower (...) and subcutaneous tissue infections and abscesses in the rectal area (perirectal abscess, decubitus ulcer) or that are of gut flora origin(i.e. diabetic foot infection) often to yield colonic flora organisms. These are generally B. fragilis group, Clostridium spp., Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus spp. On the other hand, infections in and around the oropharynx, or infections that originate from that location, frequently contain oral flora organisms (i.e. paronychia, bites, breast abscess). These bacteria

2012 Wikipedia

705. Amphetamine Full Text available with Trip Pro

, hypertension, liver or kidney problems, , , , , problems, , or should monitor their symptoms while taking amphetamine. Evidence from human studies indicates that therapeutic amphetamine use does not cause developmental abnormalities in the fetus or newborns (i.e., it is not a human ), but amphetamine abuse does pose risks to the fetus. Amphetamine has also been shown to pass into breast milk, so the IPCS and USFDA advise mothers to avoid breastfeeding when using it. Due to the potential for reversible (...) , which have a greater risk of serious side effects than dosages used for therapeutic reasons. Physical At normal therapeutic doses, the physical side effects of amphetamine vary widely by age and from person to person. side effects can include or from a , (reduced blood flow to the hands and feet), and (increased heart rate). Sexual side effects in males may include , frequent erections, or . Abdominal side effects may include , , , and . Other potential side effects include , , , nosebleed, profuse

2012 Wikipedia

706. Glycated hemoglobin

by hemoglobin's exposure to plasma glucose. It is measured primarily to identify the three-month average and thus can be used as a diagnostic test for diabetes and as assessment test for glycemic control in people with diabetes. The test is limited to a three-month average because the lifespan of a red blood cell is four months (120 days). However, since red blood cells do not all undergo at the same time, HbA1C is taken as a limited measure of three months. HbA 1c is a measure of the beta-N-1-deoxy fructosyl (...) Rearrangement (in HbA1c, R is typically N-terminal valine). When blood glucose levels are high, molecules attach to the hemoglobin in . The longer hyperglycemia occurs in blood, the more glucose binds to hemoglobin in the red blood cells and the higher the glycated hemoglobin. Once a hemoglobin molecule is glycated, it remains that way. A buildup of glycated hemoglobin within the red cell, therefore, reflects the average level of glucose to which the cell has been exposed during its . Measuring glycated

2012 Wikipedia

707. Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy Full Text available with Trip Pro

) Shoulder girdle weakness (difficulty working with the arms raised, sloping shoulder) Asymmetrical weakening of the biceps Asymmetrical weakening of tibialis anterior (shin muscle), causing foot drop Asymmetrical loss of pectoral muscle Loss of strength in abdominal muscles (causing a protuberant abdomen and lumbar lordosis) Weakened diaphragm leading to respiratory insufficiency (seen more in older, more impaired patients) Bilateral sensorineural hearing loss (present in 50 percent but clinically (...) arrays, indicating that molecular markers of FSHD are already expressed during fetal development. In an article in Skeletal Muscle, researchers "review how the contributions from many labs over many years led to an understanding of a fundamentally new mechanism of human disease" and articulate how the unifying genetic model and subsequent research represent a "pivot-point in FSHD research, transitioning the field from discovery-oriented studies to translational studies aimed at developing therapies

2012 Wikipedia

708. Hemoglobin Full Text available with Trip Pro

is identical in the hemoglobins of several species. From the known atomic mass of iron he calculated the molecular mass of hemoglobin to n × 16000 ( n = number of iron atoms per hemoglobin, now known to be 4), the first determination of a protein's molecular mass. This "hasty conclusion" drew a lot of ridicule at the time from scientists who could not believe that any molecule could be that big. confirmed Engelhard's results in 1925 by measuring the osmotic pressure of hemoglobin solutions. The oxygen (...) conformational shift. The shift encourages oxygen to bind to the three remaining heme units within hemoglobin (thus, oxygen binding is cooperative). Deoxygenated hemoglobin [ ] Deoxygenated hemoglobin is the form of hemoglobin without the bound oxygen. The of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin differ. The oxyhemoglobin has significantly lower absorption of the 660 nm than deoxyhemoglobin, while at 940 nm its absorption is slightly higher. This difference is used for the measurement of the amount of oxygen

2012 Wikipedia

709. Herpes zoster Full Text available with Trip Pro

of contamination. They also have more sensitivity than . Differential diagnosis [ ] Shingles can be confused with , and , and skin reactions caused by , , certain drugs and insect bites. Transmission [ ] The varicella zoster virus can spread through direct contact with herpes zoster lesions which have not yet crusted over or via the airborne route over distances of greater than 3 feet. The risk of airborne transmission is increased in people with disseminated (widespread) herpes zoster or who have localized (...) reactivate presenting as zoster sine herpete : pain radiating along the path of a single spinal nerve (a dermatomal distribution ), but without an accompanying . This condition may involve complications that affect several levels of the and cause many , , , or . Other serious effects that may occur in some cases include partial (usually temporary), ear damage, or . Although initial infections with VZV during pregnancy, causing chickenpox, may lead to infection of the fetus and complications

2012 Wikipedia

710. History of surgery Full Text available with Trip Pro

on medicine and the most important . The text is dated to about 1550 BCE and measures 20 meters in length. The text includes recipes, a pharmacopoeia and descriptions of numerous diseases as well as cosmetic treatments. It mentions how to surgically treat crocodile bites and serious burns, recommending the drainage of pus-filled inflammation but warns against certain diseased skin. Edwin Smith Papyrus [ ] Main article: Plates vi and vii of the (around the 17th century BC), among the earliest medical texts (...) the uterus during labor. In 1624 she became the first to use a magnet to remove metal from a patient's eye, although he received the credit. Modern surgery [ ] Scientific surgery [ ] John Hunter (1728–1793), father of modern scientific surgery Benjamin Bell (1749–1806) by Sir Henry Raeburn. c1780 The discipline of surgery was put on a sound, scientific footing during the in Europe (1715–89). An important figure in this regard was the Scottish surgical scientist (in London) (1728–1793), generally regarded

2012 Wikipedia

711. Health effects of tobacco

measures to control the consumption of tobacco with usage and sales restrictions as well as printed on packaging. Additionally, that ban smoking in public places such as workplaces, theaters, and bars and restaurants reduce exposure to secondhand smoke and help some people who smoke to quit, without negative economic effects on restaurants or bars. that increase the price are also effective, especially in developing countries. The coughing, throat irritation, and shortness of breath caused by smoking (...) harm, and 12th in social harm. Smoking most commonly leads to diseases affecting the heart and and will most commonly affect areas such as hands or feet with first signs of smoking related health issues showing up as numbness, with smoking being a major risk factor for , (COPD), , and , particularly , cancers of the and , and . Overall life expectancy is also reduced in long term smokers, with estimates ranging from 10 to 17.9 years fewer than nonsmokers. About one half of long term male smokers

2012 Wikipedia

712. Health aspects of Down syndrome Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Increased fetal (NT) indicates an increased risk of Down syndrome picking up 75–80% of cases and being falsely positive in 6%. Blood tests Several blood markers can be measured to predict the risk of Down syndrome during the first or second trimester. Testing in both trimesters is sometimes recommended and test results are often combined with ultrasound results. In the second trimester, often two or three tests are used in combination with two or three of: , unconjugated estriol, total hCG, and free (...) % 60% 90% Shortened hands 60% Increased skin on back of neck 80% Short neck 60% 80% 60% Narrow 76% 57% 75% in the 56% Flexible ligaments 75% 53% Proportionally large tongue 75% Protruding tongue 47% Abnormal 70% 40% Flattened nose 68% ~35% Separation of first and second toes 68% 20% Physical Feet of a boy with Down syndrome People with Down syndrome may have some or all of these physical characteristics: a , slanted eyes, , a flat , a , and a protruding tongue due to a small mouth and relatively

2012 Wikipedia

713. Effects of cannabis

was associated with a substantial increase in brain concentrations of THC and its major metabolites, most likely because it decreased the rate of clearance of THC from the body. Cannabis have also been linked to lowering , modulating immune function, and cell protection. The of cannabis contains many fragrant which may synergize with the cannabinoids to produce their unique effects. THC is converted rapidly to , which is also pharmacologically active, so the euphoria outlasts measurable THC levels in blood (...) in its psychoactive effects. Somatic effects [ ] Bloodshot eye Some of the short-term physical effects of cannabis use include increased , , reddening of the (congestion of the ), a reduction in , muscle relaxation and a sensation of cold or hot hands and feet and / or flushed face. or EEG shows somewhat more persistent of slightly lower than usual. Cannabinoids produce a "marked depression of motor activity" via activation of neuronal receptors belonging to the subtype. Duration [ ] Peak levels

2012 Wikipedia

714. Human height Full Text available with Trip Pro

Human height Human height - Wikipedia Human height From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For other uses, see . Human height or stature is the from the bottom of the feet to the top of the head in a , standing erect. It is measured using a , usually in centimetres when using the , or feet and inches when using the . A particular genetic profile in men called is with height. Ecological data shows that as the frequency of this genetic profile increases in the population, the average male height (...) to be more desired than taller women. Contents Determinants of growth and height [ ] The median (50th percentile) growth curves for male and females 0–20 years in the United States. The study of height is known as . Growth has long been recognized as a measure of the of individuals, hence part of the reasoning for the use of growth charts. For individuals, as indicators of health problems, growth trends are tracked for significant deviations and growth is also monitored for significant deficiency from

2012 Wikipedia

715. Human

about 2 million spread over their entire bodies, many more than chimpanzees, whose sweat glands are scarce and are mainly located on the palm of the hand and on the soles of the feet. Humans have the largest number of among species. The of humans is: 2.1.2.3 2.1.2.3 . Humans have proportionately shorter and much smaller than other primates. They are the only primates to have short, relatively flush . Humans have characteristically crowded teeth, with gaps from lost teeth usually closing up quickly (...) and cervix into the uterus or Fallopian tubes for of the ovum. Upon fertilization and , gestation then occurs within the female's . The divides inside the female's uterus to become an , which over a period of 38 weeks (9 months) of becomes a . After this span of time, the fully grown fetus is from the woman's body and breathes independently as an infant for the first time. At this point, most modern cultures recognize the baby as a person entitled to the full protection of the law, though some

2012 Wikipedia

716. Docetaxel

. It works by disrupting the normal function of and thereby stopping . Docetaxel was patented in 1986 and approved for medical use in 1995. It is on the , the most effective and safe medicines needed in a . Docetaxel is available as a . The wholesale cost in the is about US$ 15.53 to US$ 87.37 per 80 mg vial. This dose in the United Kingdom costs the about £454.53. Contents Medical uses [ ] A woman being treated with docetaxel chemotherapy for . Cold mittens and are placed on her hands and feet (...) has not been established. Pregnancy [ ] Based on the limited data available, docetaxel appears to be safe in pregnancy if administered during the second and third trimesters; however, maternal and fetal risks should be weighed against benefits to determine the appropriate course of action. As with all chemotherapeutic agents, docetaxel administered to pregnant animals causes a variety of embryofetal toxicities, including death, when given during the period of organogenesis. Yet adequate studies

2012 Wikipedia

717. Warfarin

to result from small deposits of breaking loose and causing embolisms in blood vessels in the skin of the feet, which causes a blueish purple colour and may be painful. It is typically thought to affect the big toe, but it affects other parts of the feet as well, including the bottom of the foot (plantar surface). The occurrence of purple toe syndrome may require discontinuation of warfarin. Calcification [ ] Several studies have also implicated warfarin use in valvular and vascular calcification (...) anticoagulation effect. To optimize the therapeutic effect without risking dangerous side effects such as bleeding, close monitoring of the degree of anticoagulation is required by a blood test measuring an . During the initial stage of treatment, INR is checked daily; intervals between tests can be lengthened if the patient manages stable therapeutic INR levels on an unchanged warfarin dose. Newer is available and has increased the ease of INR testing in the outpatient setting. Instead of a blood draw

2012 Wikipedia

718. Waist?hip ratio

, with the tape parallel to the floor. Other organizations use slightly different standards. The United States and the used results obtained by measuring at the top of the iliac crest. Waist measurements are usually obtained by laypersons by measurings around the waist at the , but research has shown that these measurements may underestimate the true waist circumference. For both measurements, the individual should stand with feet close together, arms at the side and body weight evenly distributed, and should (...) Waist?hip ratio Waist–hip ratio - Wikipedia Waist–hip ratio From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Waist–hip ratio measurement Abnormal attitude in a man The waist-hip ratio or waist-to-hip ratio ( WHR ) is the of the circumference of the to that of the . This is calculated as waist measurement divided by hip measurement ( W ÷ H ). For example, a person with a 30″ (76 cm) waist and 38″ (97 cm) hips has a waist-hip ratio of about 0.78. The WHR has been used as an indicator or measure of health

2012 Wikipedia

719. Virus Full Text available with Trip Pro

, ranging from ovoid to brick shape. is one of the largest characterised viruses, with a capsid diameter of 400 nm. Protein filaments measuring 100 nm project from the surface. The capsid appears hexagonal under an electron microscope, therefore the capsid is probably icosahedral. In 2011, researchers discovered the largest then known virus in samples of water collected from the ocean floor off the coast of Las Cruces, . Provisionally named chilensis , it can be seen with a basic optical microscope (...) mother to child, or horizontal, which means from person to person. Examples of include hepatitis B virus and HIV, where the baby is born already infected with the virus. Another, more rare, example is the , which, although causing relatively mild infections in humans, can be fatal to the foetus and newborn baby. is the most common mechanism of spread of viruses in populations. Transmission can occur when: body fluids are exchanged during sexual activity, e.g., HIV; blood is exchanged by contaminated

2012 Wikipedia

720. Urination

, in order to urinate. [ ] Fetal urination Ultrasound scan of male fetal micturition at 19 weeks of pregnancy The fetus urinates hourly and produces most of the in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. The amniotic fluid is then recycled by fetal swallowing. Urination after injury Occasionally, if a male's penis is damaged or removed, or a /urinary tract is damaged, other urination techniques must be used. Most often in such cases, doctors will reposition the urethra to a location where urination (...) territory, and has been observed primarily at the edges of the troop's territory and in areas where other troops may frequent. The urine marking behavior is also most frequent during the mating season, and may play a role in reproductive communication between groups. Some other species use also urine for scent-marking. The sometimes engages in a practice known as "urine washing", in which the monkey rubs urine on its feet. Urine washing, in which urine is rubbed on the hands and feet, is also used

2012 Wikipedia

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