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Fetal Abdominal Circumference

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161. Prediction of small for gestational age neonates: Screening by fetal biometry at 35-37 weeks. (PubMed)

. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine if screening by a combination of maternal factors and Z-scores of fetal head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) or estimated fetal weight (EFW) had a significant contribution to the prediction of SGA neonates.Multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the likelihood of delivering a SGA neonate with a birth weight < 5th percentile decreased with maternal weight and height, and in parous (...) Prediction of small for gestational age neonates: Screening by fetal biometry at 35-37 weeks. To investigate the value of fetal biometry at 35-37 weeks' gestation in the prediction of delivery of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates, in the absence of pre-eclampsia (PE).This was a screening study in singleton pregnancies at 35-37 weeks' gestation, comprising 278 that delivered SGA neonates with a birth weight < 5th percentile and 5237 cases unaffected by SGA, PE or gestational hypertension

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2015 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

162. Prediction of small for gestational age neonates: screening by fetal biometry at 19-24 weeks. (PubMed)

%) that delivered SGA neonates with birth weight < 5(th) percentile (SGA < 5(th)). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine if screening by a combination of maternal characteristics and medical history and Z-scores of fetal head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) had significant contribution in predicting SGA neonates. A model was developed for selecting the gestational age for third-trimester assessment, at 32 and/or 36 weeks, based on the results (...) Prediction of small for gestational age neonates: screening by fetal biometry at 19-24 weeks. To investigate the value of fetal biometry at 19-24 weeks' gestation in the prediction of delivery of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates, in the absence of pre-eclampsia (PE), and examine the potential value of such assessment in deciding whether the third-trimester scan should be at 32 and/or 36 weeks' gestation.This was a screening study in 88,187 singleton pregnancies, including 5003 (5.7

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2015 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

163. Fetal sonographic characteristics associated with shoulder dystocia in pregnancies of women with type 1 diabetes. (PubMed)

of women was comparable [6.1% (range 5.5-6.9) vs. 6.0% (range 4.7-8.4, P = 0.30)]. Fetal biometry at 36 weeks showed a higher estimated fetal weight of 3597 g (range 3051-4069) vs. 2989 g (range 2165-4025), P < 0.001, corresponding to 20% (4-41%) vs. 5% (-20 to 44%) above the mean estimated fetal weight for gestational age (P = 0.002) and a greater abdominal circumference SD score of 2.51 (range 1.56-4.20) vs. 1.33 (range -1.08 to 4.25), P = 0.001). Head circumference was comparable. Vacuum extraction (...) was more frequent during deliveries with shoulder dystocia (58 vs. 17%, P = 0.005). Seven (58%) newborns with shoulder dystocia had brachial plexus injuries, fractures, intra-abdominal bleeding or needed resuscitation.Excessive estimated fetal weight and abdominal circumference at 36 weeks' sonographic examination may help in identifying diabetic women at high risk of later shoulder dystocia.© 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

2015 Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica

164. PRETERM BIRTH AND FETAL GROWTH RESTRICTION IN HIV-INFECTED BRAZILIAN PREGNANT WOMEN (PubMed)

, antiretroviral users, publicly assisted, HIV-infected women and to verify its relation to the HIV infection stage.Out of 250 deliveries from HIV-infected mothers that delivered at a tertiary public university hospital in the city of Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil, from November 2001 to May 2012, 74 single pregnancies were selected for study, with ultrasound validated gestational age (GA) and data on birth dimensions: fetal weight (FW), birth length (BL), head and abdominal (...) PRETERM BIRTH AND FETAL GROWTH RESTRICTION IN HIV-INFECTED BRAZILIAN PREGNANT WOMEN Maternal HIV infection and related co-morbidities may have two outstanding consequences to fetal health: mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and adverse perinatal outcomes. After Brazilian success in reducing MTCT, the attention must now be diverted to the potentially increased risk for preterm birth (PTB) and intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR).To determine the prevalence of PTB and IUGR in low income

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2015 Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo

165. Fetal growth reference ranges in twin pregnancy: analysis of the Southwest Thames Obstetric. (PubMed)

hospitals over a 10-year period. The measurements obtained in each fetus at each examination included head circumference (HC), biparietal diameter (BPD), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL). Multilevel mixed effects statistical models were used to evaluate growth in each biometric variable in relation to gestational age, taking account of the serial examinations and the association between the two fetuses in each pregnancy, with separate models constructed for DCDA and MCDA (...) Fetal growth reference ranges in twin pregnancy: analysis of the Southwest Thames Obstetric. To generate reference charts for expected fetal growth in dichorionic diamniotic (DCDA) and monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) twin pregnancies and to compare these with those from singleton pregnancies.This was a retrospective study of biometric measurements from serial ultrasound examinations of twin pregnancies in the second and third trimesters, from 14 weeks' gestation to term, collected by nine

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2014 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

166. Impact of gestational weight gain on fetal growth in obese glycemic mothers: A comparative study. (PubMed)

relationship to GWG. GWG had a significant positive relationship with intrauterine femur length (r = 0.32, p = 0.04) and abdominal circumference (r = 0.42, p = 0.006) growth trajectories, as well as birthweight standard deviation scores (r = 0.32, p = 0.036) and the ponderal index (r = 0.45, p = 0.003) in the obese mothers.Gestational weight gain among lean mothers is biphasic and significantly higher than their obese counterparts, but without effect on fetal growth. The obese mothers' monophasic weight (...) Impact of gestational weight gain on fetal growth in obese glycemic mothers: A comparative study. To assess the pattern of gestational weight gain (GWG) and its effect on fetal growth among normogylycemic obese and lean mothers.Prospective longitudinal study.Teaching hospitals, Sheffield, UK.Forty-six euglycemic obese and 30 lean mothers and their offspring.The contrast slope of GWG was calculated and its impact on fetal growth trajectory and birth anthropometry examined in both groups.The GWG

2014 Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica

167. Human fetoplacental and fetal liver blood flow after maternal glucose loading: a cross-sectional observational study. (PubMed)

after completed 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Liver blood flow was defined as the umbilical vein blood flow minus ductus venosus blood flow.Changes in umbilical vein and fetal liver blood flow following OGTT related to fetal biometric measurements.In the fasting state, fetal abdominal circumference z-scores did not correlate with any of the flow parameters; 120 min after glucose loading, the z-scores correlated positively with the changes in umbilical vein (r = 0.25, p = 0.010) and fetal (...) liver blood flow (r = 0.25, p = 0.009), but not with those in ductus venosus (p = 0.84). In simultaneous multiple linear regression analyses, the effects of the changes in umbilical vein or fetal liver blood flow after OGTT on the fetal abdominal circumference z-scores were almost equal to or greater than other parameters related to fetal size (body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, parity, and sex). Fetal heart rate increased after OGTT, but did not influence the association between the blood

2014 Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica

168. Prediction of small for gestational age neonates: screening by fetal biometry at 30-34 weeks. (PubMed)

hypertension. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine if screening by a combination of maternal factors and Z-scores of fetal head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) or estimated fetal weight (EFW) had a significant contribution to the prediction of SGA neonates.Combined screening by maternal characteristics and obstetric history, with Z-scores of EFW at 30-34 weeks, predicted 79%, 87% and 92% of the SGA neonates that delivered < 5 weeks (...) Prediction of small for gestational age neonates: screening by fetal biometry at 30-34 weeks. To investigate the value of fetal biometry at 30-34 weeks' gestation in the prediction of delivery of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates, in the absence of pre-eclampsia (PE).This was a screening study in 30 849 singleton pregnancies at 30-34 weeks' gestation, comprising 1727 that delivered SGA neonates with a birth weight < 5(th) percentile and 29 122 cases unaffected by SGA, PE or gestational

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2014 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

169. The Dutch STRIDER (Sildenafil TheRapy In Dismal Prognosis Early-onset Fetal Growth Restriction)

times daily orally from randomization until delivery Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : Intact neonatal survival until term age [ Time Frame: Term age, up to 20 weeks after randomization ] Secondary Outcome Measures : Fetal growth velocity assessed by ultrasound: abdominal circumference measurements (AC) [ Time Frame: At contact moments with the patient, up to 20 weeks after randomization ] Average daily increase in ultrasound-estimated AC Age-adequate performance on the two-year (...) , abdominal circumference and Doppler of umbilical artery [ Time Frame: At contact moments with the patients, up to 20 weeks after randomization ] Umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery, ductus venosus and aortic isthmus Doppler indices; fetal biometry; amniotic fluid index; deepest vertical amniotic fluid pocket. PlGF (Placental Growth Factor) point-of-care assessment [ Time Frame: At baseline ] If possible in designated clinic Eligibility Criteria Go to Information from the National Library

2014 Clinical Trials

170. Assessment of Antepartum Fetal Growth by Customized “GROW” Curves Versus Noncustomized Growth Curves in Correlation with Neonatal Growth Pattern (PubMed)

Assessment of Antepartum Fetal Growth by Customized “GROW” Curves Versus Noncustomized Growth Curves in Correlation with Neonatal Growth Pattern To study the antepartum fetal growth between customized "GROW" curves and noncustomized growth curves with neonatal growth pattern.Fetal growth scans are performed between 30 and 35 weeks to singleton mother. Estimated fetal weights (EFWs) were determined using ultrasound variables (biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference (...) , and femur length). This EFW is plotted on SONOCARE software [noncustomized growth curves developed by Medialogic solutions (P) Ltd., Chennai, India] and customized "GROW" curves to determine the type of antenatal fetal growth as AGA, small for gestational age (SGA), or large for gestational age (LGA). The fetuses were followed longitudinally till birth, and the newborns' growth patterns were determined according to birth weight at the gestational age of delivery (<10th percentile for gestational age

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2014 Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology of India

171. Growth assessment in diagnosis of Fetal Growth Restriction. Review (PubMed)

fetus that does not require special surveillance and the truly growth restricted fetus who is predisposed to perinatal complications, even if its parameters are above the cut-off limits established. In this article, we present the clinical tools of fetal growth assessment: Symphyseal-Fundal Height (SFH) measurement, the fetal ultrasound parameters widely taken into consideration when discussing fetal growth: Abdominal Circumference (AC) and Estimated Fetal Weight (EFW); several types of growth (...) Growth assessment in diagnosis of Fetal Growth Restriction. Review The assessment of fetal growth represents a fundamental step towards the identification of the true growth restricted fetus that is associated to important perinatal morbidity and mortality. The possible ways of detecting abnormal fetal growth are taken into consideration in this review and their strong and weak points are discussed. An important debate still remains about how to discriminate between the physiologically small

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2014 Journal of medicine and life

172. Reference charts for fetal biometric parameters in twin pregnancies according to chorionicity. (PubMed)

), abdominal circumference (AC), femurs length (FL) and estimated fetal weight (EFW). To evaluate the correlation between biometric parameters and gestational age, polynomial regression models were created, with adjustments using the coefficient of determination (R(2) ). Comparison between monochorionic and dichorionic pregnancies was performed using analysis of covariance.The mean BPD, AC, FL and EFW for the dichorionic pregnancies were 56.16 mm, 191.1 mm, 41.08 mm and 816.1 g, respectively. The mean BPD (...) Reference charts for fetal biometric parameters in twin pregnancies according to chorionicity. The objective of this article is to determine reference values for fetal biometric parameters in twin pregnancies and to compare these values between monochorionic and dichorionic pregnancies.A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among 157 monochorionic and 176 dichorionic twin pregnancies between 14 and 38 weeks of gestation. Biometric measurements included the biparietal diameter (BPD

2014 Prenatal diagnosis

173. Fetal biometry in the Korean population: reference charts and comparison with charts from other populations. (PubMed)

Fetal biometry in the Korean population: reference charts and comparison with charts from other populations. The objectives of this article were to construct size charts for fetal biometry in the Korean population and to identify ethnic differences in fetal biometry.A prospective, cross-sectional study was performed with 986 fetuses between 15 to 40 weeks of gestation. The following biometric variables were measured: biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (...) (AC), and long bones lengths including the femur, tibia, humerus, and ulna. For each measurement, regression models were fitted to estimate the mean and standard deviation at each gestational age. The calculated centiles were compared with centiles from other populations using Z-scores.New charts for the Korean population were presented for the fetal biometric variables. Most of the parameters were similar to those for the Italian population. Also, in comparison with the North American and UK

2014 Prenatal diagnosis

174. Fetal subcutaneous tissue measurements in pregnancy as a predictor of neonatal total body composition. (PubMed)

then correlated with neonatal body composition, which was analysed using the PEAPOD™ Infant Body Composition System (Cosmed USA, Concord, CA, USA).At 38 weeks gestation, fetal abdominal subcutaneous tissue (FAST) in millimetres was significantly associated with infant fat mass at delivery (+64 g per mm of FAST, p < 0.001). Thigh fat (TF) at 28 weeks gestation was associated with infant fat mass at delivery (+79 g/mm TF, p = 0.023). TF at 38 weeks gestation was associated with infant fat mass (+63/mm TF, p (...)  = 0.004). TF and FAST at 38 weeks were also predictive of both birth weight and increased abdominal circumference (AC) (p = 0.001) with FAST measurement predicting an additional 5.7 mm in AC per millimetre of FAST (p = 0.002) and TF predicting an additional 6.9 mm per mm of TF (p = 0.002).We believe that this study further validates the use of prenatal measures of subcutaneous tissue and may help to highlight fetuses at risk of newborn adiposity and metabolic syndrome.© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

2014 Prenatal diagnosis

175. Second-trimester prediction of delivery of a small-for-gestational-age neonate: integrating sequential Doppler information, fetal biometry, and maternal characteristics. (PubMed)

, and low abdominal circumference (AC) z-score were independent predictors of SGA. No difference was found in the magnitude of ΔUtA-PI and ΔUA-PI between SGA and no-SGA. Receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis yielded an area under the curve of 0.700 for AC z-score. The combination of low AC and bilateral notching had high specificity (99%) but low sensitivity (7%) for SGA prediction.A small second-trimester fetal AC is a specific marker for SGA when found with bilateral UtA notching. Only (...) Second-trimester prediction of delivery of a small-for-gestational-age neonate: integrating sequential Doppler information, fetal biometry, and maternal characteristics. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive accuracy of second-trimester ultrasound parameters, maternal characteristics, and sequential Doppler changes between first and second trimesters for the prediction of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants (birth weight < 10th percentile).We conducted a prospective study

2014 Prenatal diagnosis

176. Predictive value of fetal lung volume in prenatally diagnosed skeletal dysplasia. (PubMed)

diagnosis of skeletal dysplasia for which fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed between 21 and 38 weeks of gestation and ultrasound biometry data were available. Femur length to abdominal circumference ratio (FL/AC) and O/E lung volumes were calculated. The association between O/E lung volume, FL/AC, and lethality was measured using logistic regression.Lethality was significantly associated with O/E lung volume (p = 0.002) and FL/AC (p = 0.0476). Analysis with receiver-operating (...) Predictive value of fetal lung volume in prenatally diagnosed skeletal dysplasia. Pulmonary hypoplasia is a major cause of death in lethal skeletal dysplasias. We hypothesize that in fetuses with prenatally diagnosed skeletal dysplasia, comparison of observed-to-expected (O/E) lung volume will help predict lethality.We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients referred for evaluation of suspected fetal skeletal anomalies. Twenty-three pregnancies were identified with confirmed fetal

2014 Prenatal diagnosis

177. Estimation of Fetal Weight (Overview)

Herrero et al, 1999 9.5; 61 NA; NA 9.5; 62 Hendrix et al, 2000 10.6; 58 16.5; 32 NA; NA Dar et al, 2000 8.5; 61 5.9; 83 NA; NA Nahum et al, 2002 9.9; 51 8.3; 71 11.5; 55 Total 7.2-10.6; 51-73 5.9-16.5; 32-83 8.7-11.5; 55-70 * Sonographic prediction algorithms used to estimate fetal weight were those of Shepard, [ ] Hadlock, [ , ] Sabbagha, [ ] and Warsof, [ , ] in addition to the best of 8 algorithms based on various combinations of abdominal circumference (AC), femoral length (FL), biparietal (...) diameter (BPD), and head circumference (HC), both singly and in combination. Obstetric ultrasonography The most modern method for assessing fetal weight in utero involves the use of fetal measurements obtained during obstetrical ultrasonography. The advantage of this technique is that it relies on linear and/or planar measurements of in utero fetal dimensions that are objectively definable and generally reproducible. Findings from multiple studies have shown that ultrasonographic estimates of fetal

2014 eMedicine.com

178. Fetal Growth Restriction (Overview)

measurements and individual parameters. Assessing individual values is important to identify a fetus that is growing asymmetrically. In the presence of normal head and femur measurements, abdominal circumference (AC) measurements of less than 2 standard deviations below the mean appear to be a reasonable cutoff to consider a fetus asymmetric. Baschat and Weiner showed that a low AC percentile had the highest sensitivity (98.1%) for diagnosing IUGR (birth weight < 10th percentile). The sensitivity of EFW (...) of these therapies was lacking. However, they did suggest that further trials of maternal hyperoxygenation seem warranted. Additional therapies that have been proposed and may warrant further study are maternal hemodilution and intermittent abdominal negative pressure. These are also poorly studied, carry potential maternal and fetal harm, and should be considered experimental. The only intervention that has been shown to decrease neonatal morbidity and mortality is the administration of steroids to premature

2014 eMedicine.com

179. Fetal Growth Restriction (Diagnosis)

measurements and individual parameters. Assessing individual values is important to identify a fetus that is growing asymmetrically. In the presence of normal head and femur measurements, abdominal circumference (AC) measurements of less than 2 standard deviations below the mean appear to be a reasonable cutoff to consider a fetus asymmetric. Baschat and Weiner showed that a low AC percentile had the highest sensitivity (98.1%) for diagnosing IUGR (birth weight < 10th percentile). The sensitivity of EFW (...) of these therapies was lacking. However, they did suggest that further trials of maternal hyperoxygenation seem warranted. Additional therapies that have been proposed and may warrant further study are maternal hemodilution and intermittent abdominal negative pressure. These are also poorly studied, carry potential maternal and fetal harm, and should be considered experimental. The only intervention that has been shown to decrease neonatal morbidity and mortality is the administration of steroids to premature

2014 eMedicine.com

180. Estimation of Fetal Weight (Diagnosis)

Herrero et al, 1999 9.5; 61 NA; NA 9.5; 62 Hendrix et al, 2000 10.6; 58 16.5; 32 NA; NA Dar et al, 2000 8.5; 61 5.9; 83 NA; NA Nahum et al, 2002 9.9; 51 8.3; 71 11.5; 55 Total 7.2-10.6; 51-73 5.9-16.5; 32-83 8.7-11.5; 55-70 * Sonographic prediction algorithms used to estimate fetal weight were those of Shepard, [ ] Hadlock, [ , ] Sabbagha, [ ] and Warsof, [ , ] in addition to the best of 8 algorithms based on various combinations of abdominal circumference (AC), femoral length (FL), biparietal (...) diameter (BPD), and head circumference (HC), both singly and in combination. Obstetric ultrasonography The most modern method for assessing fetal weight in utero involves the use of fetal measurements obtained during obstetrical ultrasonography. The advantage of this technique is that it relies on linear and/or planar measurements of in utero fetal dimensions that are objectively definable and generally reproducible. Findings from multiple studies have shown that ultrasonographic estimates of fetal

2014 eMedicine.com

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