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Fetal Abdominal Circumference

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161. Fetal growth trajectory and risk for eczema in a Saudi population. (PubMed)

Fetal growth trajectory and risk for eczema in a Saudi population. Recent studies in Western cohorts have identified associations between increasing fetal abdominal circumference (AC) during mid-pregnancy and increased risk for eczema and atopy. We sought to replicate these findings in a Saudi population where antenatal environmental exposures are different compared with Western countries.A Saudi birth cohort was recruited to relate maternal dietary intake and fetal growth to wheeze, eczema (...) relationship between change in abdominal circumference between the second and third trimesters for eczema (OR 0.66 per z score increase in AC [95% CI 0.49, 0.89]), and the quartile with the greatest faltering growth were at increased risk compared with other groups (p ≤ 0.045). Change in fetal size between the third trimester and birth was not associated with altered eczema risk. There were no associations between fetal growth and wheeze at the age of 2 yrs.Our findings contrast observations made

2015 Pediatric Allergy and Immunology

162. The association of fetal growth, cerebral blood flow, and neurodevelopmental outcome in single ventricle fetuses. (PubMed)

a subset of 82 infants in whom ND was assessed at 14 months using mental (MDI) and psychomotor (PDI) developmental indices. US examinations were assigned to one of four gestational time periods: (1) 20-23 weeks, (2) 24-29 weeks, (3) 30-33 weeks and (4) ≥ 34 weeks. Middle cerebral artery (MCA) flow velocity was measured and pulsatility index (PI), a measure of downstream resistance, was calculated. Data on fetal head circumference (HC), femur length, abdominal circumference (AC) and estimated fetal (...) The association of fetal growth, cerebral blood flow, and neurodevelopmental outcome in single ventricle fetuses. To investigate the association of fetal growth and cerebrovascular resistance at different periods in gestation with neurodevelopment (ND) at 14 months in the univentricular subject.We reviewed serial prenatal ultrasound (US) examinations from 133 infants enrolled in the Pediatric Heart Network's Single Ventricle Reconstruction or Infants with Single Ventricle trials, including

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2015 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

163. Fetal sonographic characteristics associated with shoulder dystocia in pregnancies of women with type 1 diabetes. (PubMed)

of women was comparable [6.1% (range 5.5-6.9) vs. 6.0% (range 4.7-8.4, P = 0.30)]. Fetal biometry at 36 weeks showed a higher estimated fetal weight of 3597 g (range 3051-4069) vs. 2989 g (range 2165-4025), P < 0.001, corresponding to 20% (4-41%) vs. 5% (-20 to 44%) above the mean estimated fetal weight for gestational age (P = 0.002) and a greater abdominal circumference SD score of 2.51 (range 1.56-4.20) vs. 1.33 (range -1.08 to 4.25), P = 0.001). Head circumference was comparable. Vacuum extraction (...) was more frequent during deliveries with shoulder dystocia (58 vs. 17%, P = 0.005). Seven (58%) newborns with shoulder dystocia had brachial plexus injuries, fractures, intra-abdominal bleeding or needed resuscitation.Excessive estimated fetal weight and abdominal circumference at 36 weeks' sonographic examination may help in identifying diabetic women at high risk of later shoulder dystocia.© 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

2015 Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica

164. PRETERM BIRTH AND FETAL GROWTH RESTRICTION IN HIV-INFECTED BRAZILIAN PREGNANT WOMEN (PubMed)

, antiretroviral users, publicly assisted, HIV-infected women and to verify its relation to the HIV infection stage.Out of 250 deliveries from HIV-infected mothers that delivered at a tertiary public university hospital in the city of Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil, from November 2001 to May 2012, 74 single pregnancies were selected for study, with ultrasound validated gestational age (GA) and data on birth dimensions: fetal weight (FW), birth length (BL), head and abdominal (...) PRETERM BIRTH AND FETAL GROWTH RESTRICTION IN HIV-INFECTED BRAZILIAN PREGNANT WOMEN Maternal HIV infection and related co-morbidities may have two outstanding consequences to fetal health: mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and adverse perinatal outcomes. After Brazilian success in reducing MTCT, the attention must now be diverted to the potentially increased risk for preterm birth (PTB) and intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR).To determine the prevalence of PTB and IUGR in low income

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2015 Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo

165. Disproportionate Fetal Growth and the Risk for Congenital Cerebral Palsy in Singleton Births (PubMed)

Disproportionate Fetal Growth and the Risk for Congenital Cerebral Palsy in Singleton Births To investigate the association between proportionality of fetal and placental growth measured at birth and the risk for congenital cerebral palsy (CP).We identified all live-born singletons born in Denmark between 1995 and 2003 and followed them from 1 year of age until December 31st, 2008. Information on four indices of fetal growth: ponderal index, head circumference/ abdominal circumference ratio (...) . Head/ abdominal circumference ratio (aHR:1.12; 95%CI:1.07-1.16) and cephalization index (aHR:1.14; 95%CI:1.11-1.16) were associated with the risk of CP irrespective of gestational age. Birth weight-placental weight ratio was also associated with CP in the entire cohort (aHR:0.90; 95%CI:0.83-0.97). Ponderal index had a u-shaped association with CP, where both children with low and high ponderal index were at higher risk of CP.CP is associated with disproportions between birth weight, birth length

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2015 PloS one

166. Isolated Short Fetal Femur Length in the Second Trimester and the Association with Adverse Perinatal Outcome: Experiences from a Tertiary Referral Center (PubMed)

the 5th percentile in a fetus with an abdominal circumference greater than the 10th percentile. Cases of aneuploidy, skeletal dysplasia and major anomalies were excluded. Primary outcomes of interest included the risk of small for gestational age neonates, low birth weight and preterm birth (PTB). Secondary outcome parameters were a 5-min Apgar score less than 7 and a neonatal intensive care unit admission. A control group of 200 fetuses with FL ≥ 5th percentile was used to compare primary (...) Isolated Short Fetal Femur Length in the Second Trimester and the Association with Adverse Perinatal Outcome: Experiences from a Tertiary Referral Center To determine the association between isolated mid-trimester short fetal femur length and adverse perinatal outcome.This is a retrospective cohort study of patients with singleton gestations routinely assessed by second trimester ultrasound examination during 2006-2013. A fetal isolated short femur was defined as a femur length (FL) below

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2015 PloS one

167. Estimation of Fetal Weight (Overview)

Herrero et al, 1999 9.5; 61 NA; NA 9.5; 62 Hendrix et al, 2000 10.6; 58 16.5; 32 NA; NA Dar et al, 2000 8.5; 61 5.9; 83 NA; NA Nahum et al, 2002 9.9; 51 8.3; 71 11.5; 55 Total 7.2-10.6; 51-73 5.9-16.5; 32-83 8.7-11.5; 55-70 * Sonographic prediction algorithms used to estimate fetal weight were those of Shepard, [ ] Hadlock, [ , ] Sabbagha, [ ] and Warsof, [ , ] in addition to the best of 8 algorithms based on various combinations of abdominal circumference (AC), femoral length (FL), biparietal (...) diameter (BPD), and head circumference (HC), both singly and in combination. Obstetric ultrasonography The most modern method for assessing fetal weight in utero involves the use of fetal measurements obtained during obstetrical ultrasonography. The advantage of this technique is that it relies on linear and/or planar measurements of in utero fetal dimensions that are objectively definable and generally reproducible. Findings from multiple studies have shown that ultrasonographic estimates of fetal

2014 eMedicine.com

168. Fetal Growth Restriction (Overview)

measurements and individual parameters. Assessing individual values is important to identify a fetus that is growing asymmetrically. In the presence of normal head and femur measurements, abdominal circumference (AC) measurements of less than 2 standard deviations below the mean appear to be a reasonable cutoff to consider a fetus asymmetric. Baschat and Weiner showed that a low AC percentile had the highest sensitivity (98.1%) for diagnosing IUGR (birth weight < 10th percentile). The sensitivity of EFW (...) of these therapies was lacking. However, they did suggest that further trials of maternal hyperoxygenation seem warranted. Additional therapies that have been proposed and may warrant further study are maternal hemodilution and intermittent abdominal negative pressure. These are also poorly studied, carry potential maternal and fetal harm, and should be considered experimental. The only intervention that has been shown to decrease neonatal morbidity and mortality is the administration of steroids to premature

2014 eMedicine.com

169. Fetal Growth Restriction (Diagnosis)

measurements and individual parameters. Assessing individual values is important to identify a fetus that is growing asymmetrically. In the presence of normal head and femur measurements, abdominal circumference (AC) measurements of less than 2 standard deviations below the mean appear to be a reasonable cutoff to consider a fetus asymmetric. Baschat and Weiner showed that a low AC percentile had the highest sensitivity (98.1%) for diagnosing IUGR (birth weight < 10th percentile). The sensitivity of EFW (...) of these therapies was lacking. However, they did suggest that further trials of maternal hyperoxygenation seem warranted. Additional therapies that have been proposed and may warrant further study are maternal hemodilution and intermittent abdominal negative pressure. These are also poorly studied, carry potential maternal and fetal harm, and should be considered experimental. The only intervention that has been shown to decrease neonatal morbidity and mortality is the administration of steroids to premature

2014 eMedicine.com

170. Estimation of Fetal Weight (Diagnosis)

Herrero et al, 1999 9.5; 61 NA; NA 9.5; 62 Hendrix et al, 2000 10.6; 58 16.5; 32 NA; NA Dar et al, 2000 8.5; 61 5.9; 83 NA; NA Nahum et al, 2002 9.9; 51 8.3; 71 11.5; 55 Total 7.2-10.6; 51-73 5.9-16.5; 32-83 8.7-11.5; 55-70 * Sonographic prediction algorithms used to estimate fetal weight were those of Shepard, [ ] Hadlock, [ , ] Sabbagha, [ ] and Warsof, [ , ] in addition to the best of 8 algorithms based on various combinations of abdominal circumference (AC), femoral length (FL), biparietal (...) diameter (BPD), and head circumference (HC), both singly and in combination. Obstetric ultrasonography The most modern method for assessing fetal weight in utero involves the use of fetal measurements obtained during obstetrical ultrasonography. The advantage of this technique is that it relies on linear and/or planar measurements of in utero fetal dimensions that are objectively definable and generally reproducible. Findings from multiple studies have shown that ultrasonographic estimates of fetal

2014 eMedicine.com

171. Fetal Growth Restriction (Treatment)

measurements and individual parameters. Assessing individual values is important to identify a fetus that is growing asymmetrically. In the presence of normal head and femur measurements, abdominal circumference (AC) measurements of less than 2 standard deviations below the mean appear to be a reasonable cutoff to consider a fetus asymmetric. Baschat and Weiner showed that a low AC percentile had the highest sensitivity (98.1%) for diagnosing IUGR (birth weight < 10th percentile). The sensitivity of EFW (...) of these therapies was lacking. However, they did suggest that further trials of maternal hyperoxygenation seem warranted. Additional therapies that have been proposed and may warrant further study are maternal hemodilution and intermittent abdominal negative pressure. These are also poorly studied, carry potential maternal and fetal harm, and should be considered experimental. The only intervention that has been shown to decrease neonatal morbidity and mortality is the administration of steroids to premature

2014 eMedicine.com

172. Estimation of Fetal Weight (Treatment)

Herrero et al, 1999 9.5; 61 NA; NA 9.5; 62 Hendrix et al, 2000 10.6; 58 16.5; 32 NA; NA Dar et al, 2000 8.5; 61 5.9; 83 NA; NA Nahum et al, 2002 9.9; 51 8.3; 71 11.5; 55 Total 7.2-10.6; 51-73 5.9-16.5; 32-83 8.7-11.5; 55-70 * Sonographic prediction algorithms used to estimate fetal weight were those of Shepard, [ ] Hadlock, [ , ] Sabbagha, [ ] and Warsof, [ , ] in addition to the best of 8 algorithms based on various combinations of abdominal circumference (AC), femoral length (FL), biparietal (...) diameter (BPD), and head circumference (HC), both singly and in combination. Obstetric ultrasonography The most modern method for assessing fetal weight in utero involves the use of fetal measurements obtained during obstetrical ultrasonography. The advantage of this technique is that it relies on linear and/or planar measurements of in utero fetal dimensions that are objectively definable and generally reproducible. Findings from multiple studies have shown that ultrasonographic estimates of fetal

2014 eMedicine.com

173. Estimation of Fetal Weight (Follow-up)

Herrero et al, 1999 9.5; 61 NA; NA 9.5; 62 Hendrix et al, 2000 10.6; 58 16.5; 32 NA; NA Dar et al, 2000 8.5; 61 5.9; 83 NA; NA Nahum et al, 2002 9.9; 51 8.3; 71 11.5; 55 Total 7.2-10.6; 51-73 5.9-16.5; 32-83 8.7-11.5; 55-70 * Sonographic prediction algorithms used to estimate fetal weight were those of Shepard, [ ] Hadlock, [ , ] Sabbagha, [ ] and Warsof, [ , ] in addition to the best of 8 algorithms based on various combinations of abdominal circumference (AC), femoral length (FL), biparietal (...) diameter (BPD), and head circumference (HC), both singly and in combination. Obstetric ultrasonography The most modern method for assessing fetal weight in utero involves the use of fetal measurements obtained during obstetrical ultrasonography. The advantage of this technique is that it relies on linear and/or planar measurements of in utero fetal dimensions that are objectively definable and generally reproducible. Findings from multiple studies have shown that ultrasonographic estimates of fetal

2014 eMedicine.com

174. Fetal Growth Restriction (Follow-up)

measurements and individual parameters. Assessing individual values is important to identify a fetus that is growing asymmetrically. In the presence of normal head and femur measurements, abdominal circumference (AC) measurements of less than 2 standard deviations below the mean appear to be a reasonable cutoff to consider a fetus asymmetric. Baschat and Weiner showed that a low AC percentile had the highest sensitivity (98.1%) for diagnosing IUGR (birth weight < 10th percentile). The sensitivity of EFW (...) of these therapies was lacking. However, they did suggest that further trials of maternal hyperoxygenation seem warranted. Additional therapies that have been proposed and may warrant further study are maternal hemodilution and intermittent abdominal negative pressure. These are also poorly studied, carry potential maternal and fetal harm, and should be considered experimental. The only intervention that has been shown to decrease neonatal morbidity and mortality is the administration of steroids to premature

2014 eMedicine.com

175. The Fetus as a Patient: Prenatal Diagnosis and Fetal Therapy (Diagnosis)

at the level of the thalami, including the cavum septum pellucidum, should not be used in cases of hydrocephalus or abnormal head shape or late in the third trimester when the head may be engaged. Measures such as a corrected BPD have been devised to take into account differences in head shape. Abdominal circumference is the length of the outer perimeter of the fetal abdomen measured at the level of the stomach and intrahepatic umbilical vein on a transverse scan. This measure should not be used in cases (...) patterns Serial US can be used to monitor the rate of increase in fetal BPD, abdominal circumference, and femoral length, thereby helping to identify a growth-restricted fetus with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In the third trimester, ratios of morphometric measures such as abdominal circumference and femoral length are used to diagnose IUGR. Oligohydramnios and a poor biophysical score support the diagnosis of growth restriction secondary to uteroplacental insufficiency. This is most

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

176. The Fetus as a Patient: Prenatal Diagnosis and Fetal Therapy (Follow-up)

at the level of the thalami, including the cavum septum pellucidum, should not be used in cases of hydrocephalus or abnormal head shape or late in the third trimester when the head may be engaged. Measures such as a corrected BPD have been devised to take into account differences in head shape. Abdominal circumference is the length of the outer perimeter of the fetal abdomen measured at the level of the stomach and intrahepatic umbilical vein on a transverse scan. This measure should not be used in cases (...) patterns Serial US can be used to monitor the rate of increase in fetal BPD, abdominal circumference, and femoral length, thereby helping to identify a growth-restricted fetus with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In the third trimester, ratios of morphometric measures such as abdominal circumference and femoral length are used to diagnose IUGR. Oligohydramnios and a poor biophysical score support the diagnosis of growth restriction secondary to uteroplacental insufficiency. This is most

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

177. The Fetus as a Patient: Prenatal Diagnosis and Fetal Therapy (Treatment)

at the level of the thalami, including the cavum septum pellucidum, should not be used in cases of hydrocephalus or abnormal head shape or late in the third trimester when the head may be engaged. Measures such as a corrected BPD have been devised to take into account differences in head shape. Abdominal circumference is the length of the outer perimeter of the fetal abdomen measured at the level of the stomach and intrahepatic umbilical vein on a transverse scan. This measure should not be used in cases (...) patterns Serial US can be used to monitor the rate of increase in fetal BPD, abdominal circumference, and femoral length, thereby helping to identify a growth-restricted fetus with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In the third trimester, ratios of morphometric measures such as abdominal circumference and femoral length are used to diagnose IUGR. Oligohydramnios and a poor biophysical score support the diagnosis of growth restriction secondary to uteroplacental insufficiency. This is most

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

178. The Fetus as a Patient: Prenatal Diagnosis and Fetal Therapy (Overview)

at the level of the thalami, including the cavum septum pellucidum, should not be used in cases of hydrocephalus or abnormal head shape or late in the third trimester when the head may be engaged. Measures such as a corrected BPD have been devised to take into account differences in head shape. Abdominal circumference is the length of the outer perimeter of the fetal abdomen measured at the level of the stomach and intrahepatic umbilical vein on a transverse scan. This measure should not be used in cases (...) patterns Serial US can be used to monitor the rate of increase in fetal BPD, abdominal circumference, and femoral length, thereby helping to identify a growth-restricted fetus with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In the third trimester, ratios of morphometric measures such as abdominal circumference and femoral length are used to diagnose IUGR. Oligohydramnios and a poor biophysical score support the diagnosis of growth restriction secondary to uteroplacental insufficiency. This is most

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

179. Sonographic prediction of fetal macrosomia: the effect of sonographic fetal weight estimation model and threshold used. (PubMed)

Sonographic prediction of fetal macrosomia: the effect of sonographic fetal weight estimation model and threshold used. To compare the accuracy of 21 sonographic fetal weight-estimation models and abdominal circumference (AC) as a single measure for the prediction of fetal macrosomia (> 4000 g) using either fixed or optimal model-specific thresholds.A total of 4765 sonographic weight estimations performed within 3 days prior to delivery were analyzed. The predictive accuracy of 21 published (...) sonographic fetal weight-estimation models was calculated using three different thresholds: a fixed threshold of 4000 g; a model-specific threshold obtained from the inflexion point of the receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve; and a model-specific threshold associated with the highest overall accuracy. Cluster analysis was used to determine whether a certain combination of fetal biometric indices is associated with a higher predictive accuracy than others.For a fixed threshold of > 4000 g

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2011 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

180. Abdominal Hernias (Diagnosis)

by the rectus sheath. Proof that umbilical hernias persist from childhood to present in adulthood is only hinted at by an increased incidence among black Americans. Multiparity, increased abdominal pressure, and a single midline decussation are associated with umbilical hernias. Congenital hypothyroidism, fetal hydantoin syndrome, Freeman-Sheldon syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, and disorders of collagen and polysaccharide metabolism (such as Hunter-Hurler syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, and Ehlers (...) -Danlos syndrome), should be considered as possibilities in children with large umbilical hernias. Richter hernia A Richter hernia occurs when only the antimesenteric border of the bowel herniates through the fascial defect. This hernia involves only a portion of the circumference of the bowel. Thus, the bowel may not be obstructed, even if the hernia is incarcerated or strangulated, and the patient may not present with vomiting. A Richter hernia can occur with any of the abdominal hernias

2014 eMedicine Surgery

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