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Fetal Abdominal Circumference

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141. Maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by overweight and obesity Full Text available with Trip Pro

exercise more frequently (p = 0.010) than normal weight women. A greater proportion of obese mothers (13.4 %) had large for gestational age babies (p = 0.021), with higher thoracic circumference (33.6 ± 2.0 cm) and abdominal circumference (31.6 ± 2.3 cm). Obesity increased the risk of developing hypertension (OR = 7.0; 3.1-15.9), hyperglycemic disturbances (OR = 5.5; 2.9-10.6) and HbA1c ≥ 6.5 % (OR = 3.7; 1.2-11.1). The infants born to obese mothers had longer hospital stay (3.9 ± 3.9 days) (p = 0.005 (...) Maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by overweight and obesity Overweight and obesity are associated with pregnancy complications and adverse perinatal outcomes, posing short and long-term risks for maternal and child health. This study evaluated maternal, delivery and neonatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by overweight and obesity.This prospective cross-sectional study included 258 pregnant women. According to prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), participants were

2016 Reproductive health

142. Sex-specific differences in fetal and infant growth patterns: a prospective population-based cohort study Full Text available with Trip Pro

trimester of pregnancy head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) were assessed. Information on infant growth during the first 2 years of life was obtained from Community Health Centers and included HC, body weight and length.In the first trimester, male CRL was larger than female CRL (0.12 SD [95% CI 0.03,0.22]). From the second trimester onwards, HC and AC were larger in males than in females (0.30 SD [95% CI 0.26,0.34] and 0.09 SD [95% CI 0.05,0.014], respectively (...) Sex-specific differences in fetal and infant growth patterns: a prospective population-based cohort study The objective of this study was to assess whether sex-specific differences in fetal and infant growth exist.This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective birth cohort. In total, 8556 live singleton births were included. Fetal growth was assessed by ultrasound. During the first trimester, crown-rump-length (CRL) was measured. In the second and third

2016 Biology of sex differences

143. Early-onset fetal growth restriction treated with the long-acting phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor tadalafil: a case report Full Text available with Trip Pro

growth restriction with oligohydramnios in a 41-year-old primigravida Japanese woman who was treated with tadalafil (20-mg tablet daily) from 22 weeks' gestational age. Ten days after the initiation of the tadalafil therapy, the amniotic fluid level rose and the weight of the fetus began to increase. A 1024-g baby boy was delivered by cesarean at 32 weeks' gestation. The z-score for fetal head circumference had increased from -2.2 to -1.2, whereas the z-score of the femur legth was decreased to -4.3 (...) , indicating that tadalafil preferentially increased the blood flow to important organs.We achieved two positive results by administering tadalafil to the mother carrying a severely growth-restricted fetus with oligohydramnios. First, the z-scores of head circumference and abdominal circumference had at first declined but started to rise after the tadalafil administration. Second, the amniotic fluid, which was emptied before the tadalafil treatment, recovered to normal range with this treatment. Tadalafil

2016 Journal of medical case reports

144. Assessment of in vivo fetal growth and placental vascular function in a novel intrauterine growth restriction model of progressive uterine artery occlusion in guinea pigs Full Text available with Trip Pro

. This study proposes that gradual occlusion of uterine arteries from mid-gestation in pregnant guinea pigs produces a novel model to better assess human IUGR. Fetal biometry and in vivo placental vascular function were followed by sonography and Doppler of control pregnant guinea pigs and sows submitted to surgical placement of ameroid constrictors in both uterine arteries (IUGR) at mid-gestation (35 days). The ameroid constrictors induced a reduction in the fetal abdominal circumference growth rate (...) Assessment of in vivo fetal growth and placental vascular function in a novel intrauterine growth restriction model of progressive uterine artery occlusion in guinea pigs Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with short and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular alterations. Mice and rats have been extensively used to study the effects of IUGR, but there are notable differences in fetal and placental physiology relative to those of humans that argue for alternative animal models

2016 The Journal of physiology

145. Simple mathematical formulae for estimation of median values of fetal biometry at each gestational age Full Text available with Trip Pro

Simple mathematical formulae for estimation of median values of fetal biometry at each gestational age The aim of this study was to propose simple mathematical formulae to estimate median values of fetal biometry including biparietal diameter (BPD), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) at each gestational age (GA) easily without looking up the previously established reference values.Simple mathematical formulae to estimate median values of fetal biometric values at each (...) between observed data and calculated data ranged from 0.12% to 7.50%. The equation between AC and GA was: median AC (cm)=GA (wk)-5. Through this formula, the absolute percentage error was analyzed same as above and it ranged from 0.30% to 4.76%. Lastly the derived formula between FL and GA was: median FL (cm)=GA (wk)/5 and the absolute percentage error ranged from 4.52% to 16.75%.The three simple formulae suggested in our study showed a significantly easy way to estimate the median values of fetal

2016 Obstetrics & gynecology science

146. Ultrasonography-based Fetal Weight Estimation: Finding an Appropriate Model for an Indian Population Full Text available with Trip Pro

Ultrasonography-based Fetal Weight Estimation: Finding an Appropriate Model for an Indian Population Very limited information is available regarding the accuracy and applicability of various ultrasonography parameters [abdominal circumference (AC), biparietal diameter (BPD), femur length (FL), and head circumference (HC)]-based fetal weight estimation models for Indian population. The objective of this study was to systematically evaluate commonly used fetal weight estimation models (...) to determine their appropriateness for an Indian population.Retrospective data of 300 pregnant women was collected from a tertiary care center in Bengaluru, India. The inclusion criteria were a live singleton pregnancy, gestational age ≥ 34 weeks, and last ultrasound scan to delivery duration ≤ 7 days. Cases with suspected fetal growth restriction or malformation were excluded. For each case, fetal weight was estimated using 34 different models. The models specifically designed for low birth weight, small

2016 Journal of medical ultrasound

147. Increased renal apoptosis and reduced renin–angiotensin system in fetal growth restriction Full Text available with Trip Pro

collected. TUNEL, Bax and Bcl-2 staining were examined. The number of nephrons was also counted. Both protein and mRNA levels of renin and angiotensinogen were analyzed. Ultrasound was applied to measure fetus parameters including biparietal diameter, head circumference, circumference of abdomen, and femur length.The number of nephrons was positively correlated with fetal weight at termination. Kidneys in the FGR group presented more apoptotic cells than those in the non-FGR group. Renin (...) and angiotensinogen both decreased in the FGR group. Ultrasound revealed that biparietal diameter, abdomen circumference, femur length, and birth weight were all reduced in the FGR group compared with the non-FGR group. Kidney size was also restricted in the FGR group as indicated by ultrasound.Renal apoptosis might contribute to the reduction of nephrons, and ultrasound plays a vital role in early diagnosis of developmental origins of health and disease (DOHAD).© The Author(s) 2016.

2016 Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System: JRAAS

148. Relationship of amniotic fluid index (AFI) in third trimester with fetal weight and gender in a southeast Nigerian population Full Text available with Trip Pro

), and fetal gender.A prospective cross-sectional estimation of AFI and FWT was done in 385 apparently healthy pregnant women in the gestational age range of 28-42 weeks. General scanning in longitudinal, transverse, and oblique directions of the abdomen was done to assess the fetal wellbeing and determine the fetal gender for each participant. AF was measured in each of the quadrants of the abdomen. The four values of the AF were summed to get the AFI. Measurement of the head circumference, biparietal (...) diameter, abdominal circumference, and femoral length of the fetus were obtained. The EFWT was calculated using Hadlock's formula. The data were divided into five groups: 28-30 weeks 6 days; 31-33 weeks 6 days; 34-36 weeks 6 days; 37-39 weeks 6 days; and 40-42 weeks. AFI for the different gestational age group studied and their percentiles were obtained.AFI normogram for the local population was established. Positive and significant correlations of AF and EFWT were seen in all the gestational age

2016 Acta Radiologica Open

149. Estimation of Fetal Weight by MR Imaging to PREdict Neonatal MACROsomia (PREMACRO Study)

third trimester is also limited. Estimated fetal weight (EFW) is an important part of the clinical assessment and is used to guide obstetric interventions, when a fetus is small or large for dates. It frequently is the single most important component guiding interventions, such as induction of labour or Caesarean section. Due to the imprecision of ultrasound-derived EFW, particularly in cases of suspected macrosomia in the 3rd trimester, the investigators believe that these estimates should (...) as a second line in such cases but the accuracy of this imaging modality in the mid- to late third trimester is also limited. Estimated fetal weight (EFW) is an important part of the clinical assessment and is used to guide obstetric interventions, when a fetus is small or large for dates. When a diagnosis of intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) is made, the decision-making process is complex, particularly at very early gestations and involves multiple different factors, including maternal status

2016 Clinical Trials

150. Impact of replacing Chinese ethnicity-specific fetal biometry charts with the INTERGROWTH-21<sup>st</sup> standard. (Abstract)

Impact of replacing Chinese ethnicity-specific fetal biometry charts with the INTERGROWTH-21st standard. To assess the impact of adopting the INTERGROWTH-21(st) biometry standards in a Chinese population.Retrospective cohort study.A teaching hospital in Hong Kong.A total of 10 527 Chinese women with a singleton pregnancy having a second- or third-trimester fetal anomaly or growth scan between January 2009 and June 2014.Z-scores were derived for fetal abdominal circumference (AC (...) ), head circumference (HC), and femur length (FL) using the INTERGROWTH-21(st) and Chinese biometry standards. Pregnancies with aneuploidy, structural or skeletal abnormalities, or that developed pre-eclampsia were excluded. Z-scores were stratified as <2.5th, <5th, <10th, >90th, >95th, or >97.5th percentile. Birthweight centile, adjusted for gestation and gender, was categorised as ≤3rd, 3rd to ≤5th, 5th to ≤10th, and >10th. Pairwise comparison and the McNemar test were performed to assess biometry Z

2016 BJOG

151. Placental growth factor as a marker of fetal growth restriction caused by placental dysfunction. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Placental growth factor as a marker of fetal growth restriction caused by placental dysfunction. Discriminating between placentally-mediated fetal growth restriction and constitutionally-small fetuses is a challenge in obstetric practice. Placental growth factor (PlGF), measurable in the maternal circulation, may have this discriminatory capacity.Plasma PlGF was measured in women presenting with suspected fetal growth restriction (FGR; ultrasound fetal abdominal circumference <10th percentile (...) parameters for fetal assessment. For all cases, the relationship between PlGF and the sampling-to-delivery interval was determined.Low PlGF identified placental FGR with an area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve of 0.96 [95% CI 0.93-0.98], 98.2% [95% CI 90.5-99.9] sensitivity and 75.1% [95% CI 67.6-81.7] specificity. Negative and positive predictive values were 99.2% [95% CI 95.4-99.9] and 58.5% [95% CI 47.9-68.6], respectively. Low PlGF outperformed gestational age, abdominal

2016 Placenta

152. Accelerated Fetal Growth Prior to Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Cohort Study of Nulliparous Women. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Accelerated Fetal Growth Prior to Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Cohort Study of Nulliparous Women. To determine whether fetal overgrowth precedes the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to quantify the interrelationships among fetal overgrowth, GDM, and maternal obesity.We conducted a prospective cohort study of unselected nulliparous women and performed ultrasonic measurement of the fetal abdominal circumference (AC) and head circumference (HC (...) of being large for gestational age at birth.Diagnosis of GDM is preceded by excessive growth of the fetal AC between 20 and 28 wkGA, and its effects on fetal growth are additive with the effects of maternal obesity.© 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

2016 Diabetes Care

153. Prediction of Growth Restricted Fetuses Using Femur Length to Mid-thigh Circumference Ratio: A Case-control Study

, such as the brain and heart, at the expense of the liver, muscle and fat and this results in decreased abdominal and thigh circumference measurements and hence theoretically increased HC/AC, FL/AC and FL/TC ratios (Colley et al., 1991). Fetal thigh circumference has a role to play in accurately measuring fetal weight when incorporated with other fetal parameters and provide a potentially straightforward method for assessing the deposition of muscle and fat in the growing fetus; there is a scope of using the FL (...) ). Ultrasound has been used as a tool for determining fetal health and a variety of sonographic parameters have been used to screen and diagnose IUGR including fetal biometry, fetal body proportions (Campbell et al., 1994), amniotic fluid volume (Owen et al., 1999), subcutaneous tissue thickness and estimated fetal weight (EFW) (Larciprete et al., 2005). IUGR is associated with changes in the body proportions as undernourished fetus directs most of its energy to maintain the growth of vital organs

2013 Clinical Trials

154. Stomach position in the prediction of survival in left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia with or without fetoscopic endoluminal tracheal occlusion. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Stomach position in the prediction of survival in left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia with or without fetoscopic endoluminal tracheal occlusion. To investigate the value of fetal stomach position in predicting postnatal outcome in left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) with and without fetoscopic endoluminal tracheal occlusion (FETO).This was a retrospective review of CDH cases that were expectantly managed or treated with FETO, assessed from May 2008 to October 2013, in which (...) we graded, on a scale of 1-4, stomach position on the four-chamber view of the heart with respect to thoracic structures. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the effect of management center (Paris, Brussels, Barcelona, Milan), stomach grading, observed-to-expected lung area-to-head circumference ratio (O/E-LHR), gestational age at delivery, birth weight in expectantly managed CDH, gestational ages at FETO and at removal and period of tracheal occlusion, on postnatal survival

2014 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

155. Perinatal morbidity and mortality in early-onset fetal growth restriction: cohort outcomes of the trial of randomized umbilical and fetal flow in Europe (TRUFFLE). Full Text available with Trip Pro

early-onset fetal growth restriction based on time of antenatal diagnosis and delivery.We report cohort outcomes for a prospective multicenter randomized management study of fetal growth restriction (Trial of Randomized Umbilical and Fetal Flow in Europe (TRUFFLE)) performed in 20 European perinatal centers between 2005 and 2010. Women with a singleton fetus at 26-32 weeks of gestation, with abdominal circumference < 10(th) percentile and umbilical artery Doppler pulsatility index > 95(th (...) Perinatal morbidity and mortality in early-onset fetal growth restriction: cohort outcomes of the trial of randomized umbilical and fetal flow in Europe (TRUFFLE). Few data exist for counseling and perinatal management of women after an antenatal diagnosis of early-onset fetal growth restriction. Yet, the consequences of preterm delivery and its attendant morbidity for both mother and baby are far reaching. The objective of this study was to describe perinatal morbidity and mortality following

2013 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

156. Does Gestational Diabetes Affect Fetal Growth and Pregnancy Outcome in Twin Pregnancies? (Abstract)

Does Gestational Diabetes Affect Fetal Growth and Pregnancy Outcome in Twin Pregnancies? Women with twin pregnancies are at increased risk for fetal growth restriction, which might be attributed to the limited maternal resources that are being shared by >1 fetus. Based on that, it may be hypothesized that the fetal effects of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with respect to accelerated fetal growth may be less pronounced in twin gestations or alternatively may even have a beneficial role (...) percentile: OGTT-NEGATIVE = odds ratio (OR), 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-2.2; GDM-IADPSG = OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.6; and GDM-CDA = OR, 1.9, 95% CI, 1.3-3.1 (using the GCT-NEGATIVE group as reference). Fetuses of women with glucose intolerance were more likely to experience asymmetric growth as reflected by an elevated abdominal circumference to head circumference ratio.GDM and milder degrees of glucose intolerance in twin pregnancies are associated with an increased risk of asymmetric

2015 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

157. Fetal epicardial fat thickness in diabetic and non-diabetic pregnancies: A retrospective cross-sectional study. (Abstract)

Fetal epicardial fat thickness in diabetic and non-diabetic pregnancies: A retrospective cross-sectional study. To evaluate fetal epicardial fat thickness (EFT) in diabetic and control pregnancies.A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed in which fetal EFT was measured in the second trimester in 28 diabetics and 28 non-diabetic patients. Maternal BMI, estimated fetal weight, birth weight, fetal abdominal circumference, and subcutaneous fat thickness were also collected. Statistical (...) analysis was carried out by means of chi-square, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, Student's T test, and linear regression as appropriate.EFT was significantly higher in diabetic (1.43 mm) vs. control fetuses (1.16 mm), P = 0.02. This relationship remained significant when controlling for covariates.EFT was higher in fetuses of diabetic mothers vs. fetuses from controls. If confirmed in prospective studies, this may represent a novel marker for altered fetal metabolism due to maternal diabetes.© 2015 The Obesity

2015 Obesity

158. Fetal growth according to different reference ranges in twin pregnancies with placental insufficiency Full Text available with Trip Pro

. The estimated fetal weight zeta-scores were calculated for both fetuses (abnormal Doppler and co-twin) according to the following criteria: Hadlock, Liao and Araújo. The abdominal circumference zeta-scores were calculated according to Hadlock, Liao, Araújo, Ong and Stirrup. The mean estimates of the zeta-score values were calculated using generalized estimating equation regression analysis. The mean gestational age at inclusion was 27.4 ± 4.7 weeks. The fetal sex and the interaction Doppler findings (...) × criteria correlated significantly with the zeta-score values (p < 0.001 for both variables). The estimated fetal weight mean zeta-scores (standard error) according to each criteria were as follows: Hadlock - abnormal Doppler: -2.98 (0.18), co-twin: -1.16 (0.15); Liao - abnormal Doppler: -2.89 (0.24), co-twin: -0.58 (0.19); and Araújo - abnormal Doppler: -3.05 (0.29), co-twin: -0.75 (0.18). Values for abdominal circumference were as follows: Hadlock - abnormal Doppler: -3.14 (0.26), co-twin: -1.13 (0.19

2015 Clinics

159. Contingent versus routine third-trimester screening for late fetal growth restriction. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. At the second-trimester scan, the a-posteriori second-trimester risk (a-posteriori first-trimester risk (baseline a-priori risk and mean arterial blood pressure) combined with second-trimester abdominal circumference and UtA Doppler) yielded an area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUC) of 0.81 (95% CI, 0.74-0.87) (detection rate (DR), 43.1% for a 10% false-positive rate (FPR)). The combination of a-posteriori second-trimester risk plus third-trimester estimated fetal weight (full model (...) Contingent versus routine third-trimester screening for late fetal growth restriction. To evaluate the use of third-trimester ultrasound screening for late fetal growth restriction (FGR) on a contingent basis, according to risk accrued in the second trimester, in an unselected population.Maternal characteristics, fetal biometry and second-trimester uterine artery (UtA) Doppler were included in logistic regression analysis to estimate risk for late FGR (birth weight < 3(rd) percentile, or 3(rd

2015 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

160. 3D Ultrasonography Fetal Lung Volume Measurement and Neonatal Respiratory Function

& general anesthesia upon doing CS) or oligohydramnios (amniotic fluid index < 5th centile), rupture of membranes, the presence of fetal malformations (chest, heart or abdominal) or abnormal fetal growth (defined as: estimated fetal weight < 5th centile or > 95th centile and/or abdominal circumference < 5th centile or > 95th centile). Also, women with a cardiac pacemaker were excluded (as the transmitter necessary for the lung volume measurements could disturb the function of the pacemaker). Contacts (...) ) & Group B (n: 50 - women pregnant ± 37+1-40 weeks gestation). Gestational age (GA) is established by menstrual dates then confirmed by obstetric ultrasound. For both groups, full history will be taken including the receiving of antenatal steroids followed by general, abdominal & pelvic examination to confirm the stage of labour & to exclude the presence of rupture of membranes. Obstetric ultrasound will be done to confirm GA, assess amniotic fluid index (AFI) & to exclude fetal anomalies. Fetal lung

2015 Clinical Trials

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