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Fetal Abdominal Circumference

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121. Estimation of fetal weight in pregnancies past term. (PubMed)

Estimation of fetal weight in pregnancies past term. The aim of the study was to investigate the accuracy of estimating fetal weight with ultrasound in pregnancies past term, using the eSnurra algorithm.In all, 419 women with pregnancy length of 290 days, attending a specialist consultation at Stavanger University Hospital, Norway, were included in a prospective observational study. Fetal weight was estimated using biparietal diameter (BPD) and abdominal circumference (AC). The algorithm (...) implemented in an electronic calculation (eSnurra) was used to compute estimated fetal weight (EFW). Results were compared with birthweight (BW).The mean interval between the ultrasound examination and birth was 2 days (SD 1.4). The median difference between BW and EFW was -6 g (CI -40 to +25 g) and the median percentage error was -0.1% (95% CI -1.0 to 0.6%). The median absolute difference was 190 g (95% CI 170-207 g). The BW was within 10% of EFW in 83% (95% CI 79-87%) of cases and within 15% of EFW

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2016 Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica

122. Prediction of small for gestational age neonates by third trimester fetal biometry and impact of ultrasound-delivery interval. (PubMed)

health in children. We included women, recruited in the first trimester, who had complete outcome data and had undergone third-trimester ultrasound examination. Demographic, clinical and biological variables were also collected from both parents. We compared prediction of delivery of a SGA neonate (birth weight < 10th percentile) by the following methods: abdominal circumference (AC) Z-score based on Hadlock curves (Hadlock AC), on INTERGROWTH-21st Project curves (Intergrowth AC) and on Salomon (...) Prediction of small for gestational age neonates by third trimester fetal biometry and impact of ultrasound-delivery interval. To compare third-trimester ultrasound screening methods to predict small-for-gestational age (SGA), and to evaluate the impact of the ultrasound-delivery interval on screening performance.In this prospective study, data were collected from a multicenter singleton cohort study investigating the links between various exposures during pregnancy with birth outcome and later

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2016 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

123. Human umbilical and fetal cerebral blood flow velocity waveforms following maternal glucose loading: a cross-sectional observational study. (PubMed)

rate (r = -0.47, p < 0.001). This reduction was not significant (p = 0.230) when the PI values were adjusted for fetal heart rate. The ratio MCA PI to UA PI was reduced (p = 0.001). The effect of OGTT on MCA PI was not related to fetal abdominal circumference whereas the effect on the adjusted UA PI values was correlated to abdominal circumference (r = -0.20, p = 0.045) but not to abdominal circumference Z-score (r = -0.16, p = 0.115). The influence of OGTT on the Doppler parameters as well (...) Human umbilical and fetal cerebral blood flow velocity waveforms following maternal glucose loading: a cross-sectional observational study. Our aim was to study umbilical and fetal cerebral arterial blood flow velocity waveforms related to fetal biometric measures and maternal body mass index, glucose levels and parity following maternal oral glucose loading.The study had an experimental design in a cross-sectional observational study including 105 low-risk pregnancies (30-32 weeks of gestation

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2016 Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica

124. Relation of FTO gene variants to fetal growth trajectories: Findings from the Southampton Women's survey. (PubMed)

genotyped for common gene variants in FTO (rs9939609, rs1421085) and MC4R (rs17782313). Linear mixed-effect models were used to analyse relations of gene variants with fetal growth.Fetuses with the rs9939609 A:A FTO genotype had faster biparietal diameter and head circumference growth velocities between 11 and 34 weeks gestation (by 0.012 (95% CI 0.005 to 0.019) and 0.008 (0.002-0.015) standard deviations per week, respectively) compared to fetuses with the T:T FTO genotype; abdominal circumference (...) Relation of FTO gene variants to fetal growth trajectories: Findings from the Southampton Women's survey. Placental function is an important determinant of fetal growth, and fetal growth influences obesity risk in childhood and adult life. Here we investigated how FTO and MC4R gene variants linked with obesity relate to patterns of fetal growth and to placental FTO expression.Southampton Women's Survey children (n = 1990) with measurements of fetal growth from 11 to 34 weeks gestation were

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2016 Placenta

125. General movements after fetal growth restriction in relation to prenatal Doppler flow patterns. (PubMed)

General movements after fetal growth restriction in relation to prenatal Doppler flow patterns. To investigate whether Doppler pulsatility indices (PIs) of the fetal circulation in cases of fetal growth restriction (FGR) are associated with the general movements (GMs) of the neonate after birth.This was a prospective observational cohort study including pregnancies with FGR diagnosed between June 2012 and September 2014. A diagnosis of FGR was based on an abdominal circumference or estimated (...) fetal weight < 10th percentile (in conjuction with abnormal Doppler) or declining fetal growth of at least 30 percentiles with respect to previous size measurements. Doppler parameters of the umbilical artery (UA), fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) and ductus venosus (DV) were measured maximally 1 week prior to delivery. Cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) was calculated as MCA-PI divided by UA-PI. We assessed the quality of neonatal GMs 7 days after birth, around the due date if cases were born preterm

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2016 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

126. National Curves of Fetal Growth in Singleton Fetuses of Greek Origin. (PubMed)

National Curves of Fetal Growth in Singleton Fetuses of Greek Origin. Foetal growth monitoring is an essential component of prenatal care with postnatal impact. The aim of the study was to construct reference ranges for foetal biometric parameters in Greek foetuses and to compare them with previously published models.Measurements from 1200 Greek foetuses were used to construct normal curves for biparietal diameter (BPD), occipitofrontal diameter (OFD), head circumference (HC), abdominal (...) circumference (AC), femoral length (FL) and the BPD/FL ratio according to the methodology described by Royston and Wright (1998). The model was validated in a second group of 1200 different foetuses using analysis of the corresponding standardized residuals (z-scores). The z-scores which were derived by our model were compared to those calculated using previously published models from other populations.BPD, OFD, HC, AC, FL and the BPD/FL ratio are accurately described by simple quadratic equations (R(2) > 0

2016 European journal of clinical investigation

127. Consensus definition for placental fetal growth restriction: a Delphi procedure. (PubMed)

), three solitary parameters (abdominal circumference (AC) < 3(rd) centile, estimated fetal weight (EFW) < 3(rd) centile and absent end-diastolic flow in the umbilical artery (UA)) and four contributory parameters (AC or EFW < 10(th) centile combined with a pulsatility index (PI) > 95(th) centile in either the UA or uterine artery) were agreed upon. For late FGR (≥ 32 weeks), two solitary parameters (AC or EFW < 3(rd) centile) and four contributory parameters (EFW or AC < 10(th) centile, AC or EFW (...) Consensus definition for placental fetal growth restriction: a Delphi procedure. To determine, by expert consensus, a definition for early and late fetal growth restriction (FGR) through a Delphi procedure.A Delphi survey was conducted among an international panel of experts on FGR. Panel members were provided with 18 literature-based parameters for defining FGR and were asked to rate the importance of these parameters for the diagnosis of both early and late FGR on a 5-point Likert scale

2016 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

128. The relationship between human placental morphometry and ultrasonic measurements of utero-placental blood flow and fetal growth. (PubMed)

were associated with reduced growth velocity of the fetal abdominal circumference between 20 and 36 weeks (both P < 0.001).Placental area and weight are associated with uterine and umbilical blood flow, respectively, and both are associated with fetal growth rate.Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. (...) The relationship between human placental morphometry and ultrasonic measurements of utero-placental blood flow and fetal growth. Ultrasonic fetal biometry and arterial Doppler flow velocimetry are widely used to assess the risk of pregnancy complications. There is an extensive literature on the relationship between pregnancy outcomes and the size and shape of the placenta. However, ultrasonic fetal biometry and arterial Doppler flow velocimetry have not previously been studied in relation

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2016 Placenta

129. Impact of replacing Chinese ethnicity-specific fetal biometry charts with the INTERGROWTH-21<sup>st</sup> standard. (PubMed)

Impact of replacing Chinese ethnicity-specific fetal biometry charts with the INTERGROWTH-21st standard. To assess the impact of adopting the INTERGROWTH-21(st) biometry standards in a Chinese population.Retrospective cohort study.A teaching hospital in Hong Kong.A total of 10 527 Chinese women with a singleton pregnancy having a second- or third-trimester fetal anomaly or growth scan between January 2009 and June 2014.Z-scores were derived for fetal abdominal circumference (AC (...) ), head circumference (HC), and femur length (FL) using the INTERGROWTH-21(st) and Chinese biometry standards. Pregnancies with aneuploidy, structural or skeletal abnormalities, or that developed pre-eclampsia were excluded. Z-scores were stratified as <2.5th, <5th, <10th, >90th, >95th, or >97.5th percentile. Birthweight centile, adjusted for gestation and gender, was categorised as ≤3rd, 3rd to ≤5th, 5th to ≤10th, and >10th. Pairwise comparison and the McNemar test were performed to assess biometry Z

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2016 BJOG

130. Accelerated Fetal Growth Prior to Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Cohort Study of Nulliparous Women. (PubMed)

Accelerated Fetal Growth Prior to Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective Cohort Study of Nulliparous Women. To determine whether fetal overgrowth precedes the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to quantify the interrelationships among fetal overgrowth, GDM, and maternal obesity.We conducted a prospective cohort study of unselected nulliparous women and performed ultrasonic measurement of the fetal abdominal circumference (AC) and head circumference (HC (...) ) at 20 and 28 weeks of gestational age (wkGA). Exposures were diagnosis of GDM ≥28 wkGA and maternal obesity. The risk of AC >90th and HC-to-AC ratio <10th percentile was modeled using log-binomial regression, adjusted for maternal characteristics.Of 4,069 women, 171 (4.2%) were diagnosed with GDM at ≥28 wkGA. There was no association between fetal biometry at 20 wkGA and subsequent maternal diagnosis of GDM. However, at 28 wkGA, there was an increased risk of AC >90th percentile (adjusted relative

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2016 Diabetes Care

131. Placental growth factor as a marker of fetal growth restriction caused by placental dysfunction. (PubMed)

Placental growth factor as a marker of fetal growth restriction caused by placental dysfunction. Discriminating between placentally-mediated fetal growth restriction and constitutionally-small fetuses is a challenge in obstetric practice. Placental growth factor (PlGF), measurable in the maternal circulation, may have this discriminatory capacity.Plasma PlGF was measured in women presenting with suspected fetal growth restriction (FGR; ultrasound fetal abdominal circumference <10th percentile (...) parameters for fetal assessment. For all cases, the relationship between PlGF and the sampling-to-delivery interval was determined.Low PlGF identified placental FGR with an area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve of 0.96 [95% CI 0.93-0.98], 98.2% [95% CI 90.5-99.9] sensitivity and 75.1% [95% CI 67.6-81.7] specificity. Negative and positive predictive values were 99.2% [95% CI 95.4-99.9] and 58.5% [95% CI 47.9-68.6], respectively. Low PlGF outperformed gestational age, abdominal

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2016 Placenta

132. Simple mathematical formulae for estimation of median values of fetal biometry at each gestational age (PubMed)

Simple mathematical formulae for estimation of median values of fetal biometry at each gestational age The aim of this study was to propose simple mathematical formulae to estimate median values of fetal biometry including biparietal diameter (BPD), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) at each gestational age (GA) easily without looking up the previously established reference values.Simple mathematical formulae to estimate median values of fetal biometric values at each (...) between observed data and calculated data ranged from 0.12% to 7.50%. The equation between AC and GA was: median AC (cm)=GA (wk)-5. Through this formula, the absolute percentage error was analyzed same as above and it ranged from 0.30% to 4.76%. Lastly the derived formula between FL and GA was: median FL (cm)=GA (wk)/5 and the absolute percentage error ranged from 4.52% to 16.75%.The three simple formulae suggested in our study showed a significantly easy way to estimate the median values of fetal

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2016 Obstetrics & gynecology science

133. Fetal Macrosomia

( ) Error in weight estimation: 300 grams More accurate than estimate Estimate altered by physiologic characteristics Amniotic fluid volume and configuration Mother's body habitus Error in weight estimation: 300 to 550 grams Estimated fetal weight and Abdominal circumference Correlates 88% with diagnosis of macrosomia VII. Efficacy: Fetal Macrosomia prediction and prevention Methods proven ineffective at complication prevention Elective Analysis based on permanent C/S for EFW 4500g prevents 1 case/3700 (...) Fetal Macrosomia Fetal Macrosomia Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Fetal Macrosomia Fetal Macrosomia Aka: Fetal

2018 FP Notebook

134. Fetal Femur Length

Femur Length II. Technique Start with transducer at abdominal circumference Move transducer inferiorly to transect Rotate transducer 30 degrees to view femur Exclude distal femoral epiphyses present after 32 weeks Tibia is at times mistaken for femur III. Images Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Fetal Femur Length." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related (...) Fetal Femur Length Fetal Femur Length Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Fetal Femur Length Fetal Femur Length Aka: Fetal

2018 FP Notebook

135. IMPLEMENTING THE INTERGROWTH-21<sup>st</sup> FETAL GROWTH STANDARDS IN FRANCE: A « FLASH » STUDY OF THE COLLEGE FRANÇAIS D'ECHOGRAPHIE FOETALE (CFEF). (PubMed)

were recruited prospectively within the network of the national French College of Fetal Ultrasound, CFEF, over a 6-week period. Further selection was performed based on the criteria of the IG-21st Project in order to obtain a comparable population. Head circumference (HC) was used as the main fat-free skeletal measure of growth for comparison of French fetal size with that of the IG-21st population. The impact of switching to the IG-21st fetal growth standards was quantified by comparing Z-scores (...) calculated using the IG-21st standards with those calculated using locally derived reference ranges for HC, abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL).Following selection, 4858 cases were analyzed. The distribution of HC demonstrated clear similarity between our French population and the IG-21st population: our observed centile curves closely matched those of IG-21st and the Z-scores were close to 0 across gestational age. The IG-21st standards performed as well as did locally derived charts

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2016 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

136. Early-onset fetal growth restriction treated with the long-acting phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor tadalafil: a case report (PubMed)

growth restriction with oligohydramnios in a 41-year-old primigravida Japanese woman who was treated with tadalafil (20-mg tablet daily) from 22 weeks' gestational age. Ten days after the initiation of the tadalafil therapy, the amniotic fluid level rose and the weight of the fetus began to increase. A 1024-g baby boy was delivered by cesarean at 32 weeks' gestation. The z-score for fetal head circumference had increased from -2.2 to -1.2, whereas the z-score of the femur legth was decreased to -4.3 (...) , indicating that tadalafil preferentially increased the blood flow to important organs.We achieved two positive results by administering tadalafil to the mother carrying a severely growth-restricted fetus with oligohydramnios. First, the z-scores of head circumference and abdominal circumference had at first declined but started to rise after the tadalafil administration. Second, the amniotic fluid, which was emptied before the tadalafil treatment, recovered to normal range with this treatment. Tadalafil

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2016 Journal of medical case reports

137. Sex-specific differences in fetal and infant growth patterns: a prospective population-based cohort study (PubMed)

trimester of pregnancy head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) were assessed. Information on infant growth during the first 2 years of life was obtained from Community Health Centers and included HC, body weight and length.In the first trimester, male CRL was larger than female CRL (0.12 SD [95% CI 0.03,0.22]). From the second trimester onwards, HC and AC were larger in males than in females (0.30 SD [95% CI 0.26,0.34] and 0.09 SD [95% CI 0.05,0.014], respectively (...) Sex-specific differences in fetal and infant growth patterns: a prospective population-based cohort study The objective of this study was to assess whether sex-specific differences in fetal and infant growth exist.This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective birth cohort. In total, 8556 live singleton births were included. Fetal growth was assessed by ultrasound. During the first trimester, crown-rump-length (CRL) was measured. In the second and third

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2016 Biology of sex differences

138. Ultrasonography-based Fetal Weight Estimation: Finding an Appropriate Model for an Indian Population (PubMed)

Ultrasonography-based Fetal Weight Estimation: Finding an Appropriate Model for an Indian Population Very limited information is available regarding the accuracy and applicability of various ultrasonography parameters [abdominal circumference (AC), biparietal diameter (BPD), femur length (FL), and head circumference (HC)]-based fetal weight estimation models for Indian population. The objective of this study was to systematically evaluate commonly used fetal weight estimation models (...) to determine their appropriateness for an Indian population.Retrospective data of 300 pregnant women was collected from a tertiary care center in Bengaluru, India. The inclusion criteria were a live singleton pregnancy, gestational age ≥ 34 weeks, and last ultrasound scan to delivery duration ≤ 7 days. Cases with suspected fetal growth restriction or malformation were excluded. For each case, fetal weight was estimated using 34 different models. The models specifically designed for low birth weight, small

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2016 Journal of medical ultrasound

139. Assessment of in vivo fetal growth and placental vascular function in a novel intrauterine growth restriction model of progressive uterine artery occlusion in guinea pigs (PubMed)

. This study proposes that gradual occlusion of uterine arteries from mid-gestation in pregnant guinea pigs produces a novel model to better assess human IUGR. Fetal biometry and in vivo placental vascular function were followed by sonography and Doppler of control pregnant guinea pigs and sows submitted to surgical placement of ameroid constrictors in both uterine arteries (IUGR) at mid-gestation (35 days). The ameroid constrictors induced a reduction in the fetal abdominal circumference growth rate (...) Assessment of in vivo fetal growth and placental vascular function in a novel intrauterine growth restriction model of progressive uterine artery occlusion in guinea pigs Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with short and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular alterations. Mice and rats have been extensively used to study the effects of IUGR, but there are notable differences in fetal and placental physiology relative to those of humans that argue for alternative animal models

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2016 The Journal of physiology

140. International Estimated Fetal Weight Standards of the INTERGROWTH-21<sup>st</sup> Project. (PubMed)

Growth Longitudinal Study (FGLS) and INTERBIO-21st Fetal Study (FS), two components of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project, had ultrasound scans every 5 weeks from 9-14 weeks' until 40 weeks' gestation. At each visit, measurements of fetal head circumference (HC), biparietal diameter, occipitofrontal diameter, abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) were obtained blindly by dedicated research sonographers using standardized methods and identical ultrasound machines. Birth weight was measured (...) International Estimated Fetal Weight Standards of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project. Estimated fetal weight (EFW) and fetal biometry are complementary measures used to screen for fetal growth disturbances. Our aim was to provide international EFW standards to complement the INTERGROWTH-21st Fetal Growth Standards that are available for use worldwide.Women with an accurate gestational-age assessment, who were enrolled in the prospective, international, multicenter, population-based Fetal

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2016 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

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