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Fetal Abdominal Circumference

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121. Reduced Fetal Movements

/stillbirth. If an ultrasound scan assessment is deemed necessary, it should be performed when the service is next available – preferably within 24 hours. Ultrasound scan assessment should include the assessment of abdominal circumference and/or estimated fetal weight to detect the SGA fetus, and the assessment of amniotic fluid volume. Ultrasound should include assessment of fetal morphology if this has not previously been performed and the woman has no objection to this being carried out (...) detected on scan Normal scan Perception of RFM resolved and no risk factors for FGR/stillbirth Continue with RFM or risk factors for FGR/stillbirth Normal fetal heart rate pattern Cardiotocograph to exclude imminent fetal compromise Ultrasound for amniotic fluid volume/abdominal circumference/estimated fetal weight Reassure Give advice re: further episodes of RFM If unsure whether fetal movements are reduced, focus on fetal movements for 2 hours If they do not feel more than 10 movements in 2 hours

2011 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

122. Single and Serial Fetal Biometry to Detect Preterm and Term Small- and Large-for-Gestational-Age Neonates: A Longitudinal Cohort Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Single and Serial Fetal Biometry to Detect Preterm and Term Small- and Large-for-Gestational-Age Neonates: A Longitudinal Cohort Study. To assess the value of single and serial fetal biometry for the prediction of small- (SGA) and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) neonates delivered preterm or at term.A cohort study of 3,971 women with singleton pregnancies was conducted from the first trimester until delivery with 3,440 pregnancies (17,334 scans) meeting the following inclusion criteria: 1 (...) ) delivery of a live neonate after 33 gestational weeks and 2) two or more ultrasound examinations with fetal biometry parameters obtained at ≤36 weeks. Primary outcomes were SGA (<5th centile) and LGA (>95th centile) at birth based on INTERGROWTH-21st gender-specific standards. Fetus-specific estimated fetal weight (EFW) trajectories were calculated by linear mixed-effects models using data up to a fixed gestational age (GA) cutoff (28, 32, or 36 weeks) for fetuses having two or more measurements before

2016 PLoS ONE

123. Umbilical artery PI and fetal abdominal circumference in isolated gastroschisis. (Abstract)

Umbilical artery PI and fetal abdominal circumference in isolated gastroschisis. To investigate changes in abdominal circumference (AC) and umbilical artery pulsatility index (UA-PI) with gestation in fetuses with isolated gastroschisis, and to determine whether a relationship exists between UA-PI and fetal AC.Data from 58 pregnancies with isolated gastroschisis diagnosed at between 24 and 36 weeks' gestation were included in the study. Z-scores were calculated with respect to expected UA-PI (...) values for fetuses with gastroschisis compared with the standard AC and UA-PI range curves were significantly different for AC throughout gestation, and for UA-PI from 32 weeks' gestation.In fetal gastroschisis, it is well known that AC tends to be smaller, though UA-PI has not been reported to be abnormal in any consistent way. There is a clear relationship between the fetus's AC for gestation and UA-PI, which is not the case for normally grown fetuses. The data suggest that the growth restriction

2011 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

124. Maternal weight gain: a determinant for fetal abdominal circumference in the second trimester. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Maternal weight gain: a determinant for fetal abdominal circumference in the second trimester. To study the association between maternal weight gain in pregnancy and fetal abdominal circumference in the second trimester.Prospective cross-sectional study.Low-risk antenatal clinic.Six hundred and fifty women with low-risk pregnancy.Women with a regular menstrual period (28±4 days) and certain information on the last menstrual period were recruited when they were referred for routine ultrasound (...) scanning. Women with a discrepancy of>14 days between ultrasound and menstrual age were excluded. Maternal weight gain during pregnancy was derived from information in the antenatal chart and the weekly weight gain was calculated. Fetal abdominal circumference measurements were registered in gestational weeks 15-25 and their z-scores, together with the z-scores of maternal weight gain, were used in a linear regression analysis. Main outcome measures. Association between maternal weight gain and fetal

2011 Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica

125. Low birth weight and elevated head-to-abdominal circumference ratio are associated with elevated fetal glycated serum protein concentrations. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Low birth weight and elevated head-to-abdominal circumference ratio are associated with elevated fetal glycated serum protein concentrations. To analyze the association between low birth weight, head-to-abdominal circumference ratio, and insulin resistance in early life.Glycated serum proteins (GSPs) were quantified at delivery in 612 Chinese mother/child pairs serving as a surrogate of maternal and fetal glycemia. Differential ultrasound examination of the fetal's body (head circumference (...) , biparietal diameter, pectoral diameter, abdominal circumference, and femur length) was done in average 1 week prior to delivery. Multivariable regression analysis considering gestational age at delivery, the child's sex, maternal BMI, maternal age at delivery, maternal body weight, and pregnancy-induced hypertension revealed that fetal GSP was inversely associated with birth weight (R² = 0.416; P < 0.001). Fetal GSP was furthermore positively associated with the head-to-abdominal circumference ratio

2011 Journal of Hypertension

126. The Fetus as a Patient: Prenatal Diagnosis and Fetal Therapy (Treatment)

at the level of the thalami, including the cavum septum pellucidum, should not be used in cases of hydrocephalus or abnormal head shape or late in the third trimester when the head may be engaged. Measures such as a corrected BPD have been devised to take into account differences in head shape. Abdominal circumference is the length of the outer perimeter of the fetal abdomen measured at the level of the stomach and intrahepatic umbilical vein on a transverse scan. This measure should not be used in cases (...) patterns Serial US can be used to monitor the rate of increase in fetal BPD, abdominal circumference, and femoral length, thereby helping to identify a growth-restricted fetus with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In the third trimester, ratios of morphometric measures such as abdominal circumference and femoral length are used to diagnose IUGR. Oligohydramnios and a poor biophysical score support the diagnosis of growth restriction secondary to uteroplacental insufficiency. This is most

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

127. The Fetus as a Patient: Prenatal Diagnosis and Fetal Therapy (Follow-up)

at the level of the thalami, including the cavum septum pellucidum, should not be used in cases of hydrocephalus or abnormal head shape or late in the third trimester when the head may be engaged. Measures such as a corrected BPD have been devised to take into account differences in head shape. Abdominal circumference is the length of the outer perimeter of the fetal abdomen measured at the level of the stomach and intrahepatic umbilical vein on a transverse scan. This measure should not be used in cases (...) patterns Serial US can be used to monitor the rate of increase in fetal BPD, abdominal circumference, and femoral length, thereby helping to identify a growth-restricted fetus with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In the third trimester, ratios of morphometric measures such as abdominal circumference and femoral length are used to diagnose IUGR. Oligohydramnios and a poor biophysical score support the diagnosis of growth restriction secondary to uteroplacental insufficiency. This is most

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

128. The Fetus as a Patient: Prenatal Diagnosis and Fetal Therapy (Diagnosis)

at the level of the thalami, including the cavum septum pellucidum, should not be used in cases of hydrocephalus or abnormal head shape or late in the third trimester when the head may be engaged. Measures such as a corrected BPD have been devised to take into account differences in head shape. Abdominal circumference is the length of the outer perimeter of the fetal abdomen measured at the level of the stomach and intrahepatic umbilical vein on a transverse scan. This measure should not be used in cases (...) patterns Serial US can be used to monitor the rate of increase in fetal BPD, abdominal circumference, and femoral length, thereby helping to identify a growth-restricted fetus with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In the third trimester, ratios of morphometric measures such as abdominal circumference and femoral length are used to diagnose IUGR. Oligohydramnios and a poor biophysical score support the diagnosis of growth restriction secondary to uteroplacental insufficiency. This is most

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

129. The Fetus as a Patient: Prenatal Diagnosis and Fetal Therapy (Overview)

at the level of the thalami, including the cavum septum pellucidum, should not be used in cases of hydrocephalus or abnormal head shape or late in the third trimester when the head may be engaged. Measures such as a corrected BPD have been devised to take into account differences in head shape. Abdominal circumference is the length of the outer perimeter of the fetal abdomen measured at the level of the stomach and intrahepatic umbilical vein on a transverse scan. This measure should not be used in cases (...) patterns Serial US can be used to monitor the rate of increase in fetal BPD, abdominal circumference, and femoral length, thereby helping to identify a growth-restricted fetus with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In the third trimester, ratios of morphometric measures such as abdominal circumference and femoral length are used to diagnose IUGR. Oligohydramnios and a poor biophysical score support the diagnosis of growth restriction secondary to uteroplacental insufficiency. This is most

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

130. Increased fetal adiposity prior to diagnosis of gestational diabetes in South Asians: more evidence for the 'thin-fat' baby. Full Text available with Trip Pro

head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL) and biparietal diameter (BPD) were recorded at 11, 20 and 32 weeks. Anterior abdominal wall thickness (AAWT) as a marker of abdominal adiposity at 20 and 32 weeks was compared between groups. Adjustments were made for maternal age, BMI, parity, gestational weight gain, fetal sex and gestational age.Fetuses of women with GDM had significantly higher AAWT at 20 weeks (β 0.26 [95% CI 0.15, 0.37] mm, p < 0.0001) despite lower (...) Increased fetal adiposity prior to diagnosis of gestational diabetes in South Asians: more evidence for the 'thin-fat' baby. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased future risk of obesity in the offspring. Increased adiposity has been observed in the newborns of women with GDM. Our aim was to examine early fetal adiposity in women with GDM.Obstetric and sonographic data was collated for 153 women with GDM and 178 controls from a single centre in Chennai, India. Fetal

2016 Diabetologia

131. Estimation of fetal weight in pregnancies past term. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Estimation of fetal weight in pregnancies past term. The aim of the study was to investigate the accuracy of estimating fetal weight with ultrasound in pregnancies past term, using the eSnurra algorithm.In all, 419 women with pregnancy length of 290 days, attending a specialist consultation at Stavanger University Hospital, Norway, were included in a prospective observational study. Fetal weight was estimated using biparietal diameter (BPD) and abdominal circumference (AC). The algorithm (...) implemented in an electronic calculation (eSnurra) was used to compute estimated fetal weight (EFW). Results were compared with birthweight (BW).The mean interval between the ultrasound examination and birth was 2 days (SD 1.4). The median difference between BW and EFW was -6 g (CI -40 to +25 g) and the median percentage error was -0.1% (95% CI -1.0 to 0.6%). The median absolute difference was 190 g (95% CI 170-207 g). The BW was within 10% of EFW in 83% (95% CI 79-87%) of cases and within 15% of EFW

2016 Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica

132. International Estimated Fetal Weight Standards of the INTERGROWTH-21<sup>st</sup> Project. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Growth Longitudinal Study (FGLS) and INTERBIO-21st Fetal Study (FS), two components of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project, had ultrasound scans every 5 weeks from 9-14 weeks' until 40 weeks' gestation. At each visit, measurements of fetal head circumference (HC), biparietal diameter, occipitofrontal diameter, abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) were obtained blindly by dedicated research sonographers using standardized methods and identical ultrasound machines. Birth weight was measured (...) International Estimated Fetal Weight Standards of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project. Estimated fetal weight (EFW) and fetal biometry are complementary measures used to screen for fetal growth disturbances. Our aim was to provide international EFW standards to complement the INTERGROWTH-21st Fetal Growth Standards that are available for use worldwide.Women with an accurate gestational-age assessment, who were enrolled in the prospective, international, multicenter, population-based Fetal

2016 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

133. General movements after fetal growth restriction in relation to prenatal Doppler flow patterns. (Abstract)

General movements after fetal growth restriction in relation to prenatal Doppler flow patterns. To investigate whether Doppler pulsatility indices (PIs) of the fetal circulation in cases of fetal growth restriction (FGR) are associated with the general movements (GMs) of the neonate after birth.This was a prospective observational cohort study including pregnancies with FGR diagnosed between June 2012 and September 2014. A diagnosis of FGR was based on an abdominal circumference or estimated (...) fetal weight < 10th percentile (in conjuction with abnormal Doppler) or declining fetal growth of at least 30 percentiles with respect to previous size measurements. Doppler parameters of the umbilical artery (UA), fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) and ductus venosus (DV) were measured maximally 1 week prior to delivery. Cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) was calculated as MCA-PI divided by UA-PI. We assessed the quality of neonatal GMs 7 days after birth, around the due date if cases were born preterm

2016 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

134. Consensus definition for placental fetal growth restriction: a Delphi procedure. Full Text available with Trip Pro

), three solitary parameters (abdominal circumference (AC) < 3(rd) centile, estimated fetal weight (EFW) < 3(rd) centile and absent end-diastolic flow in the umbilical artery (UA)) and four contributory parameters (AC or EFW < 10(th) centile combined with a pulsatility index (PI) > 95(th) centile in either the UA or uterine artery) were agreed upon. For late FGR (≥ 32 weeks), two solitary parameters (AC or EFW < 3(rd) centile) and four contributory parameters (EFW or AC < 10(th) centile, AC or EFW (...) Consensus definition for placental fetal growth restriction: a Delphi procedure. To determine, by expert consensus, a definition for early and late fetal growth restriction (FGR) through a Delphi procedure.A Delphi survey was conducted among an international panel of experts on FGR. Panel members were provided with 18 literature-based parameters for defining FGR and were asked to rate the importance of these parameters for the diagnosis of both early and late FGR on a 5-point Likert scale

2016 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

135. National Curves of Fetal Growth in Singleton Fetuses of Greek Origin. (Abstract)

National Curves of Fetal Growth in Singleton Fetuses of Greek Origin. Foetal growth monitoring is an essential component of prenatal care with postnatal impact. The aim of the study was to construct reference ranges for foetal biometric parameters in Greek foetuses and to compare them with previously published models.Measurements from 1200 Greek foetuses were used to construct normal curves for biparietal diameter (BPD), occipitofrontal diameter (OFD), head circumference (HC), abdominal (...) circumference (AC), femoral length (FL) and the BPD/FL ratio according to the methodology described by Royston and Wright (1998). The model was validated in a second group of 1200 different foetuses using analysis of the corresponding standardized residuals (z-scores). The z-scores which were derived by our model were compared to those calculated using previously published models from other populations.BPD, OFD, HC, AC, FL and the BPD/FL ratio are accurately described by simple quadratic equations (R(2) > 0

2016 European journal of clinical investigation

136. The relationship between human placental morphometry and ultrasonic measurements of utero-placental blood flow and fetal growth. Full Text available with Trip Pro

were associated with reduced growth velocity of the fetal abdominal circumference between 20 and 36 weeks (both P < 0.001).Placental area and weight are associated with uterine and umbilical blood flow, respectively, and both are associated with fetal growth rate.Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. (...) The relationship between human placental morphometry and ultrasonic measurements of utero-placental blood flow and fetal growth. Ultrasonic fetal biometry and arterial Doppler flow velocimetry are widely used to assess the risk of pregnancy complications. There is an extensive literature on the relationship between pregnancy outcomes and the size and shape of the placenta. However, ultrasonic fetal biometry and arterial Doppler flow velocimetry have not previously been studied in relation

2016 Placenta

137. Relation of FTO gene variants to fetal growth trajectories: Findings from the Southampton Women's survey. Full Text available with Trip Pro

genotyped for common gene variants in FTO (rs9939609, rs1421085) and MC4R (rs17782313). Linear mixed-effect models were used to analyse relations of gene variants with fetal growth.Fetuses with the rs9939609 A:A FTO genotype had faster biparietal diameter and head circumference growth velocities between 11 and 34 weeks gestation (by 0.012 (95% CI 0.005 to 0.019) and 0.008 (0.002-0.015) standard deviations per week, respectively) compared to fetuses with the T:T FTO genotype; abdominal circumference (...) Relation of FTO gene variants to fetal growth trajectories: Findings from the Southampton Women's survey. Placental function is an important determinant of fetal growth, and fetal growth influences obesity risk in childhood and adult life. Here we investigated how FTO and MC4R gene variants linked with obesity relate to patterns of fetal growth and to placental FTO expression.Southampton Women's Survey children (n = 1990) with measurements of fetal growth from 11 to 34 weeks gestation were

2016 Placenta

138. Fetal weight monitoring and birth weight prediction: A new population-based approach. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fetal weight monitoring and birth weight prediction: A new population-based approach. To develop a complete, population-based system for ultrasound-based fetal size monitoring and birth-weight prediction for use in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.Using 31 516 ultrasound examinations from a population-based Norwegian clinical database, we constructed fetal size charts for biparietal diameter, femur length and abdominal circumference from 24 to 42 weeks' gestation. A reference curve (...) of median birth weight for gestational age was estimated using 45 037 birth weights. We determined how individual deviations from the expected ultrasound measures predicted individual percentage deviations from expected birth weight. The predictive quality was assessed by explained variance of birth weight and receiver-operating characteristics curves for prediction of small-for-gestational age. A curve for intrauterine estimated fetal weight was constructed. Charts were smoothed using the gamlss non

2016 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

139. Prediction of small for gestational age neonates by third trimester fetal biometry and impact of ultrasound-delivery interval. Full Text available with Trip Pro

health in children. We included women, recruited in the first trimester, who had complete outcome data and had undergone third-trimester ultrasound examination. Demographic, clinical and biological variables were also collected from both parents. We compared prediction of delivery of a SGA neonate (birth weight < 10th percentile) by the following methods: abdominal circumference (AC) Z-score based on Hadlock curves (Hadlock AC), on INTERGROWTH-21st Project curves (Intergrowth AC) and on Salomon (...) Prediction of small for gestational age neonates by third trimester fetal biometry and impact of ultrasound-delivery interval. To compare third-trimester ultrasound screening methods to predict small-for-gestational age (SGA), and to evaluate the impact of the ultrasound-delivery interval on screening performance.In this prospective study, data were collected from a multicenter singleton cohort study investigating the links between various exposures during pregnancy with birth outcome and later

2016 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

140. Human umbilical and fetal cerebral blood flow velocity waveforms following maternal glucose loading: a cross-sectional observational study. (Abstract)

rate (r = -0.47, p < 0.001). This reduction was not significant (p = 0.230) when the PI values were adjusted for fetal heart rate. The ratio MCA PI to UA PI was reduced (p = 0.001). The effect of OGTT on MCA PI was not related to fetal abdominal circumference whereas the effect on the adjusted UA PI values was correlated to abdominal circumference (r = -0.20, p = 0.045) but not to abdominal circumference Z-score (r = -0.16, p = 0.115). The influence of OGTT on the Doppler parameters as well (...) Human umbilical and fetal cerebral blood flow velocity waveforms following maternal glucose loading: a cross-sectional observational study. Our aim was to study umbilical and fetal cerebral arterial blood flow velocity waveforms related to fetal biometric measures and maternal body mass index, glucose levels and parity following maternal oral glucose loading.The study had an experimental design in a cross-sectional observational study including 105 low-risk pregnancies (30-32 weeks of gestation

2016 Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica

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