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Fetal Abdominal Circumference

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101. Quality control of ultrasound for fetal biometry: results from the INTERGROWTH-21<sup>st</sup> Project. (PubMed)

examination, three fetal biometric variables (head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL)) were measured in triplicate on separately generated images. All measurements were taken in a blinded fashion. QC had two elements: (1) qualitative QC: visual assessment by sonographers at each study site of their images based on specific criteria, with 10% of images being re-assessed at the Oxford-based Ultrasound Quality Unit (compared using an adjusted kappa statistic); and (2 (...) Quality control of ultrasound for fetal biometry: results from the INTERGROWTH-21st Project. To assess a comprehensive package of ultrasound quality control in the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project, a large multicenter study of fetal growth.Quality control (QC) measures were performed for 20 313 ultrasound scan images obtained prospectively from 4321 fetuses at 14-41 weeks' gestation in eight geographical locations. At the time of each ultrasound

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2017 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

102. Fetal somatic growth trajectory differs by type of congenital heart disease. (PubMed)

Fetal somatic growth trajectory differs by type of congenital heart disease. BackgroundThe growth trajectories of common measurements, including estimated fetal weight (EFW), head circumference (HC), and abdominal circumference (AC), in fetuses with congenital heart disease (CHD) have not been described for different cardiac lesions. We hypothesized that (i) fetuses with CHD have differential growth in utero, and (ii) different categories of CHD demonstrate different in utero growth (...) curves.MethodsWe performed a retrospective observational cohort study of pregnancies with known fetal CHD seen from January 2000 to June 2013. For analysis, the infants were divided into single ventricle (SV), biventricular conotruncal, d-transposition of great arteries (d-TGA), biventricular septal defects (SD; including atrial, ventricular, and atrioventricular SD), and all others (Other).ResultsA total of 194 newborns met inclusion criteria. There was significant differential growth of EFW in all CHD types

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2017 Pediatric Research

103. Subclinical Changes in Maternal Thyroid Function Parameters in Pregnancy and Fetal Growth. (PubMed)

score decrease (∼8.5 g) in birth weight (β = -0.41 for ln-transformed FT4; 95% confidence interval, -0.64 to -0.18). FT4 was also inversely associated with repeated measurements of estimated fetal weight, head circumference, and abdominal circumference. We observed weaker inverse associations for total T4 and a positive relationship between total triiodothyronine and birth weight z scores. We did not observe any associations for thyroid-stimulating hormone.In pregnant women without overt thyroid (...) Subclinical Changes in Maternal Thyroid Function Parameters in Pregnancy and Fetal Growth. Overt thyroid disease in pregnancy is a known risk factor for abnormal fetal growth and development. Data on the effects of milder forms of variation in maternal thyroid function on intrauterine growth are less well examined.We explored these associations using repeated thyroid hormone and ultrasound measurements.Data were obtained from 439 pregnant women without diagnosed thyroid disease who were

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2017 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

104. Fetal growth standards in gastroschisis: Reference values for ultrasound measurements. (PubMed)

, 10th, 50th, 90th, and 95th centiles being established for biometric parameters according to gestational age. Curves were obtained, comparing with normal reference via the Mann-Whitney test. UA Doppler velocimetry patterns were obtained.A total of 434 examinations were performed, and centiles were established for biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, femur length, and estimated fetal weight. A significant difference was observed between the gastroschisis measurements when (...) compared to control, with all curves shifted downwards. Abdominal circumference was the parameter presenting the largest difference. Estimated fetal weight was also lower, with mean difference of 256.3 ± 166.8 g for the 50th centile (P < .0001). UA Doppler velocimetry was normal in 97.5%.Fetuses with gastroschisis show symmetrical growth deficits in the second and third trimesters, with normal UA Doppler velocimetry. These results reinforce the hypothesis that they are constitutionally smaller, yet

2017 Prenatal diagnosis

105. Risk of operative delivery for intrapartum fetal compromise in small-for-gestational-age fetuses at term: an internally validated prediction model. (PubMed)

a predictive model for the risk of operative delivery for presumed intrapartum fetal compromise in fetuses suspected to be small for gestational age at term.This was a single-center cohort study of small-for-gestational-age fetuses, defined as estimated fetal weight below the 10th centile in singleton pregnancies at term. The variables included known risk factors for operative delivery because of fetal compromise: maternal characteristics, estimated fetal weight, abdominal circumference, Doppler parameters (...) , 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.73) using only the antenatal risk factors included parity, abdominal circumference centile, gestational age at delivery beyond 39 weeks' gestation, and the cerebroplacental ratio multiples of median. The combined model (area under the curve, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.72-0.80), using both the antenatal and intrapartum risk factors, included the gestational age at delivery beyond 39 weeks' gestation (odds ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-2.56

2017 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

106. Fetal growth and birth anthropometrics in metformin exposed offspring born to mothers with PCOS. (PubMed)

analysis of a randomized controlled trial.Double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study.258 offspring born to mothers with PCOS.2000 mg metformin (n = 131) or placebo (n = 121) from first trimester to delivery.Mean abdominal diameter and biparietal diameter (BPD) at gestational weeks 19 and 32. Head circumference (HC), birth length, and weight related to a reference population of healthy offspring, expressed as gestational age- and sex-adjusted z-scores.Metformin- versus placebo-exposed offspring (...) Fetal growth and birth anthropometrics in metformin exposed offspring born to mothers with PCOS. Metformin is used in an attempt to reduce pregnancy complications associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Little is known about the effect of metformin on fetal development and growth.To compare the effect of metformin versus placebo on fetal growth and birth anthropometrics in PCOS offspring compared with a reference population in relation to maternal body mass index (BMI).Post hoc

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2017 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism Controlled trial quality: predicted high

107. Maternal weight gain and associations with longitudinal fetal growth in dichorionic twin pregnancies: a prospective cohort study. (PubMed)

and 21 to 27 wk (second trimester) was significantly associated with increased fetal weight at 21 wk [increase of 10.5 g/kg maternal weight gain (95% CI: 1.2, 19.8 g)] and 28 wk [increase of 21.3 g/kg maternal weight gain (95% CI: 0.6, 42.0 g)]. Maternal weight gain from 14 to 20 wk was associated with increased twin abdominal circumference (AC) and biparietal diameter at 21 wk. Maternal weight gain from 21 to 27 wk was associated with increased femur and humerus lengths at 28 wk.Conclusion: Maternal (...) Maternal weight gain and associations with longitudinal fetal growth in dichorionic twin pregnancies: a prospective cohort study. Background: Maternal metabolic demands are much greater with twin gestations; however, there are no accepted recommendations for maternal weight gain in twin pregnancies.Objective: We assessed the association of maternal weight gain and fetal growth in dichorionic twins throughout pregnancy.Design: This was a prospective US cohort study (n = 143, 2012-2013

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2017 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

108. Blinded ultrasonic fetal biometry at 36 weeks and the risk of emergency caesarean delivery: a prospective cohort study of 3,047 low risk nulliparous women. (PubMed)

' gestation. Both the women and their clinicians were blinded to fetal biometry results. Emergency CD was defined as delivery by Cesarean section in pregnancies in which the date of delivery had not been prearranged. Additional candidate predictors of emergency CD evaluated were maternal age, height, body mass index (BMI), weight gain, fetal abdominal circumference growth velocity and fetal sex. External validation of the predictive model was performed using routinely collected data from 55 337 births (...) Blinded ultrasonic fetal biometry at 36 weeks and the risk of emergency caesarean delivery: a prospective cohort study of 3,047 low risk nulliparous women. To compare the association between risk of emergency Cesarean delivery (CD) and non-customized vs customized ultrasound estimated fetal weight (EFW) at 36 weeks' gestation, determine whether addition of ultrasound EFW to a model based on maternal characteristics alone improved prediction of emergency CD, assess the screening performance

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2017 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

109. Fetal Hemodynamics and Fetal Growth Indices by Ultrasound in Late Pregnancy and Birth Weight in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (PubMed)

women with GDM and 124 normal controls (NC) were enrolled in this study. Fetal hemodynamic indices, including the systolic/diastolic ratio (S/D), resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI) of umbilical artery (UA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), and renal artery (RA), were collected. Fetal growth indices, including biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), and femur length, were also measured by ultrasound. Birth weight, newborn gender, and maternal clinical (...) Fetal Hemodynamics and Fetal Growth Indices by Ultrasound in Late Pregnancy and Birth Weight in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus The offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are prone to macrosomia. However, birth weight is difficult to be correctly estimated by ultrasound because of fetal asymmetric growth characteristics. This study aimed to investigate the correlations between fetal hemodynamics, fetal growth indices in late pregnancy, and birth weight in GDM.A total of 147

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2016 Chinese medical journal

110. Influence of fetal blood flow redistribution on fetal and childhood growth and fat distribution: the Generation R Study. (PubMed)

circumference, length and weight from third trimester fetal life until childhood (all P < 0.05). The fetal U/C ratio was not associated with total body and abdominal fat measures at 6 years.Our results suggest that fetal blood flow redistribution affects fetal development and has persistent consequences for childhood growth.Fetal blood flow redistribution affects fetal development and has persistent consequences for childhood growth.© 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. (...) Influence of fetal blood flow redistribution on fetal and childhood growth and fat distribution: the Generation R Study. A suboptimal intrauterine environment leads to fetal blood flow redistribution and fetal growth restriction. Not much is known about childhood growth consequences. We examined the associations of fetal blood flow redistribution with birth outcomes, and repeatedly measured fetal and childhood growth and fat mass measures.Prospective cohort study.Population-based.One thousand

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2016 BJOG

111. 2 year neurodevelopmental and intermediate perinatal outcomes in infants with very preterm fetal growth restriction (TRUFFLE): a randomised trial. (PubMed)

, unblinded, randomised study, we included women with singleton fetuses at 26-32 weeks of gestation who had very preterm fetal growth restriction (ie, low abdominal circumference [<10th percentile] and a high umbilical artery Doppler pulsatility index [>95th percentile]). We randomly allocated women 1:1:1, with randomly sized blocks and stratified by participating centre and gestational age (<29 weeks vs ≥29 weeks), to three timing of delivery plans, which differed according to antenatal monitoring (...) 2 year neurodevelopmental and intermediate perinatal outcomes in infants with very preterm fetal growth restriction (TRUFFLE): a randomised trial. No consensus exists for the best way to monitor and when to trigger delivery in mothers of babies with fetal growth restriction. We aimed to assess whether changes in the fetal ductus venosus Doppler waveform (DV) could be used as indications for delivery instead of cardiotocography short-term variation (STV).In this prospective, European multicentre

2015 Lancet Controlled trial quality: predicted high

112. Fetal Femur Length

Femur Length II. Technique Start with transducer at abdominal circumference Move transducer inferiorly to transect Rotate transducer 30 degrees to view femur Exclude distal femoral epiphyses present after 32 weeks Tibia is at times mistaken for femur III. Images Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Fetal Femur Length." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related (...) Fetal Femur Length Fetal Femur Length Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Fetal Femur Length Fetal Femur Length Aka: Fetal

2018 FP Notebook

113. Fetal Macrosomia

( ) Error in weight estimation: 300 grams More accurate than estimate Estimate altered by physiologic characteristics Amniotic fluid volume and configuration Mother's body habitus Error in weight estimation: 300 to 550 grams Estimated fetal weight and Abdominal circumference Correlates 88% with diagnosis of macrosomia VII. Efficacy: Fetal Macrosomia prediction and prevention Methods proven ineffective at complication prevention Elective Analysis based on permanent C/S for EFW 4500g prevents 1 case/3700 (...) Fetal Macrosomia Fetal Macrosomia Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Fetal Macrosomia Fetal Macrosomia Aka: Fetal

2018 FP Notebook

114. Screening for fetal growth restriction with universal third trimester ultrasonography in nulliparous women in the Pregnancy Outcome Prediction (POP) study: a prospective cohort study. (PubMed)

percentile was only associated with the risk of neonatal morbidity (pinteraction=0·005) if the fetal abdominal circumference growth velocity was in the lowest decile (RR 3·9, 95% CI 1·9-8·1, p=0·0001). 172 (4%) of 3977 pregnancies had both an estimated fetal weight of less than the 10th percentile and abdominal circumference growth velocity in the lowest decile, and had a relative risk of delivering an SGA infant with neonatal morbidity of 17·6 (9·2-34·0, p<0·0001).Screening of nulliparous women (...) Screening for fetal growth restriction with universal third trimester ultrasonography in nulliparous women in the Pregnancy Outcome Prediction (POP) study: a prospective cohort study. Fetal growth restriction is a major determinant of adverse perinatal outcome. Screening procedures for fetal growth restriction need to identify small babies and then differentiate between those that are healthy and those that are pathologically small. We sought to determine the diagnostic effectiveness

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2015 Lancet

115. Single and Serial Fetal Biometry to Detect Preterm and Term Small- and Large-for-Gestational-Age Neonates: A Longitudinal Cohort Study. (PubMed)

the GA cutoff and not already delivered. A screen test positive for single biometry was based on Z-scores of EFW at the last scan before each GA cut-off so that the false positive rate (FPR) was 10%. Similarly, a screen test positive for the longitudinal analysis was based on the projected (extrapolated) EFW at 40 weeks from all available measurements before each cutoff for each fetus.Fetal abdominal and head circumference measurements, as well as birth weights in the Detroit population, matched well (...) Single and Serial Fetal Biometry to Detect Preterm and Term Small- and Large-for-Gestational-Age Neonates: A Longitudinal Cohort Study. To assess the value of single and serial fetal biometry for the prediction of small- (SGA) and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) neonates delivered preterm or at term.A cohort study of 3,971 women with singleton pregnancies was conducted from the first trimester until delivery with 3,440 pregnancies (17,334 scans) meeting the following inclusion criteria: 1

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2016 PLoS ONE

116. Prediction of Growth Restricted Fetuses Using Femur Length to Mid-thigh Circumference Ratio: A Case-control Study

, such as the brain and heart, at the expense of the liver, muscle and fat and this results in decreased abdominal and thigh circumference measurements and hence theoretically increased HC/AC, FL/AC and FL/TC ratios (Colley et al., 1991). Fetal thigh circumference has a role to play in accurately measuring fetal weight when incorporated with other fetal parameters and provide a potentially straightforward method for assessing the deposition of muscle and fat in the growing fetus; there is a scope of using the FL (...) /TC ratio in predicting IUGR (Sanyal et al., 2012). Fetal thigh circumference to femur length ratio (FL/TC) seems to be potential for use in predicting IUGR (Shripad; Varalaxmi, 2005). Condition or disease Fetal Growth Restriction Detailed Description: Aim of work To determine usefulness of antenatally measured femur length to mid thigh circumference ratio to predict intra-uterine growth restricted fetuses. Study design Observational Case-Control study. Study population This study

2013 Clinical Trials

117. Perinatal morbidity and mortality in early-onset fetal growth restriction: cohort outcomes of the trial of randomized umbilical and fetal flow in Europe (TRUFFLE). (PubMed)

early-onset fetal growth restriction based on time of antenatal diagnosis and delivery.We report cohort outcomes for a prospective multicenter randomized management study of fetal growth restriction (Trial of Randomized Umbilical and Fetal Flow in Europe (TRUFFLE)) performed in 20 European perinatal centers between 2005 and 2010. Women with a singleton fetus at 26-32 weeks of gestation, with abdominal circumference < 10(th) percentile and umbilical artery Doppler pulsatility index > 95(th (...) Perinatal morbidity and mortality in early-onset fetal growth restriction: cohort outcomes of the trial of randomized umbilical and fetal flow in Europe (TRUFFLE). Few data exist for counseling and perinatal management of women after an antenatal diagnosis of early-onset fetal growth restriction. Yet, the consequences of preterm delivery and its attendant morbidity for both mother and baby are far reaching. The objective of this study was to describe perinatal morbidity and mortality following

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2013 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

118. Assessment of in vivo fetal growth and placental vascular function in a novel intrauterine growth restriction model of progressive uterine artery occlusion in guinea pigs (PubMed)

. This study proposes that gradual occlusion of uterine arteries from mid-gestation in pregnant guinea pigs produces a novel model to better assess human IUGR. Fetal biometry and in vivo placental vascular function were followed by sonography and Doppler of control pregnant guinea pigs and sows submitted to surgical placement of ameroid constrictors in both uterine arteries (IUGR) at mid-gestation (35 days). The ameroid constrictors induced a reduction in the fetal abdominal circumference growth rate (...) Assessment of in vivo fetal growth and placental vascular function in a novel intrauterine growth restriction model of progressive uterine artery occlusion in guinea pigs Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with short and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular alterations. Mice and rats have been extensively used to study the effects of IUGR, but there are notable differences in fetal and placental physiology relative to those of humans that argue for alternative animal models

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2016 The Journal of physiology

119. Simple mathematical formulae for estimation of median values of fetal biometry at each gestational age (PubMed)

Simple mathematical formulae for estimation of median values of fetal biometry at each gestational age The aim of this study was to propose simple mathematical formulae to estimate median values of fetal biometry including biparietal diameter (BPD), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) at each gestational age (GA) easily without looking up the previously established reference values.Simple mathematical formulae to estimate median values of fetal biometric values at each (...) between observed data and calculated data ranged from 0.12% to 7.50%. The equation between AC and GA was: median AC (cm)=GA (wk)-5. Through this formula, the absolute percentage error was analyzed same as above and it ranged from 0.30% to 4.76%. Lastly the derived formula between FL and GA was: median FL (cm)=GA (wk)/5 and the absolute percentage error ranged from 4.52% to 16.75%.The three simple formulae suggested in our study showed a significantly easy way to estimate the median values of fetal

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2016 Obstetrics & gynecology science

120. Sex-specific differences in fetal and infant growth patterns: a prospective population-based cohort study (PubMed)

trimester of pregnancy head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) were assessed. Information on infant growth during the first 2 years of life was obtained from Community Health Centers and included HC, body weight and length.In the first trimester, male CRL was larger than female CRL (0.12 SD [95% CI 0.03,0.22]). From the second trimester onwards, HC and AC were larger in males than in females (0.30 SD [95% CI 0.26,0.34] and 0.09 SD [95% CI 0.05,0.014], respectively (...) Sex-specific differences in fetal and infant growth patterns: a prospective population-based cohort study The objective of this study was to assess whether sex-specific differences in fetal and infant growth exist.This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective birth cohort. In total, 8556 live singleton births were included. Fetal growth was assessed by ultrasound. During the first trimester, crown-rump-length (CRL) was measured. In the second and third

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2016 Biology of sex differences

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