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Fetal Abdominal Circumference

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81. The effects of gestational diabetes mellitus on fetal growth and neonatal birth measures in an African cohort. (PubMed)

up with repeated fetal ultrasounds. At 24-28 weeks' gestation a 2-h 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was performed and GDM was diagnosed using the World Health Organization's 2013 criteria. Neonatal birth measures were assessed.The study involved 741 women; 83 (11.2%) with GDM and 658 (88.8%) without. A total of 4040 fetal ultrasounds were performed. GDM exposure was associated with an increase in fetal growth measures, especially abdominal circumference, which was already seen at 16-18 weeks (...) differences in fetal growth were observed, with GDM-exposed male fetuses being more affected with larger abdominal circumferences than females. A low rate of macrosomia was observed compared with historical GDM populations.© 2018 Diabetes UK.

2018 Diabetic Medicine

82. Femur-Sparing Pattern of Abnormal Fetal Growth in Pregnant Women from New York City After Maternal Zika Virus Infection. (PubMed)

for the 21st Century Project and World Health Organization Fetal Growth Chart sonographic standards were applied to obtain Z-scores and/or percentiles for fetal head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length specific for each gestational week. A novel 2014 International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Project standard was also developed to generate Z-scores for fetal body ratios with respect to femur length (head circumference:femur length, abdominal (...) circumference:femur length). Data were then grouped within clinically relevant gestational age strata (<24, 24-27 6/7, 28-33 6/7, >34 weeks) to analyze time-dependent effects of Zika virus infection on fetal size. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test on paired data, comparing either abdominal circumference or head circumference to femur length.A total of 56 pregnant women were included in the study with laboratory evidence of a confirmed or possible recent Zika virus infection. Based

2018 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

83. Myoinositol Supplementation, Insulin Resistance and Fetal Sonographic Parameters in Gestational Diabetes Diet Treated

Measures : Insulin resistance [ Time Frame: Start point, and 8 weeks after ] Change from baseline to 8 weeks of HOMA-IR calculated as glycemia (mmol/L) x insulinemia (mUI/L) / 22.5 Secondary Outcome Measures : Fetal sonographic parameters [ Time Frame: Start point, 4 and 8 weeks after ] Change from baseline to 4 and 8 weeks of Biparietal diameter (cm), Femur length (cm), Abdominal circumference (cm) and Subcutaneus tissue thickness (cm) Eligibility Criteria Go to Information from the National Library (...) Myoinositol Supplementation, Insulin Resistance and Fetal Sonographic Parameters in Gestational Diabetes Diet Treated Myoinositol Supplementation, Insulin Resistance and Fetal Sonographic Parameters in Gestational Diabetes Diet Treated - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number

2018 Clinical Trials

84. A Comparison of Methods for the Diagnosis of Fetal Growth Restriction Between the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (PubMed)

A Comparison of Methods for the Diagnosis of Fetal Growth Restriction Between the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) defines fetal growth restriction as ultrasound-estimated fetal weight less than the 10th percentile or abdominal circumference less than the 10th percentile; the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) defines fetal growth (...) 30 days of delivery. Estimated fetal weights and percentiles were calculated using the Hadlock intrauterine growth curve. Small for gestational age was defined as birth weight less than the 10th percentile based on a recent, sex-specific curve. We calculated the area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios for various approaches using abdominal circumference and estimated fetal weight to diagnose fetal growth restriction, including the definitions

2018 Obstetrics and Gynecology

85. Maternal sildenafil for severe fetal growth restriction (STRIDER): a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. (PubMed)

at randomisation (before week 26 and 0 days or at week 26 and 0 days or later). We defined fetal growth restriction as a combination of estimated fetal weight or abdominal circumference below tenth percentile and absent or reversed end-diastolic blood flow in the umbilical artery on Doppler velocimetry. The primary outcome was the time from randomisation to delivery, measured in days. This study is registered with BioMed Central, number ISRCTN 39133303.Between Nov 21, 2014, and July 6, 2016, we recruited 135 (...) Maternal sildenafil for severe fetal growth restriction (STRIDER): a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Severe early-onset fetal growth restriction can lead to a range of adverse outcomes including fetal or neonatal death, neurodisability, and lifelong risks to the health of the affected child. Sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, potentiates the actions of nitric oxide, which leads to vasodilatation of the uterine vessels and might improve fetal

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2018 The Lancet. Child & Adolescent Health Controlled trial quality: predicted high

86. Comparison of the INTERGROWTH-21st, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and WHO fetal growth standards. (PubMed)

in six states in the USA between November 1987 and May 1991. The predictive capability of various biometric indicators (biparietal diameter, femur length, abdominal circumference, head circumference, estimated fetal weight, and birthweight) was evaluated. Adverse outcomes included severe morbidity and perinatal death.There were 9409 women included. Biometric indicators measured at a gestational age of 18-24 weeks had insufficient predictive sensitivity (range, 4%-47%). By contrast, measurements taken (...) Comparison of the INTERGROWTH-21st, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and WHO fetal growth standards. To compare the ability of the INTERGROWTH-21st, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and WHO fetal growth standards to identify fetuses at risk of adverse perinatal outcomes.A retrospective analysis was performed among women enrolled in a multicenter randomized controlled trial (Routine Antenatal Diagnostic Imaging with Ultrasound) that was conducted

2018 International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

87. The mediating effects of gestational diabetes on fetal growth and adiposity in women who are overweight and obese: secondary analysis of the LIMIT randomised trial. (PubMed)

], abdominal circumference [direct effect 0.26 (95% CI: 0.11-0.41), P = 0.001; total effect 0.26 (95% CI: 0.11-0.42), P = 0.001] and estimated fetal weight [direct effect 0.22 (95% CI: 0.08-0.35), P = 0.002; total effect 0.22 (95% CI: 0.08-0.35), P = 0.002], with no evidence of mediation by treated gestational diabetes. There was no apparent association between maternal BMI and fetal adiposity measures, or mediation by treated gestational diabetes.We show an important association between increased maternal (...) gestation.Fetal ultrasound measures at 36 weeks of gestation and baseline BMI from women randomised to the LIMIT trial Standard Care group (n = 912 women) were used to conduct causal mediation analyses using regression-based methods.Ultrasound measures of fetal biometry and adiposity at 36 weeks of gestation.Increased maternal BMI was associated with increased measures of fetal head circumference [direct (unmediated) effect 0.18 (95% CI: 0.05-0.31), P = 0.005; total effect 0.17 (95% CI: 0.02-0.31), P = 0.018

2018 BJOG Controlled trial quality: uncertain

88. Fetal Biometric Charts and Reference Equations for Pregnant Women Living in Port Said and Ismailia Governorates in Egypt (PubMed)

was between the 12th and 41st weeks of gestation, recruited from the district general hospital in Ismailia and Port Said to measure ultrasonographically biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL), then for each measurement separate regression models were fitted to estimate both the mean and the Standard deviation at each gestational age.New Egyptian charts were reported for BPD, HC, AC, and FL. Reference equations for the dating of pregnancy were (...) Fetal Biometric Charts and Reference Equations for Pregnant Women Living in Port Said and Ismailia Governorates in Egypt To construct new fetal biometric charts and equations for some fetal biometric parameters for women between 12th and 41st weeks living in Ismailia and Port Said Governorates in Egypt.This cross-sectional study was carried out on 656 Egyptian women (from Ismailia and Port Said governorates) with an uncomplicated pregnancy, and all were sure of their dates. The selected group

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2018 Open access Macedonian journal of medical sciences

89. Reduced Fetal Movements

/stillbirth. If an ultrasound scan assessment is deemed necessary, it should be performed when the service is next available – preferably within 24 hours. Ultrasound scan assessment should include the assessment of abdominal circumference and/or estimated fetal weight to detect the SGA fetus, and the assessment of amniotic fluid volume. Ultrasound should include assessment of fetal morphology if this has not previously been performed and the woman has no objection to this being carried out (...) detected on scan Normal scan Perception of RFM resolved and no risk factors for FGR/stillbirth Continue with RFM or risk factors for FGR/stillbirth Normal fetal heart rate pattern Cardiotocograph to exclude imminent fetal compromise Ultrasound for amniotic fluid volume/abdominal circumference/estimated fetal weight Reassure Give advice re: further episodes of RFM If unsure whether fetal movements are reduced, focus on fetal movements for 2 hours If they do not feel more than 10 movements in 2 hours

2011 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

90. Quality control of ultrasound for fetal biometry: results from the INTERGROWTH-21<sup>st</sup> Project. (PubMed)

examination, three fetal biometric variables (head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL)) were measured in triplicate on separately generated images. All measurements were taken in a blinded fashion. QC had two elements: (1) qualitative QC: visual assessment by sonographers at each study site of their images based on specific criteria, with 10% of images being re-assessed at the Oxford-based Ultrasound Quality Unit (compared using an adjusted kappa statistic); and (2 (...) Quality control of ultrasound for fetal biometry: results from the INTERGROWTH-21st Project. To assess a comprehensive package of ultrasound quality control in the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project, a large multicenter study of fetal growth.Quality control (QC) measures were performed for 20 313 ultrasound scan images obtained prospectively from 4321 fetuses at 14-41 weeks' gestation in eight geographical locations. At the time of each ultrasound

2017 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

91. Development of Customized Fetal Growth Charts in Twins. (PubMed)

characteristics.Fetal biometric measurements obtained from serial ultrasound examinations in uncomplicated twin pregnancies delivering after 36 weeks of gestation were collected by 19 Italian fetal medicine units under the auspices of the Società Italiana di Ecografia Ostetrica e Ginecologica. The measurements acquired in each fetus at each examination included biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length. Multilevel linear regression models were used to adjust for the serial (...) Development of Customized Fetal Growth Charts in Twins. Twin gestations are at significantly higher risk of fetal growth restriction in comparison with singletons. Using fetal biometric charts customized for obstetrical and parental characteristics may facilitate an accurate assessment of fetal growth.The objective of the study was to construct reference charts for the gestation of fetal biometric parameters stratified by chorionicity and customized for obstetrical and parental

2017 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

92. Subclinical Changes in Maternal Thyroid Function Parameters in Pregnancy and Fetal Growth. (PubMed)

score decrease (∼8.5 g) in birth weight (β = -0.41 for ln-transformed FT4; 95% confidence interval, -0.64 to -0.18). FT4 was also inversely associated with repeated measurements of estimated fetal weight, head circumference, and abdominal circumference. We observed weaker inverse associations for total T4 and a positive relationship between total triiodothyronine and birth weight z scores. We did not observe any associations for thyroid-stimulating hormone.In pregnant women without overt thyroid (...) Subclinical Changes in Maternal Thyroid Function Parameters in Pregnancy and Fetal Growth. Overt thyroid disease in pregnancy is a known risk factor for abnormal fetal growth and development. Data on the effects of milder forms of variation in maternal thyroid function on intrauterine growth are less well examined.We explored these associations using repeated thyroid hormone and ultrasound measurements.Data were obtained from 439 pregnant women without diagnosed thyroid disease who were

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2017 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

93. Fetal somatic growth trajectory differs by type of congenital heart disease. (PubMed)

Fetal somatic growth trajectory differs by type of congenital heart disease. BackgroundThe growth trajectories of common measurements, including estimated fetal weight (EFW), head circumference (HC), and abdominal circumference (AC), in fetuses with congenital heart disease (CHD) have not been described for different cardiac lesions. We hypothesized that (i) fetuses with CHD have differential growth in utero, and (ii) different categories of CHD demonstrate different in utero growth (...) curves.MethodsWe performed a retrospective observational cohort study of pregnancies with known fetal CHD seen from January 2000 to June 2013. For analysis, the infants were divided into single ventricle (SV), biventricular conotruncal, d-transposition of great arteries (d-TGA), biventricular septal defects (SD; including atrial, ventricular, and atrioventricular SD), and all others (Other).ResultsA total of 194 newborns met inclusion criteria. There was significant differential growth of EFW in all CHD types

2017 Pediatric Research

94. Maternal weight gain and associations with longitudinal fetal growth in dichorionic twin pregnancies: a prospective cohort study. (PubMed)

and 21 to 27 wk (second trimester) was significantly associated with increased fetal weight at 21 wk [increase of 10.5 g/kg maternal weight gain (95% CI: 1.2, 19.8 g)] and 28 wk [increase of 21.3 g/kg maternal weight gain (95% CI: 0.6, 42.0 g)]. Maternal weight gain from 14 to 20 wk was associated with increased twin abdominal circumference (AC) and biparietal diameter at 21 wk. Maternal weight gain from 21 to 27 wk was associated with increased femur and humerus lengths at 28 wk.Conclusion: Maternal (...) Maternal weight gain and associations with longitudinal fetal growth in dichorionic twin pregnancies: a prospective cohort study. Background: Maternal metabolic demands are much greater with twin gestations; however, there are no accepted recommendations for maternal weight gain in twin pregnancies.Objective: We assessed the association of maternal weight gain and fetal growth in dichorionic twins throughout pregnancy.Design: This was a prospective US cohort study (n = 143, 2012-2013

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2017 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

95. Risk of operative delivery for intrapartum fetal compromise in small-for-gestational-age fetuses at term: an internally validated prediction model. (PubMed)

a predictive model for the risk of operative delivery for presumed intrapartum fetal compromise in fetuses suspected to be small for gestational age at term.This was a single-center cohort study of small-for-gestational-age fetuses, defined as estimated fetal weight below the 10th centile in singleton pregnancies at term. The variables included known risk factors for operative delivery because of fetal compromise: maternal characteristics, estimated fetal weight, abdominal circumference, Doppler parameters (...) , 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.73) using only the antenatal risk factors included parity, abdominal circumference centile, gestational age at delivery beyond 39 weeks' gestation, and the cerebroplacental ratio multiples of median. The combined model (area under the curve, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.72-0.80), using both the antenatal and intrapartum risk factors, included the gestational age at delivery beyond 39 weeks' gestation (odds ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-2.56

2017 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

96. Fetal growth standards in gastroschisis: Reference values for ultrasound measurements. (PubMed)

, 10th, 50th, 90th, and 95th centiles being established for biometric parameters according to gestational age. Curves were obtained, comparing with normal reference via the Mann-Whitney test. UA Doppler velocimetry patterns were obtained.A total of 434 examinations were performed, and centiles were established for biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, femur length, and estimated fetal weight. A significant difference was observed between the gastroschisis measurements when (...) compared to control, with all curves shifted downwards. Abdominal circumference was the parameter presenting the largest difference. Estimated fetal weight was also lower, with mean difference of 256.3 ± 166.8 g for the 50th centile (P < .0001). UA Doppler velocimetry was normal in 97.5%.Fetuses with gastroschisis show symmetrical growth deficits in the second and third trimesters, with normal UA Doppler velocimetry. These results reinforce the hypothesis that they are constitutionally smaller, yet

2017 Prenatal diagnosis

97. Blinded ultrasonic fetal biometry at 36 weeks and the risk of emergency caesarean delivery: a prospective cohort study of 3,047 low risk nulliparous women. (PubMed)

' gestation. Both the women and their clinicians were blinded to fetal biometry results. Emergency CD was defined as delivery by Cesarean section in pregnancies in which the date of delivery had not been prearranged. Additional candidate predictors of emergency CD evaluated were maternal age, height, body mass index (BMI), weight gain, fetal abdominal circumference growth velocity and fetal sex. External validation of the predictive model was performed using routinely collected data from 55 337 births (...) Blinded ultrasonic fetal biometry at 36 weeks and the risk of emergency caesarean delivery: a prospective cohort study of 3,047 low risk nulliparous women. To compare the association between risk of emergency Cesarean delivery (CD) and non-customized vs customized ultrasound estimated fetal weight (EFW) at 36 weeks' gestation, determine whether addition of ultrasound EFW to a model based on maternal characteristics alone improved prediction of emergency CD, assess the screening performance

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2017 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

98. IS Cerebroplacental Ratio A Marker of Impaired Fetal Growth Velocity and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome? (PubMed)

of reduced fetal growth rate. The secondary aim was to investigate the relationship between a low cerebroplacental ratio at term, reduced fetal growth velocity, and adverse pregnancy outcome.This was a retrospective cohort study of singleton pregnancies in a tertiary referral center. The abdominal circumference was measured at 20-24 weeks' gestation and both abdominal circumference and fetal Dopplers recorded at or beyond 35 weeks, within 2 weeks of delivery. Abdominal circumference and birthweight (...) values were converted into Z scores and centiles, respectively, and fetal Doppler parameters into multiples of median, adjusting for gestational age. Abdominal circumference growth velocity was quantified using the difference in the abdominal circumference Z score, comparing the scan at or beyond 35 weeks with the scan at 20-24 weeks. Both univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between low cerebroplacental ratio and the low abdominal

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2017 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

99. Single and Serial Fetal Biometry to Detect Preterm and Term Small- and Large-for-Gestational-Age Neonates: A Longitudinal Cohort Study. (PubMed)

the GA cutoff and not already delivered. A screen test positive for single biometry was based on Z-scores of EFW at the last scan before each GA cut-off so that the false positive rate (FPR) was 10%. Similarly, a screen test positive for the longitudinal analysis was based on the projected (extrapolated) EFW at 40 weeks from all available measurements before each cutoff for each fetus.Fetal abdominal and head circumference measurements, as well as birth weights in the Detroit population, matched well (...) Single and Serial Fetal Biometry to Detect Preterm and Term Small- and Large-for-Gestational-Age Neonates: A Longitudinal Cohort Study. To assess the value of single and serial fetal biometry for the prediction of small- (SGA) and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) neonates delivered preterm or at term.A cohort study of 3,971 women with singleton pregnancies was conducted from the first trimester until delivery with 3,440 pregnancies (17,334 scans) meeting the following inclusion criteria: 1

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2016 PLoS ONE

100. Reduced physical activity in pregnancy reduces maternal vascular resistance and improves fetal growth. (PubMed)

pregnancy, TVR between 1300 and 1400 dynes × s/cm5 at enrolment, normal fetal Doppler parameters at enrolment and abdominal circumference between the 10th and 25th centiles. Patients were assigned to activity restriction (activity-restriction group; n = 15) or no treatment (control group; n = 15) and were assessed after 4 weeks for TVR and fetal growth.TVR at enrolment and estimated fetal weight centile were similar in the activity-restriction group vs controls (1358 ± 26 vs 1353 ± 30 dynes × s/cm5 (...) Reduced physical activity in pregnancy reduces maternal vascular resistance and improves fetal growth. To test the efficacy of maternal activity restriction for reducing peripheral vascular resistance in normotensive pregnant women with raised total vascular resistance (TVR) and to evaluate its effect on fetal growth.This was a prospective case-control study of 30 women enrolled between 27 and 29 weeks' gestation. All patients met the following criteria: normal blood pressure before and during

2017 Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

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