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Fetal Abdominal Circumference

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681. Pregnancy, Preeclampsia (Overview)

, or atypical presentation for eclampsia. Previous Next: Ultrasonography Ultrasonography is used to assess the status of the fetus as well as to evaluate for growth restriction (typically asymmetrical—use abdominal circumference). [ ] Aside from transabdominal ultrasonography, umbilical artery Doppler ultrasonography should be performed to assess blood flow. The value of Doppler ultrasonography in other fetal vessels has not been demonstrated. Guidelines on preeclampsia ultrasound were released (...) Cardiotocography: The standard fetal nonstress test and the mainstay of fetal monitoring Management Delivery is the only cure for preeclampsia. Patients with preeclampsia without severe features are often induced after 37 weeks' gestation. Before this, the patient is usually hospitalized and monitored carefully for the development of worsening preeclampsia or complications of preeclampsia, and the immature fetus is treated with expectant management with corticosteroids to accelerate lung maturity

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

682. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 (Diagnosis)

incretin hormones, which are released from endocrine cells in the gut and stimulate insulin secretion in response to digestion of food. For example, reduced beta-cell function has been associated with a variant in the gene that codes for the receptor of gastric inhibitory polypeptide ( GIPR ). [ ] The high mobility group A1 (HMGA1) protein is a key regulator of the insulin receptor gene ( INSR ). [ ] Functional variants of the HMGA1 gene are associated with an increased risk of diabetes. Amino acid (...) . [ ] In addition, an in utero environment resulting in low birth weight may predispose some individuals to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus. [ , , ] Infant weight velocity has a small, indirect effect on adult insulin resistance, and this is primarily mediated through its effect on BMI and waist circumference. [ ] About 90% of patients who develop type 2 diabetes mellitus are obese. However, a large, population-based, prospective study has shown that an energy-dense diet may be a risk factor

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

683. Hernias (Follow-up)

-Danlos syndrome), should be considered as possibilities in children with large umbilical hernias. Richter hernia A Richter hernia occurs when only the antimesenteric border of the bowel herniates through the fascial defect. This hernia involves only a portion of the circumference of the bowel. Thus, the bowel may not be obstructed, even if the hernia is incarcerated or strangulated, and the patient may not present with vomiting. A Richter hernia can occur with any of the abdominal hernias (...) hernia - Bulge in the inguinal region or scrotum, sometimes intermittent; may be accompanied by a dull ache or burning pain, which often worsens with exercise or straining (eg, coughing) Spigelian hernia - Local pain and signs of obstruction from incarceration; pain increases with contraction of the abdominal musculature Interparietal hernia - Similar to spigelian hernia; occurs most frequently in previous incisions Internal supravesical hernias - Symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) obstruction

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

684. Pregnancy, Preeclampsia (Follow-up)

, or atypical presentation for eclampsia. Previous Next: Ultrasonography Ultrasonography is used to assess the status of the fetus as well as to evaluate for growth restriction (typically asymmetrical—use abdominal circumference). [ ] Aside from transabdominal ultrasonography, umbilical artery Doppler ultrasonography should be performed to assess blood flow. The value of Doppler ultrasonography in other fetal vessels has not been demonstrated. Guidelines on preeclampsia ultrasound were released (...) Cardiotocography: The standard fetal nonstress test and the mainstay of fetal monitoring Management Delivery is the only cure for preeclampsia. Patients with preeclampsia without severe features are often induced after 37 weeks' gestation. Before this, the patient is usually hospitalized and monitored carefully for the development of worsening preeclampsia or complications of preeclampsia, and the immature fetus is treated with expectant management with corticosteroids to accelerate lung maturity

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

685. Burns, Electrical

delivered under the direction of a physician at the hospital base station using telemetered communication. Telemetered monitoring of these patients is recommended throughout transport to the advanced life support hospital facility. These life-threatening consequences of low-voltage electric burns usually occur without any lesions of the skin at entrance and exit points of the current. An absence of local lesions indicates that the surface area of contact (current density) is large and that the heat (...) during the first 24 hours unless multiple escharotomies and/or fasciotomies result in significant blood loss. An almost immediate loss of intravascular fluid into an electrically burned extremity results in considerable swelling of the muscle lying within a relatively inelastic fascial compartment. [ ] Such intense swelling of the injured muscle may cause noticeable changes in the circumference of the extremity. More frequently, fascial investments may limit the swelling to such a degree that minimal

2014 eMedicine Surgery

686. Hernias (Treatment)

-Danlos syndrome), should be considered as possibilities in children with large umbilical hernias. Richter hernia A Richter hernia occurs when only the antimesenteric border of the bowel herniates through the fascial defect. This hernia involves only a portion of the circumference of the bowel. Thus, the bowel may not be obstructed, even if the hernia is incarcerated or strangulated, and the patient may not present with vomiting. A Richter hernia can occur with any of the abdominal hernias (...) hernia - Bulge in the inguinal region or scrotum, sometimes intermittent; may be accompanied by a dull ache or burning pain, which often worsens with exercise or straining (eg, coughing) Spigelian hernia - Local pain and signs of obstruction from incarceration; pain increases with contraction of the abdominal musculature Interparietal hernia - Similar to spigelian hernia; occurs most frequently in previous incisions Internal supravesical hernias - Symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) obstruction

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

687. Pregnancy, Preeclampsia (Treatment)

, or atypical presentation for eclampsia. Previous Next: Ultrasonography Ultrasonography is used to assess the status of the fetus as well as to evaluate for growth restriction (typically asymmetrical—use abdominal circumference). [ ] Aside from transabdominal ultrasonography, umbilical artery Doppler ultrasonography should be performed to assess blood flow. The value of Doppler ultrasonography in other fetal vessels has not been demonstrated. Guidelines on preeclampsia ultrasound were released (...) Cardiotocography: The standard fetal nonstress test and the mainstay of fetal monitoring Management Delivery is the only cure for preeclampsia. Patients with preeclampsia without severe features are often induced after 37 weeks' gestation. Before this, the patient is usually hospitalized and monitored carefully for the development of worsening preeclampsia or complications of preeclampsia, and the immature fetus is treated with expectant management with corticosteroids to accelerate lung maturity

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

688. Hernias (Overview)

-Danlos syndrome), should be considered as possibilities in children with large umbilical hernias. Richter hernia A Richter hernia occurs when only the antimesenteric border of the bowel herniates through the fascial defect. This hernia involves only a portion of the circumference of the bowel. Thus, the bowel may not be obstructed, even if the hernia is incarcerated or strangulated, and the patient may not present with vomiting. A Richter hernia can occur with any of the abdominal hernias (...) in the inguinal region or scrotum, sometimes intermittent; may be accompanied by a dull ache or burning pain, which often worsens with exercise or straining (eg, coughing) Spigelian hernia - Local pain and signs of obstruction from incarceration; pain increases with contraction of the abdominal musculature Interparietal hernia - Similar to spigelian hernia; occurs most frequently in previous incisions Internal supravesical hernias - Symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) obstruction or symptoms resembling

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

689. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 (Overview)

incretin hormones, which are released from endocrine cells in the gut and stimulate insulin secretion in response to digestion of food. For example, reduced beta-cell function has been associated with a variant in the gene that codes for the receptor of gastric inhibitory polypeptide ( GIPR ). [ ] The high mobility group A1 (HMGA1) protein is a key regulator of the insulin receptor gene ( INSR ). [ ] Functional variants of the HMGA1 gene are associated with an increased risk of diabetes. Amino acid (...) . [ ] In addition, an in utero environment resulting in low birth weight may predispose some individuals to develop type 2 diabetes mellitus. [ , , ] Infant weight velocity has a small, indirect effect on adult insulin resistance, and this is primarily mediated through its effect on BMI and waist circumference. [ ] About 90% of patients who develop type 2 diabetes mellitus are obese. However, a large, population-based, prospective study has shown that an energy-dense diet may be a risk factor

2014 eMedicine Emergency Medicine

690. Gastroschisis

of a gastroschisis result in a mass with irregular edges (see image below). Axial sonogram through the mid abdomen of a fetus. This image shows exteriorized bowel in relation to the anterior abdominal wall. Multiple loops of bowel are depicted. Because the bowel loops are not covered, they have irregular edges. L = liver. Usually, the small and large bowels are herniated, but, occasionally, the stomach, liver, gallbladder, spleen, uterus, adnexa, and urinary bladder may be herniated. Signs of intestinal (...) . This image shows free-floating exteriorized bowel in relation to the anterior abdominal wall. S = stomach; V = spine. Axial sonogram through the mid abdomen of a fetus. This image shows exteriorized bowel in relation to the anterior abdominal wall. Multiple loops of bowel are depicted. Because the bowel loops are not covered, they have irregular edges. L = liver. Diagram of the transverse section of the fetal abdomen showing gastroschisis. Note the bowel herniation in the right paramedian/paraumbilical

2014 eMedicine Radiology

691. Developmental ORIgins of Healthy and Unhealthy AgeiNg: the Role of Maternal Obesity

to measure fat masses in abdominal areas, and fMRI will be performed to assess activation in brain regions regulating cognition and appetite/energy control. US will be used to assess cardiovascular markers (IMT, strain and function). Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Maternal-Fetal Relations Muscle Weakness Insulin Resistance Behavioral: Exercise Training Not Applicable Study Design Go to Layout table for study information Study Type : Interventional (Clinical Trial) Actual Enrollment (...) resistance and inflammation, maternal obesity may be the most common health risk for the developing fetus. It is well established that what we eat has a major impact on our health. However, there is growing evidence to suggest that diet during pregnancy and lactation may be particularly important as not only does it influence the health of the mother, it may have a permanent effect on the health of her children and even her grandchildren. The concept that environmental factors, such as nutrition during

2013 Clinical Trials

692. An Optimized Programming of Healthy Children (APPROACH)

of palatability and sustainability of the New Nordic Diet. Other: Low-protein/High-GI Diet Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : Gestational weight gain [ Time Frame: Gestational week 14, 15, 17, 21, 25, 28, 36, 39 ] Changes in bodyweight, body composition (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) and measurements of body fat by means of skinfold thickness and mid-upper arm circumference. Secondary Outcome Measures : Growth and development of fetus and child [ Time Frame: Gestational week 11+2, 14+0, 28, 32 (...) , 36 and month 0, 6, 18, 36 and year 5, 9 ] Fetus: Nuchal Translucency Scan (once gw 11+3 - 14+0) and ultrasound scan (gw 28, 32, 36); child: Height, weight, body composition (Bioimpedance (month 6,18)and Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, DXA (month 0, 36, year 5, 9)), skin fold thickness and mid-upper arm circumference, IGF-1. Fetal programming of obesity and metabolic disorders [ Time Frame: Month 0, 6,18, 36 and year 5, 9 ] Fasting blod samples (month 0 from umbilical cord), not at 6 months

2013 Clinical Trials

693. The Effects of an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention on Reproductive Outcomes

of weeks of gestation at time of delivery, mode of delivery and post delivery complications Fetal Health [ Time Frame: 36 months ] Evaluate the record for weight, height, head circumference, Apgar scores, complications of delivery, type of delivery, and overall health and development of baby at delivery and for one year after birth. Eligibility Criteria Go to Information from the National Library of Medicine Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor (...) circumferences and improvements in hormones that are involved in allowing pregnancy to occur and hormones that are involved in metabolism, such as insulin and glucose (sugar) 3) improvements in other health conditions such as blood pressure, and emotional and physical well-being. Women eligible to participate will be between the ages of 18-35 with a BMI (ratio of weight in kg divided by height in m2) of ≥ 35≤45 kg/m2 who are seeking help for anovulatory infertility including women with a diagnosis

2013 Clinical Trials

694. Effect of Perinatal Emotional Management on Maternal Emotion and Delivery Outcomes

. (4) Make cognitive adjustment, (5) Relieve anxiety and tension by scene simulation and stimulus exposure. (6) Learn emotional self-regulation, (7) Improve self-efficacy by group interaction. (8) Teach prenatal knowledge ,(9) Guide interactive trainings between pregnant women and their couples; (10) Visit delivery rooms. Behavioral: routine prenatal care Prenatal routine inspection included blood pressure, weight, uterine fundal height, abdominal circumference, fetal presentation, fetal position (...) , fetal heart rate and so on. Active Comparator: the usual care (UC) group the usual care (UC) group was given routine prenatal care only Behavioral: routine prenatal care Prenatal routine inspection included blood pressure, weight, uterine fundal height, abdominal circumference, fetal presentation, fetal position, fetal heart rate and so on. Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : Depressive symptoms assessment [ Time Frame: The baseline evaluation began at 31 weeks of pregnancy

2013 Clinical Trials

695. Growth and Tolerance of Infants Fed Infant Formulas

by a healthcare professional), solid foods or juices to infants from enrollment through the duration of the study, unless instructed otherwise by their healthcare professional Exclusion Criteria: Adverse maternal, fetal or infant medical history that has potential effects on tolerance, growth, and/or development Infants using medications, home remedies, herbal preparations, probiotics or rehydration fluids that might affect gastrointestinal (GI) tolerance may not be enrolled Treatment with antibiotics Mother (...) , 42, 84 and 119 visits ] Length and interval length gain per day Head Circumference [ Time Frame: Study Day (SD) 1, 14, 28, 42, 84 and 119 visits ] Head circumference (HC) and interval HC gain per day Other Outcome Measures: Study Formula Intake [ Time Frame: Study Day (SD) 1-28; 3 Day Records prior to SD 42, 84 and 119 visits ] Average volume of study formula intake and average number of study formula feedings per day Oligosaccharides [ Time Frame: Study Day (SD) 42 and 119 visits ] Infant urine

2013 Clinical Trials

696. Immunotherapy Study in Borderline Resectable or Locally Advanced Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer

including a non-contrast phase plus arterial, pancreatic parenchymal and portal venous phase of contrast enhancement with thin cuts (3mm) throughout the abdomen is preferred. Studies must be evaluated by a radiologist and/or surgeon and deemed borderline resectable or locally advanced unresectable as defined per the NCCN Practice Guidelines in Oncology V2.2012, as: Borderline resectable- Tumors considered borderline resectable are defined as follows: No distant metastases Venous involvement of the SMV (...) of the hepatic artery without extension to the celiac axis. Tumor abutment of the SMA not to exceed greater than 180 degrees of the circumference of the vessel wall. Tumors considered to be unresectable due to local advancement include an absence of distant metastases as well as: Head: Greater than 180 degrees SMA encasement or any celiac abutment or unreconstructible SMV/portal occlusion or aortic invasion or encasement. Body: Greater than 180 degrees SMA or celiac encasement or unreconstructible SMV/portal

2013 Clinical Trials

697. A Non-Interventional Follow Up Study For Subjects Who Received Sildenafil for Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn (PPHN)

: Number of Participants With Physical Examination Abnormalities at Month 12 [ Time Frame: Month 12 ] Physical examinations included height, weight, head circumference, general appearance, skin examination, abdominal examination, respiratory system, neurological examination, hearing and ophthalmology assessments. Physical examination abnormalities were based on investigator discretion. Number of Participants With Physical Examination Abnormalities at Month 24 [ Time Frame: Month 24 ] Physical (...) examinations included height, weight, head circumference, general appearance, skin examination, abdominal examination, respiratory system, neurological examination, hearing and ophthalmology assessments. Physical examination abnormalities were based on investigator discretion. Number of Participants With Clinically Significant Medical History at Month 12 [ Time Frame: Month 12 ] Criteria for clinically significant medical history included any hospital admissions or any medications given since discharge

2013 Clinical Trials

698. Pregnancy and EARly Lifestyle Improvement Study

Volunteers: Yes Criteria Inclusion Criteria: Singleton viable pregnancy. A twin pregnancy reduced to singleton before 14 weeks by project gestational age is acceptable. An ultrasound must be conducted before randomization that shows a fetal heartbeat; there should be no evidence of more than one fetus on the most recent pre-randomization ultrasound.* Gestational age at randomization no earlier than 9 weeks 0 days and no later than 15 weeks 6 days based on an algorithm that compares the last menstrual (...) and infants. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Obesity Hyperglycemia Behavioral: Lifestyle intervention group Not Applicable Detailed Description: Obesity and hyperglycemia in pregnancy are thought to impact fetal growth through over-nutrition and may stress the fetal pancreas because of the increased demand for insulin. Such intrauterine programming events affect birth weight and raise the offspring's risk trajectory for future obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease

2013 Clinical Trials

699. Evidence-based Stimulation Trial With Human rFSH in Europe and Rest of World 1

of blastocyst transfer ] Change in body weight from baseline to end-of-stimulation and from baseline to day of blastocyst transfer. Changes in Maximum Abdominal Circumference [ Time Frame: End-of-stimulation and day of blastocyst transfer ] Change in maximum abdominal circumference from baseline to end-of-stimulation and from baseline to day of blastocyst transfer. Proportion of Subjects With Treatment-induced Anti-follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH) Antibodies [ Time Frame: Stimulation day 1, 7-10 days (...) : January 3, 2017 Arms and Interventions Go to Arm Intervention/treatment Experimental: A Follitropin Delta (FE 999049) Drug: Follitropin Delta (FE 999049) Active Comparator: B Follitropin Alfa (GONAL-F) Drug: Follitropin Alfa (GONAL-F) Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : Ongoing Pregnancy Rate [ Time Frame: 10-11 weeks after blastocyst transfer ] Ongoing pregnancy was defined as at least one intrauterine viable fetus 10-11 weeks after blastocyst transfer. Ongoing Implantation Rate [ Time

2013 Clinical Trials

700. Causes of Rotavirus Vaccine Failure in Zambian Children

in developing world settings as compared with industrialized countries. Reasons behind this phenomenon are not well understood, but may relate to continued maternal antigen exposure and high level maternal immunity that is passed to the foetus/newborn transplacentally and/or through breast milk. Therefore, three arising hypotheses include: (i) high-level rotavirus-specific maternal immunity (in the form of anti-rotavirus breast-milk immunoglobulin A (IgA) and transplacental serum IgG) is a major contributor (...) -scores as well as mid upper arm circumference will also be assessed. Knowledge gained from this study will inform future interventional trials on strategies to improve rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in the developing world. Condition or disease Diarrhoea Study Design Go to Layout table for study information Study Type : Observational Actual Enrollment : 420 participants Observational Model: Cohort Time Perspective: Prospective Official Title: An Observational Study to Evaluate Causes of Rotavirus

2013 Clinical Trials

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