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Fetal Abdominal Circumference

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681. Intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility of fetal biometry. (PubMed)

Intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility of fetal biometry. To assess the intra- and interobserver reproducibility of ultrasound measurements of fetal biometric parameters.We assessed the intraobserver and the interobserver agreement in measurements of fetal biparietal diameter (BPD), abdominal circumference (AC), head circumference (HC) and femur length (FL) on 122 singleton pregnancies. Patients were each examined twice by the first sonographer to determine the intraobserver (...) reliability of measurements of fetal biometry. Subsequently, during the same ultrasound examination, a second blinded sonographer measured fetal biometric parameters to assess interobserver reliability. The consensus between and among observers was analyzed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (intra-CC) and interclass correlation coefficient (inter-CC) and the reliability coefficients (RC, alpha) for the four biometric measurements. A value > 0.75 was considered a reliable consensus for the intra

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2004 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

682. [Effect of heparin on fetal growth restriction]. (PubMed)

heparin (0.7 +/- 0.6) cm and low molecular weight heparin [(0.7 +/- 0.6) cm]] vs. control group [(0.5 +/- 0.4) cm, P < 0.05]. Biparietal diameter of fetus increased in standard heparin [(2.4 +/- 0.7) mm] and low molecular weight heparin [(2.5 +/- 0.8) mm] groups vs. control [(1.7 +/- 0.6) mm, P < 0.05]. The femur length, head circumference and abdominal circumference of fetus were significantly longer in heparin treated patients than in control group (P < 0.05). (2) Biophysical score improved (...) [Effect of heparin on fetal growth restriction]. To investigate the clinical effect and safety of heparin in treating fetal growth restriction (FGR).A total of 107 women diagnosed with FGR were randomized into three groups. Group 1 (standard heparin group, n = 37) received 50 - 75 mg standard heparin added to 500 ml 5% glucose sodium chloride, infused intravenously in 6 - 8 hours. Group 2 (low molecular weight heparin group, n = 31) received 0.2 - 0.4 ml low molecular weight heparin given

2004 Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi Controlled trial quality: uncertain

683. Fetal transabdominal biometry at 11-14 weeks of gestation. (PubMed)

: (i) biparietal diameter (BPD) and fronto-occipital diameter (FOD) resulting in head circumference (HC), anterior horn (Va), posterior horn (Vp), and hemisphere (HEM); (ii) transcerebellar diameter (TCD) and cisterna magna (CM); (iii) abdominal anteroposterior (AAP) and abdominal transverse diameter (ATD) resulting in abdominal circumference (AC); and (iv) femur length (FL). The respective ratios Va/HEM, Vp/HEM, HC/AC, BPD/FL, BPD/FOD, FL/CRL, FL/BPD and FL/AC and the estimated weight were derived (...) Fetal transabdominal biometry at 11-14 weeks of gestation. To establish comprehensive transabdominal ultrasonographic reference ranges for viable normal singleton human fetuses at 11-14 weeks' gestation.Single transabdominal ultrasound measurements were taken once per pregnancy at a gestational age of between 11+0 and 14+0 weeks (crown-rump length, 45-84 mm), in viable singleton fetuses with nuchal translucency < or = 3 mm and without detectable structural anomalies, using four standard planes

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2002 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

684. Fetal growth spurt and pregestational diabetic pregnancy. (PubMed)

fetal anomalies, multiple pregnancies, small-for-gestational-age pregnancies (<10th centile), and those that were terminated before 20 weeks were excluded. In this cohort, pregnancies delivered at term had at least four ultrasound scans performed. The first scans were performed before 14 weeks of gestation and were regarded as dating scans. Abdominal circumference measurements were retrieved from the ultrasound reports. The z-scores for abdominal circumferences, according to the gestational age (...) , were calculated. The gestations when the ultrasound scans were performed were stratified at four weekly intervals beginning at 18 weeks and continuing through the rest of the study. Majority of these diabetic pregnancies had ultrasound scans performed at 18, 28, 32, and 36 weeks. The abdominal circumference z-scores for pregnancies with large-for-gestational-age (LGA) babies (>90th centile for gestation) were compared with babies with normal birth weights.A total of 101 diabetic pregnancies were

2002 Diabetes Care

685. Umbilical vessel wall fatty acids after normal and retarded fetal growth. (PubMed)

Umbilical vessel wall fatty acids after normal and retarded fetal growth. In a prospective observational study, the fatty acid content of human umbilical artery and vein wall phospholipids was determined in fetuses classified according to their change in abdominal circumference during the third trimester. Three groups were identified: appropriate for gestational age (AGA; 24 infants) and small for gestational age (SGA; 38 infants) with normal antenatal growth rate, and SGA with fetal growth (...) in abdominal circumference. In SGA fetuses with a normal growth rate, lower contents of arterial 18:2 omega 6 and 22:6 omega 3 were associated with a smaller change in abdominal circumference and birth weight. Different metabolic derangements appear to underly normal and subnormal growth rate in SGA fetuses, suggesting that different strategies of dietary intervention may be required to aid fetal growth and reduce the sequelae of fetal growth retardation.

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1994 Archives of disease in childhood Fetal and neonatal edition

686. Third trimester fetal growth and umbilical venous blood concentrations of IGF-1, IGFBP-1, and growth hormone at term. (PubMed)

ultrasound scans. Fetal size was considered either appropriate for gestational age (AGA) or small for gestational age (SGA), according to whether the first ultrasound measurement of abdominal circumference was equal to or above, or below the tenth centile for gestational age, respectively. Subsequent fetal growth was quantified by the change in the standard deviation score of abdominal circumference measurements between the first and last scans before delivery. Fetal growth retardation (FGR) was defined (...) Third trimester fetal growth and umbilical venous blood concentrations of IGF-1, IGFBP-1, and growth hormone at term. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and growth hormone (GH) concentrations were measured in umbilical venous blood after delivery of 78 term newborn infants. Three groups of pregnancies were prospectively identified during the third trimester, according to fetal size and subsequent fetal growth, assessed by repeated

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1995 Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition

687. Third trimester fetal growth and measures of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in umbilical venous blood at term (PubMed)

Third trimester fetal growth and measures of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in umbilical venous blood at term To compare measures of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in umbilical venous blood after birth at term in pregnancies with normal and retarded fetal growth during the third trimester.Three groups of pregnancies reaching term, in which fetal growth had been prospectively monitored by repeated ultrasound measurements during the third trimester, were studied. Sequential fetal abdominal (...) circumference measurements remained above the 10th centile in 42 (normal size, normal growth group), below the 10th centile but did not depart further than 1.5 SD (small, normal growth group), or below the 10th centile and subsequently fell away by more than 1.5 SD before delivery (small, growth retarded group). Birthweight, neonatal morphometric measures (ponderal index, mid arm:head circumference ratio, subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness), umbilical venous blood concentrations of glucose, insulin

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1997 Archives of disease in childhood Fetal and neonatal edition

688. Low dose aspirin for the treatment of fetal growth restriction: a randomized controlled trial. (PubMed)

. The entry criteria were a fetal abdominal circumference < 10th per centile together with an umbilical artery Doppler systolic/diastolic ratio > 95th per centile between 28 and 36 weeks' gestation. Compliance was assessed by serial measurement of maternal serum thromboxane B2 levels. The mean gestational age at enrolment was 32 weeks and at delivery was 36 weeks. There were no differences between the 2 groups in gestational age at birth; birth-weight or birth-weight ratio; circumferences of the head (...) Low dose aspirin for the treatment of fetal growth restriction: a randomized controlled trial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that maternal administration of 100mg aspirin each day will improve birth-weight and other measures of neonatal size when given as a treatment to pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction and umbilical-placental insufficiency. A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study design was employed; 51 pregnant women were enrolled

1995 The Australian & New Zealand journal of obstetrics & gynaecology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

689. Prediction of caesarean section from ultrasound and clinical assessment of fetal size. (PubMed)

Prediction of caesarean section from ultrasound and clinical assessment of fetal size. One hundred and five women with singleton pregnancies and cephalic presentation were assessed. Fundal height and a clinical estimate of fetal weight were recorded. The fetal biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference and femur length were measured with ultrasound. Ultrasound estimated fetal weight was calculated using 3 different formulas (Shepard, Campbell and CUHK). The liquor volume was assessed using (...) the amniotic fluid index. Ultrasound was able to predict Caesarean section with more reliability than clinical assessment of fetal size or weight. The biparietal diameter, fundal height and amniotic fluid index were poor predictors of mode of delivery. The measurements which best predicted the mode of delivery were the fetal femur length and abdominal circumference. Femur length, but not abdominal circumference, was a statistically better predictor of Caesarean section than clinical estimation of fetal

1994 The Australian & New Zealand journal of obstetrics & gynaecology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

690. Adequate timing of fetal ultrasound to guide metabolic therapy in mild gestational diabetes mellitus. Results from a randomized study. (PubMed)

Adequate timing of fetal ultrasound to guide metabolic therapy in mild gestational diabetes mellitus. Results from a randomized study. Ultrasound assessment of abdominal circumference early in the third trimester had been proposed to introduce insulin therapy in order to prevent fetal overgrowth in women with mild gestational diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to investigate adequate weeks gestation timing for testing this parameter.One hundred and forty-one women were included (...) in a randomized trial. Seventy-three women were evaluated at both 28 and 32 weeks gestation whereas 68 women were investigated only at 32 weeks gestation. In both groups, insulin therapy was promptly started when abdominal circumference exceeded the 75th percentile. Macrosomic rates were compared using the Fisher's exact test.Twenty-nine women whose fetal abdominal circumference exceeded the 75th percentile were considered eligible for insulin therapy. In this group, we observed a statistically significant

2000 Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica Controlled trial quality: uncertain

691. A randomized controlled trial using glycemic plus fetal ultrasound parameters versus glycemic parameters to determine insulin therapy in gestational diabetes with fasting hyperglycemia. (PubMed)

A randomized controlled trial using glycemic plus fetal ultrasound parameters versus glycemic parameters to determine insulin therapy in gestational diabetes with fasting hyperglycemia. To compare management based on maternal glycemic criteria with management based on relaxed glycemic criteria and fetal abdominal circumference (AC) measurements in order to select patients for insulin treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with fasting hyperglycemia.In a pilot study, 98 women (...) did not receive insulin had lower birth weights than infants of mothers treated with insulin (3,180 +/- 425 vs. 3,482 +/- 451 g, P = 0.03).In women with GDM and fasting hyperglycemia, glucose plus fetal AC measurements identified pregnancies at low risk for macrosomia and resulted in the avoidance of insulin therapy in 38% of patients without increasing rates of neonatal morbidity.

2001 Diabetes Care Controlled trial quality: uncertain

692. Fetal Aortic Pulsewave Velocity: A Novel Doppler Ultrasound Method of Measuring the Biophysical Properties of the Fetal Aorta

obstetrical ultrasound in DAP at BCWH between 20-36 weeks GA Study Group IUGR: Singleton pregnancy between 20 weeks 0 days and 36 weeks 0 days Obstetrical ultrasound in DAP at BCWH between 20-36 weeks GA demonstrating IUGR (abdominal circumference AC <10%) and one of: a)oligohydramnios (amniotic fluid index (AFI) <5%) or b)abnormal umbilical artery (UA) Dopplers (absent or reversed end-diastolic flow) Exclusion Criteria: Study Group N: Gestational age <20 weeks or ≥36 weeks Multiple pregnancy Any known (...) Fetal Aortic Pulsewave Velocity: A Novel Doppler Ultrasound Method of Measuring the Biophysical Properties of the Fetal Aorta Fetal Aortic Pulsewave Velocity: A Novel Doppler Ultrasound Method of Measuring the Biophysical Properties of the Fetal Aorta - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached

2006 Clinical Trials

693. Fetal kidney volume and its association with growth and blood flow in fetal life: The Generation R Study. (PubMed)

not associated with kidney volume in late pregnancy. In late pregnancy, however, all fetal growth parameters were positively linked with kidney volume. The largest effect on kidney volume was found for abdominal circumference. Signs of fetal blood flow redistribution and increased placental resistance were associated with decreased kidney volume in late pregnancy. Amniotic fluid volume was positively associated with kidney volume. Our study shows that maternal anthropometrics, fetal growth, fetal blood flow (...) Fetal kidney volume and its association with growth and blood flow in fetal life: The Generation R Study. An adverse fetal environment may lead to smaller kidneys and subsequent hypertension with renal disease in adult life. The aim of our study was to examine whether maternal characteristics, fetal growth, fetal blood flow redistribution, or inadequate placental perfusion in different periods of fetal life affect kidney volume in late fetal life. We also determined if fetal kidney volume

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2007 Kidney International

694. Fetal growth in Peru: comparisons with international fetal size charts and implications for fetal growth assessment. (PubMed)

Fetal growth in Peru: comparisons with international fetal size charts and implications for fetal growth assessment. To compare fetal biometry measurements obtained in a Peruvian population with reference fetal size charts obtained in Peruvian and non-Peruvian populations.Fetal biometry measurements collected prospectively in 195 uncomplicated pregnancies were included in the presented analysis. At 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 38 weeks' gestation, fetal head circumference, abdominal circumference (...) and femur diaphysis length were measured. Fetal biometry measurements were compared with fetal size charts obtained from another Peruvian and two non-Peruvian populations from North America and Europe.When compared with ultrasound-based reference fetal size charts obtained from North American and European populations, fetuses from the studied population appeared to grow more slowly with advancing gestational age. This trend was not observed when a Peruvian population, similar to the one studied here

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2005 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

695. Prediction of growth discordance in twins with the use of abdominal circumference ratios. (PubMed)

to the larger twin. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for the abdominal circumference ratio were assessed for the prediction of growth discordance.Of 503 diamniotic twin pregnancies, 64 pregnancies (12.7%) had discordant fetal growth. The abdominal circumference ratio could be measured consistently throughout gestation in 100% of twin pairs. Receiver operating curve analysis showed that the abdominal circumference ratio was a good predictor of birth weight discordance (area under the curve (...) Prediction of growth discordance in twins with the use of abdominal circumference ratios. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of sonographic prediction of twin birth weight discordance using the abdominal circumference ratio.This was a prospective cohort of diamniotic twin gestations that underwent serial ultrasound examinations every 2 to 4 weeks from 11 to 38 weeks of gestation. Birth weight discordance was defined as > or =25% difference in birth weight, relative

2005 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

696. Nomograms of the axial fetal cerebellar hemisphere circumference and area throughout gestation. (PubMed)

study involved pregnant patients between 14 and 41 weeks of gestation. Inclusion criteria consisted of well-established dates (confirmed by early ultrasound), non-anomalous singleton fetuses and intact amniotic membranes. Sonographic measurements included biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL), humerus length (HL), TCD, and estimated fetal weight (EFW). Values of axial fetal CHC and CHA were each calculated as the mean of three separate (...) Nomograms of the axial fetal cerebellar hemisphere circumference and area throughout gestation. The widely applied transcerebellar diameter (TCD) obtained at axial cranial imaging, measures the distance between the lateral aspects of the cerebellum and incorporates the width of the cerebellar vermis. Our objective was to create reference ranges of axial fetal cerebellar hemisphere circumference (CHC) and area (CHA), independent of the cerebellar vermis, throughout gestation.This cross-sectional

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2007 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

697. Detecting fetal macrosomia with abdominal circumference alone. (PubMed)

Detecting fetal macrosomia with abdominal circumference alone. To determine if abdominal circumference (AC) can identify macrosomia (> or = 4,000 g) at or beyond 37 weeks.Prospectively, parturients at term admitted for delivery underwent sonographic mensuration of AC. A receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed to determine if AC can differentiate between normal (birth weight < 3,999 g) and macrosomia. A likelihood ratio was calculated. P < .05 was considered significant.The

2003 Journal of Reproductive Medicine

698. Evaluation of the measurement of the fetal fat layer, interventricular septum and abdominal circumference percentile in the prediction of macrosomia in pregnancies affected by gestational diabetes. (PubMed)

Evaluation of the measurement of the fetal fat layer, interventricular septum and abdominal circumference percentile in the prediction of macrosomia in pregnancies affected by gestational diabetes. To evaluate the measurement of the fetal abdominal fat layer (FFL), cardiac interventricular septum (IVS) and abdominal circumference (AC) percentile in the early third trimester as predictors of macrosomia at birth in the fetuses of women with gestational diabetes.Ninety patients attending (...) the hospital's special diabetic clinic were recruited prospectively. FFL and IVS were measured in addition to the routine biometry in the early third trimester. AC was measured routinely and AC percentile was determined from established antenatal charts. These measurements were then assessed as predictors of macrosomia.A fetal fat layer of >/=5 mm was the most useful predictor of macrosomia at term as assessed using the likelihood ratio. An AC >/=90th percentile, however, had a better sensitivity.The

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2003 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

699. Amniotic fluid insulin levels and fetal abdominal circumference at time of amniocentesis in pregnancies with diabetes. (PubMed)

Amniotic fluid insulin levels and fetal abdominal circumference at time of amniocentesis in pregnancies with diabetes. Fetal hyperinsulinism is a strong predictor for excessive growth and fetopathy in pregnancies complicated by diabetes. We examined (i). the relationship between measurements of amniotic fluid insulin (AF insulin) and fetal abdominal circumference (AC) at the time of amniocentesis, and (ii). whether there is a threshold for fetal AC percentiles which can identify low vs. high (...) with fetal hyperinsulinism with an AF insulin >or= 16 microU/ml. All 10 cases of AF insulin >or= 16 microU/ml were identified with a NPV of 100% (74/74).Our data indicate that an AC >or= 75th percentile determined by a 3rd trimester ultrasound examination may discriminate between pregnancies at low vs. high risk for AF insulin >or= 16 microU/ml. This AF insulin concentration corresponds to a level of hyperinsulinism reported to be associated with considerable neonatal and long term morbidity.

2003 Diabetic Medicine

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