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Fetal Abdominal Circumference

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41. Detection and measurement of fetal abdominal contour in ultrasound images via local phase information and iterative randomized Hough transform. (PubMed)

Detection and measurement of fetal abdominal contour in ultrasound images via local phase information and iterative randomized Hough transform. Due to the characteristic artifacts of ultrasound images, e.g., speckle noise, shadows and intensity inhomogeneity, traditional intensity-based methods usually have limited success on the segmentation of fetal abdominal contour. This paper presents a novel approach to detect and measure the abdominal contour from fetal ultrasound images in two steps (...) . First, a local phase-based measure called multiscale feature asymmetry (MSFA) is de ned from the monogenic signal to detect the boundaries of fetal abdomen. The MSFA measure is intensity invariant and provides an absolute measurement for the signi cance of features in the image. Second, in order to detect the ellipse that ts to the abdominal contour, the iterative randomized Hough transform is employed to exclude the interferences of the inner boundaries, after which the detected ellipse gradually

2014 Bio-medical materials and engineering

42. International standards for fetal growth based on serial ultrasound measurements: the Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project. (PubMed)

a reliable estimate of gestational age confirmed by ultrasound measurement of fetal crown-rump length in the first trimester. The five primary ultrasound measures of fetal growth--head circumference, biparietal diameter, occipitofrontal diameter, abdominal circumference, and femur length--were obtained every 5 weeks (within 1 week either side) from 14 weeks to 42 weeks of gestation. The best fitting curves for the five measures were selected using second-degree fractional polynomials and further modelled (...) . For each of the five fetal growth measures, the mean differences between the observed and smoothed centiles for the 3rd, 50th, and 97th centiles, respectively, were small: 2·25 mm (SD 3·0), 0·02 mm (3·0), and -2·69 mm (3·2) for head circumference; 0·83 mm (0·9), -0·05 mm (0·8), and -0·84 mm (1·0) for biparietal diameter; 0·63 mm (1·2), 0·04 mm (1·1), and -1·05 mm (1·3) for occipitofrontal diameter; 2·99 mm (3·1), 0·25 mm (3·2), and -4·22 mm (3·7) for abdominal circumference; and 0·62 mm (0·8), 0·03 mm

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2014 Lancet

43. STRIDER NZAus: A multicentre randomised controlled trial of sildenafil therapy in early-onset fetal growth restriction. (PubMed)

, adjusted OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.23-1.05 and had no effect on abdominal circumference Z-scores (p=0.61). Sildenafil use was associated with a lower mean uterine pulsatility index after 48 hours treatment (1.56 vs 1.81 p=0.02). The livebirth rate was 56/63 (88.9%) sildenafil-treated 47/59 (79.7%) placebo-treated, adjusted OR 2.50 (95%CI 0.80-7.79); survival to hospital discharge free of major neonatal morbidity was 42/63 (66.7%) sildenafil-treated 33/59 (55.9%) placebo-treated, adjusted OR 1.93 (0.84-4.45 (...) STRIDER NZAus: A multicentre randomised controlled trial of sildenafil therapy in early-onset fetal growth restriction. To assess the effect of maternal sildenafil therapy on fetal growth in pregnancies with early-onset fetal growth restriction.A randomised placebo-controlled trial.Thirteen maternal-fetal medicine units across New Zealand and Australia.Women with singleton pregnancies affected by fetal growth restriction at 22+0 to 29+6 weeks.Women were randomised to oral 25mg sildenafil

2019 BJOG Controlled trial quality: predicted high

44. Association of first trimester maternal vitamin D, ferritin and hemoglobin level with third trimester fetal biometry: result from cohort study on vitamin D status and its impact during pregnancy and childhood in Indonesia. (PubMed)

and 43 women (21%) were in insufficient state. Women with insufficient vitamin D had the highest proportion of anemia, while women with normal vitamin D level had the highest proportion of low ferritin level. Maternal serum vitamin D showed significant associations with biparietal diameter (β = 0.141, p = 0.042) and abdominal circumference (β = 0.819, p = 0.001) after adjustment with maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, parity, serum ferritin level, and hemoglobin level.Our study suggested (...) Association of first trimester maternal vitamin D, ferritin and hemoglobin level with third trimester fetal biometry: result from cohort study on vitamin D status and its impact during pregnancy and childhood in Indonesia. The role of vitamin D in placental functions and fetal growth had been addressed in many reports with conflicting results. However, such report is limited for Indonesian population. The aim of this study was to explore the association between maternal vitamin D level

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2019 BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

45. Does fetoscopic or open repair for spina bifida affect fetal and postnatal growth? (PubMed)

effect on the fetal, neonatal or infant biometric percentiles.Fetuses which underwent fetoscopic repair had a larger abdominal circumference percentile at referral (57 ± 21 vs 46 ± 23; P = 0.04). There were no other differences between the two groups in fetal biometric percentiles at the time of referral, 6 weeks post-surgery or at birth. There were no differences between groups in EFW percentile or in proportions of cases with birth weight < 10th and < 3rd percentiles. Linear mixed-model analysis (...) did not show any significant differences in any fetal growth parameter between the groups over time. There were no significant correlations between duration of surgery or duration of CO2 exposure and any of the biometric percentiles evaluated. Postnatal growth showed no significant differences between the groups in weight, height or head circumference percentiles, at 6-18, 18-30 or > 30 months of age.Babies exposed to fetoscopic or open MMC repair in-utero did not show significant differences

2019 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

46. Gestational age at diagnosis of early-onset fetal growth restriction and impact on management and survival: a population-based cohort study

to discharge. 50% were live born when diagnosis occurred before 25 weeks, 66% at 25 weeks and >90% at 26 and 27 weeks of gestation. In all, 94.1% of live births were by prelabour caesarean, principally for maternal indications before 26 weeks. Low GA at diagnosis, an estimated fetal weight or abdominal circumference below the third centile and male sex were adversely associated with live birth in adjusted models.Gestational age at FGR diagnosis had an impact on the probability of live birth and survival (...) Gestational age at diagnosis of early-onset fetal growth restriction and impact on management and survival: a population-based cohort study To investigate the impact of gestational age (GA) at diagnosis of fetal growth restriction (FGR) on obstetric management and rates of live birth and survival for very preterm infants with early-onset FGR.Population-based cohort study.All maternity units in 25 French regions in 2011.Fetuses diagnosed with FGR before 28 weeks of gestation among singleton

2017 EvidenceUpdates

47. In overweight and obese women, fetal ultrasound biometry accurately predicts newborn measures. (PubMed)

) and adiposity measures including mid-thigh fat mass (MTFM), subscapular fat mass (SSFM), and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were undertaken using ultrasound. Neonatal anthropometric measurements obtained after birth included birthweight, head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and skinfold thickness measurements (SFTM) of the subscapular region and abdomen.At 36 weeks gestation, every 1 g increase in EFW was associated with a 0.94 g increase in birthweight (95% CI 0.88-0.99; P < 0.001). For every 1 (...) In overweight and obese women, fetal ultrasound biometry accurately predicts newborn measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between fetal ultrasound and newborn biometry and adiposity measures in the setting of maternal obesity.The study population involved 845 overweight or obese pregnant women, who participated in the Standard Care Group of the LIMIT randomised trial (ACTRN12607000161426, 9/03/2007). At 36 weeks gestation, fetal biometry, estimated fetal weight (EFW

2019 The Australian & New Zealand journal of obstetrics & gynaecology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

48. Blood-based biomarkers in the maternal circulation associated with fetal growth restriction. (PubMed)

Blood-based biomarkers in the maternal circulation associated with fetal growth restriction. Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with threefold to fourfold increased risk of stillbirth. Identifying FGR, through its commonly used surrogate-the small-for-gestational-age (SGA, estimated fetal weight and/or abdominal circumference <10th centile) fetus-and instituting fetal surveillance and timely delivery decrease stillbirth risk. Methods available to clinicians for antenatal

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2019 Prenatal diagnosis

49. Associations between estimated foetal weight discordance and clinical characteristics within dichorionic twins: The NICHD Fetal Growth Studies. (PubMed)

Associations between estimated foetal weight discordance and clinical characteristics within dichorionic twins: The NICHD Fetal Growth Studies. Birthweight discordance is well studied, with less known about longitudinal inter-twin differences in foetal growth.To examine inter-twin per cent differences in EFW (EFW% ), head (HC% ) and abdominal circumference (AC% ), and femur length (FL% ) across gestation in dichorionic twin gestations and explore associated characteristics.Foetal biometrics (...) were assessed by ultrasound and EFW calculated at ≤6 study visits among women with dichorionic twin pregnancies enrolled in the NICHD Fetal Growth Studies cohort (US, 2012-2013). Inter-twin per cent difference was defined: ([Sizelarger twin  - Sizesmaller twin ]/Sizelarger twin  × 100). Linear mixed models evaluated per cent differences in foetal biometrics at 15 weeks and their change per week overall and by maternal/neonatal characteristics in unadjusted and adjusted models.In 140 pregnancies

2019 Paediatric and perinatal epidemiology

50. Trajectories of Fetal Adipose Tissue Thickness in Pregnancies After Gastric Bypass Surgery. (PubMed)

Trajectories of Fetal Adipose Tissue Thickness in Pregnancies After Gastric Bypass Surgery. Recent studies showed that women after surgery are at higher risk of delivering small-for-gestational infants. Thus, this study aims to investigate longitudinal changes of fetal subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness (FSCTT) of fetuses conceived after gastric bypass surgery as compared to BMI-matched controls.Retrospective cohort study measuring ultrasound-derived longitudinal trajectories of abdominal (...) and abdominal circumference remained constant in the BMI-matched control group whereas it significantly decreased in fetuses of women after GB. Despite remarkable differences were observed in longitudinally assessed FSCTT, further analyses in the GB subgroup revealed that FSCTT were not influenced by OGTT mean or 120 min glucose values, biochemically hypoglycemia, time since bariatric surgery, or weight loss since surgery.In fetuses of mothers with history of bariatric surgery, abdominal FSCTT was markedly

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2019 Obesity Surgery

51. Role of Doppler ultrasound in predicting perinatal outcome in pregnancies complicated by late-onset fetal growth restriction at the time of diagnosis: a prospective cohort study. (PubMed)

and predictive accuracy of maternal and fetal Dopplers in predicting perinatal outcome of fetuses affected by late-onset FGR at the time of diagnosis.Prospective study of consecutive singleton pregnancies complicated by late-onset FGR. Estimated fetal weight (EFW), pulsatility index (PI) in the uterine, umbilical (UA), and middle cerebral (MCA) arteries, cerebro-placental ratio (CPR) and umbilical vein flow (normalized for fetal abdominal circumference) (UVBF/AC) were recorded at the time of the diagnosis (...) Role of Doppler ultrasound in predicting perinatal outcome in pregnancies complicated by late-onset fetal growth restriction at the time of diagnosis: a prospective cohort study. Pregnancies complicated by late-onset fetal growth restriction (FGR) are at increased risk of short- and long-term morbidities. Despite this, identification of cases at higher risk of adverse perinatal outcome when FGR is diagnosed is challenging. The aims of this study were to elucidate the strength of association

2019 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

52. Antenatal detection of fetal growth restriction and stillbirth risk: a population-based case-control study. (PubMed)

customized standards. Detection of fetal growth restriction (FGR) was defined by the presence of at least one of seven predefined parameters (FGR or growth faltering mentioned in medical records or ultrasound reports, documented abdominal circumference or estimated fetal weight <10th percentile, prescription of additional ultrasounds to monitor growth or abnormal umbilical Doppler). We used logistic regression to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) of the association of detection with stillbirth (...) Antenatal detection of fetal growth restriction and stillbirth risk: a population-based case-control study. Antenatal surveillance of intrauterine growth aims to detect growth restricted fetuses who face higher risks of stillbirth. Improving detection could be an effective strategy for stillbirth prevention. The REPERE study was conducted to estimate the association between antenatal detection of small for gestational age (SGA) and stillbirth risk in France.REPERE is a case-control study

2019 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

53. Effect of sildenafil on maternal hemodynamics in pregnancies complicated by severe early-onset fetal growth restriction: planned subgroup analysis from a multicenter randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial. (PubMed)

, the Dutch trial was stopped prematurely due to excess neonatal mortality secondary to pulmonary hypertension. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sildenafil on maternal hemodynamics in pregnancies with severe early-onset FGR.In this UK multicenter, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 135 women with singleton pregnancies and severe early-onset FGR (defined as a combination of estimated fetal weight or abdominal circumference below the 10th centile and absent/reversed (...) Effect of sildenafil on maternal hemodynamics in pregnancies complicated by severe early-onset fetal growth restriction: planned subgroup analysis from a multicenter randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with maternal cardiovascular changes. Sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, potentiates the actions of nitric oxide and has been proposed to alter maternal hemodynamics, potentially improving placental perfusion. Recently

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2019 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology Controlled trial quality: predicted high

54. Maternal cardiometabolic markers are associated with fetal growth: a secondary exploratory analysis of the LIMIT randomised trial. (PubMed)

of registration 9/03/2007, prospectively registered). Fetal biometry including abdominal circumference (AC), estimated fetal weight (EFW), and adiposity measurements (mid-thigh fat mass, subscapular fat mass, abdominal fat mass) were obtained from ultrasound assessments at 28 and 36 weeks' gestation. Maternal markers included C reactive protein (CRP), leptin and adiponectin concentrations, measured at 28 and 36 weeks' gestation and fasting triglycerides and glucose concentrations measured at 28 weeks (...) Maternal cardiometabolic markers are associated with fetal growth: a secondary exploratory analysis of the LIMIT randomised trial. To determine the association between maternal cardiometabolic and inflammatory markers with measures of fetal biometry and adiposity.Women included in this exploratory analysis were randomised to the 'Standard Care' group (N = 911) from the LIMIT randomised trial involving a total of 2212 pregnant women who were overweight or obese (ACTRN12607000161426, Date

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2019 BMC Endocrine Disorders

55. Etiology and perinatal outcome in periviable fetal growth restriction associated with structural or genetic anomalies. (PubMed)

Etiology and perinatal outcome in periviable fetal growth restriction associated with structural or genetic anomalies. To investigate the aetiology and the perinatal outcome of fetuses diagnosed with periviable fetal growth restriction (FGR) associated with structural defects or genetic anomalies.Retrospective study conducted at a referral Fetal Medicine unit. Singleton pregnancies seen between 2005 and 2018 in which FGR, defined by fetal abdominal circumference ≤3rd percentile

2019 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

56. Reduced fetal growth velocities and the association with neonatal outcomes in appropriate-for-gestational-age neonates: a retrospective cohort study. (PubMed)

restriction of growth potential. We hypothesized that within AGA neonates, reduced fetal growth velocities are associated with adverse neonatal outcome.A retrospective cohort study of singleton pregnancies, in the Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC) between 2010 and 2016. Women had two fetal biometry scans (18-22 weeks and 30-34 weeks of gestational age) and delivered a newborn with a birth weight between the 10th-80th percentile. Differences in growth velocities of the abdominal circumference (AC (...) velocity and neonates with NICU stay (OR) = 0.733 (95%CI 0.570-0.942, p = 0.015). Neonates with a birthweight lower than expected (based on the abdominal circumference at 20 weeks) had significantly more composite adverse neonatal outcomes 8.5% vs 5.0% (p = 0.047), NICU stays 9.6% vs 3.8% (p < .0001) and hospital stays 44.4% vs 35.6% (p = 0.006).Appropriate-for-gestational-age neonates are a heterogeneous group with some showing suboptimal fetal growth. Abnormal fetal growth velocities, especially

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2019 BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

57. Reduced Fetal Movements

/stillbirth. If an ultrasound scan assessment is deemed necessary, it should be performed when the service is next available – preferably within 24 hours. Ultrasound scan assessment should include the assessment of abdominal circumference and/or estimated fetal weight to detect the SGA fetus, and the assessment of amniotic fluid volume. Ultrasound should include assessment of fetal morphology if this has not previously been performed and the woman has no objection to this being carried out (...) detected on scan Normal scan Perception of RFM resolved and no risk factors for FGR/stillbirth Continue with RFM or risk factors for FGR/stillbirth Normal fetal heart rate pattern Cardiotocograph to exclude imminent fetal compromise Ultrasound for amniotic fluid volume/abdominal circumference/estimated fetal weight Reassure Give advice re: further episodes of RFM If unsure whether fetal movements are reduced, focus on fetal movements for 2 hours If they do not feel more than 10 movements in 2 hours

2011 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

58. The validity of the viscero-abdominal disproportion ratio for type of surgical closure in all fetuses with an omphalocele. (PubMed)

The validity of the viscero-abdominal disproportion ratio for type of surgical closure in all fetuses with an omphalocele. To determine the predictive value of the fetal omphalocele circumference/abdominal circumference (OC/AC) ratio for type of surgical closure and survival and to describe the trajectory of OC/AC ratio throughout gestation.This cohort study included all live-born infants prenatally diagnosed with an omphalocele in our tertiary centre (2000-2017) with an intention to treat

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2019 Prenatal diagnosis

59. Myoinositol Supplementation, Insulin Resistance and Fetal Sonographic Parameters in Gestational Diabetes Diet Treated

Measures : Insulin resistance [ Time Frame: Start point, and 8 weeks after ] Change from baseline to 8 weeks of HOMA-IR calculated as glycemia (mmol/L) x insulinemia (mUI/L) / 22.5 Secondary Outcome Measures : Fetal sonographic parameters [ Time Frame: Start point, 4 and 8 weeks after ] Change from baseline to 4 and 8 weeks of Biparietal diameter (cm), Femur length (cm), Abdominal circumference (cm) and Subcutaneus tissue thickness (cm) Eligibility Criteria Go to Information from the National Library (...) Myoinositol Supplementation, Insulin Resistance and Fetal Sonographic Parameters in Gestational Diabetes Diet Treated Myoinositol Supplementation, Insulin Resistance and Fetal Sonographic Parameters in Gestational Diabetes Diet Treated - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number

2018 Clinical Trials

60. Maternal sildenafil for severe fetal growth restriction (STRIDER): a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. (PubMed)

at randomisation (before week 26 and 0 days or at week 26 and 0 days or later). We defined fetal growth restriction as a combination of estimated fetal weight or abdominal circumference below tenth percentile and absent or reversed end-diastolic blood flow in the umbilical artery on Doppler velocimetry. The primary outcome was the time from randomisation to delivery, measured in days. This study is registered with BioMed Central, number ISRCTN 39133303.Between Nov 21, 2014, and July 6, 2016, we recruited 135 (...) Maternal sildenafil for severe fetal growth restriction (STRIDER): a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Severe early-onset fetal growth restriction can lead to a range of adverse outcomes including fetal or neonatal death, neurodisability, and lifelong risks to the health of the affected child. Sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, potentiates the actions of nitric oxide, which leads to vasodilatation of the uterine vessels and might improve fetal

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2018 The Lancet. Child & Adolescent Health Controlled trial quality: predicted high

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