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Fetal Abdominal Circumference

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21. Fetal Abdominal Circumference

Fetal Abdominal Circumference Fetal Abdominal Circumference Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Fetal Abdominal (...) Circumference Fetal Abdominal Circumference Aka: Fetal Abdominal Circumference II. Technique Use ellipse Transverse abdominal Triad Deep portion of ( ) Spine III. Equation Abdominal Circumference = (AP + Transverse) x 1.57 IV. Accuracy Least accurate of measurements for estimating (except 26-32 weeks) Most useful beyond 15 weeks for calculating fetal weight, serial growth and diagnosing References V. Resources AJR Online version of Benson and Doubilet article above Images: Related links to external sites

2015 FP Notebook

22. Intrapartum fetal surveillance – Indications

or fetal complications, intrapartum fetal monitoring may be performed by intermittent auscultation Consensus In women with hyper- or hypothyroidism and obstetric or fetal complications, intrapartum fetal monitoring should be performed according to the procedure for these complications Consensus Fetal weight deviation – 15 to – 22% Summary of evidence Grade of evidence Fetal weight deviation of more than -15 % in combination with deviating abdominal circumference is significantly associated with low (...) -15% 4 . 562 fostre havde vægtestimat under - 15%. 172 af disse havde ud over et vægtestimat på under -15% også et vigende abdominalomfang. Dette er i studiet defineret som vækst af abdominalomfang under 10 percentilen ved sammenligning af målinger i uge 20 og ved sidste scanning inden fødslen (Abdominal circumference growth velosity, ACGW). I gruppen af fostre med vægtestimat under -15% og vigende vækst af abdominalomfang fandtes en signifikant øget risiko for Apgar score under 7 efter 5 minutter

2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology

23. Fetal Growth Velocity: the NICHD Fetal Growth Studies. (PubMed)

. Ultrasound biometric measurements included biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length, and estimated fetal weight was calculated. We used linear mixed models with cubic splines for the fixed effects and random effects to flexibly model ultrasound trajectories. We computed velocity percentiles in 2 ways: (1) difference between 2 consecutive weekly measurements (ie, weekly velocity), and (2) difference between any 2 ultrasounds at a clinically reasonable difference (...) by whether or not estimated fetal weight and estimated fetal weight velocity were <5th or ≥5th percentiles using χ2.Fetal growth velocity was nonmonotonic, with acceleration early in pregnancy, peaking at 13, 14, 15, and 16 weeks for biparietal diameter, head circumference, femur length, and abdominal circumference, respectively. Biparietal diameter, head circumference, and abdominal circumference had a second acceleration at 19-22, 19-21, and 27-31 weeks, respectively. Estimated fetal weight velocity

2018 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

24. Melatonin Increases Fetal Weight in Wild-Type Mice but Not in Mouse Models of Fetal Growth Restriction (PubMed)

did, however, significantly increase abdominal circumference in P0+/- mice. Melatonin had no effect on placental weight in any group. Uterine arteries from eNOS-/- mice demonstrated aberrant function compared with WT but melatonin treatment did not affect uterine artery vascular reactivity in either of these genotypes. Umbilical arteries from melatonin treated P0+/- mice demonstrated increased relaxation in response to the nitric oxide donor SNP compared with control. The increased fetal weight (...) in WT mice and abdominal circumference in P0+/-, together with the lack of any effect in eNOS-/-, suggest that the presence of eNOS is required for the growth promoting effects of melatonin. This study supports further work on the possibility of melatonin as a treatment for FGR.

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2018 Frontiers in physiology

25. Pomegranate Juice Supplementation Alters Utero-Placental Vascular Function and Fetal Growth in the eNOS−/− Mouse Model of Fetal Growth Restriction (PubMed)

respectively in both genotypes. Contrary to our hypothesis, the changes in artery function induced by PJ were not associated with an increase in fetal weight. However, PJ supplementation reduced litter size and fetal abdominal and head circumference in both genotypes. Collectively the data do not support maternal PJ supplementation as a safe or effective treatment for FGR. (...) Pomegranate Juice Supplementation Alters Utero-Placental Vascular Function and Fetal Growth in the eNOS−/− Mouse Model of Fetal Growth Restriction The eNOS-/- mouse provides a well-characterized model of fetal growth restriction (FGR) with altered uterine and umbilical artery function and reduced utero- and feto-placental blood flow. Pomegranate juice (PJ), which is rich in antioxidants and bioactive polyphenols, has been posited as a beneficial dietary supplement to promote cardiovascular

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2018 Frontiers in physiology

26. Are selection criteria for healthy pregnancies responsible for the gap between fetal growth in the French national Elfe birth cohort and the Intergrowth-21st fetal growth standards? (PubMed)

potential differences could be due to IG criteria for "healthy" pregnancies.We analysed data on femur length and abdominal circumference at the second and/or the third recommended ultrasound examination from 14 607 singleton pregnancies from the Elfe national birth cohort. We compared concordance of centile thresholds using the IG standards and current French references and used restricted cubic splines to plot z-scores by gestational age. A "healthy pregnancy" sub-sample was created based on maternal (...) and pregnancy selection criteria, as specified by IG.Mean gestational age-specific z-scores for femur length and abdominal circumference using French references fluctuated around 0 (-0.2 to 0.1), while those based on IG standards were higher (0.3-0.8). Using IG standards, 2.5% and 5.2% of fetuses at the third ultrasound were <10th centile for femur length and abdominal circumference, respectively, and 31.5% and 16.7% were >90th. Only 34% of pregnancies fulfilled IG low-risk criteria, but sub-analyses

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2018 Paediatric and perinatal epidemiology

27. Fetal Medicine Foundation fetal and neonatal population weight charts. (PubMed)

, should comprise all babies at a given gestational age, including those still in utero.Two sources of data were used for this study. For both, the inclusion criteria were singleton pregnancy, dating by fetal crown-rump length at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks' gestation, availability of ultrasonographic measurements of fetal head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) and live birth of phenotypically normal neonate. Dataset 1 comprised a sample of 5163 paired measurements (...) Fetal Medicine Foundation fetal and neonatal population weight charts. To develop fetal and neonatal population weight charts. The rationale was that, while reference ranges of estimated fetal weight (EFW) are representative of the whole population, the traditional approach of deriving birth-weight (BW) charts is misleading, because a large proportion of babies born preterm arise from pathological pregnancy. We propose that the reference population for BW charts, as in the case of EFW charts

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2018 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

28. Maternal weight gain: a determinant for fetal abdominal circumference in the second trimester. (PubMed)

Maternal weight gain: a determinant for fetal abdominal circumference in the second trimester. To study the association between maternal weight gain in pregnancy and fetal abdominal circumference in the second trimester.Prospective cross-sectional study.Low-risk antenatal clinic.Six hundred and fifty women with low-risk pregnancy.Women with a regular menstrual period (28±4 days) and certain information on the last menstrual period were recruited when they were referred for routine ultrasound (...) scanning. Women with a discrepancy of>14 days between ultrasound and menstrual age were excluded. Maternal weight gain during pregnancy was derived from information in the antenatal chart and the weekly weight gain was calculated. Fetal abdominal circumference measurements were registered in gestational weeks 15-25 and their z-scores, together with the z-scores of maternal weight gain, were used in a linear regression analysis. Main outcome measures. Association between maternal weight gain and fetal

2011 Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica

29. Umbilical artery PI and fetal abdominal circumference in isolated gastroschisis. (PubMed)

Umbilical artery PI and fetal abdominal circumference in isolated gastroschisis. To investigate changes in abdominal circumference (AC) and umbilical artery pulsatility index (UA-PI) with gestation in fetuses with isolated gastroschisis, and to determine whether a relationship exists between UA-PI and fetal AC.Data from 58 pregnancies with isolated gastroschisis diagnosed at between 24 and 36 weeks' gestation were included in the study. Z-scores were calculated with respect to expected UA-PI (...) values for fetuses with gastroschisis compared with the standard AC and UA-PI range curves were significantly different for AC throughout gestation, and for UA-PI from 32 weeks' gestation.In fetal gastroschisis, it is well known that AC tends to be smaller, though UA-PI has not been reported to be abnormal in any consistent way. There is a clear relationship between the fetus's AC for gestation and UA-PI, which is not the case for normally grown fetuses. The data suggest that the growth restriction

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2011 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

30. Low birth weight and elevated head-to-abdominal circumference ratio are associated with elevated fetal glycated serum protein concentrations. (PubMed)

Low birth weight and elevated head-to-abdominal circumference ratio are associated with elevated fetal glycated serum protein concentrations. To analyze the association between low birth weight, head-to-abdominal circumference ratio, and insulin resistance in early life.Glycated serum proteins (GSPs) were quantified at delivery in 612 Chinese mother/child pairs serving as a surrogate of maternal and fetal glycemia. Differential ultrasound examination of the fetal's body (head circumference (...) , biparietal diameter, pectoral diameter, abdominal circumference, and femur length) was done in average 1 week prior to delivery. Multivariable regression analysis considering gestational age at delivery, the child's sex, maternal BMI, maternal age at delivery, maternal body weight, and pregnancy-induced hypertension revealed that fetal GSP was inversely associated with birth weight (R² = 0.416; P < 0.001). Fetal GSP was furthermore positively associated with the head-to-abdominal circumference ratio

2011 Journal of Hypertension

31. STRIDER NZAus: A multicentre randomised controlled trial of sildenafil therapy in early-onset fetal growth restriction

, 95% CI 0.23-1.05 and had no effect on abdominal circumference Z-scores (p=0.61). Sildenafil use was associated with a lower mean uterine pulsatility index after 48 hours treatment (1.56 vs 1.81 p=0.02). The livebirth rate was 56/63 (88.9%) sildenafil-treated 47/59 (79.7%) placebo-treated, adjusted OR 2.50 (95%CI 0.80-7.79); survival to hospital discharge free of major neonatal morbidity was 42/63 (66.7%) sildenafil-treated 33/59 (55.9%) placebo-treated, adjusted OR 1.93 (0.84-4.45); and new-onset (...) STRIDER NZAus: A multicentre randomised controlled trial of sildenafil therapy in early-onset fetal growth restriction To assess the effect of maternal sildenafil therapy on fetal growth in pregnancies with early-onset fetal growth restriction.A randomised placebo-controlled trial.Thirteen maternal-fetal medicine units across New Zealand and Australia.Women with singleton pregnancies affected by fetal growth restriction at 22+0 to 29+6 weeks.Women were randomised to oral 25mg sildenafil citrate

2019 EvidenceUpdates

32. Diagnostic performance of third-trimester ultrasound for the prediction of late-onset fetal growth restriction: a systematic review and meta-analysis

of Science, and SCOPUS.We used rrospective and retrospective cohort studies in low-risk or nonselected singleton pregnancies with screening ultrasound performed at ≥32 weeks of gestation.The estimated fetal weight and fetal abdominal circumference were assessed as index tests for the prediction of birthweight <10th (i.e. smallness for gestational age), less than the fifth, and less than the third centile and fetal growth restriction (estimated fetal weight less than the third or estimated fetal weight (...) <10th plus Doppler signs). Quality of the included studies was independently assessed by 2 reviewers, using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. For the meta-analysis, hierarchical summary receiver-operating characteristic curves were constructed, and quantitative data synthesis was performed using random-effects models. The sensitivity of the abdominal circumference <10th centile and estimated fetal weight <10th centile for a fixed 10% false-positive rate was derived from

2019 EvidenceUpdates

33. The World Health Organization Fetal Growth Charts: A Multinational Longitudinal Study of Ultrasound Biometric Measurements and Estimated Fetal Weight. (PubMed)

, even after adjusting for gestational age. Thirty-one women had a miscarriage, and three fetuses had intrauterine death. The 8,203 sets of ultrasound measurements were scrutinized for outliers and leverage points, and those measurements taken at 14 to 40 wk were selected for analysis. A total of 7,924 sets of ultrasound measurements were analyzed by quantile regression to establish longitudinal reference intervals for fetal head circumference, biparietal diameter, humerus length, abdominal (...) The World Health Organization Fetal Growth Charts: A Multinational Longitudinal Study of Ultrasound Biometric Measurements and Estimated Fetal Weight. Perinatal mortality and morbidity continue to be major global health challenges strongly associated with prematurity and reduced fetal growth, an issue of further interest given the mounting evidence that fetal growth in general is linked to degrees of risk of common noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. Against this background, WHO made

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2017 PLoS medicine

34. Fetal growth standards: the NICHD fetal growth study approach in context with INTERGROWTH-21st and the World Health Organization Multicentre Growth Reference Study. (PubMed)

a pooled reference, although they evaluated for and presented country differences, along with discussion of the implications. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study was designed to assess whether racial/ethnic-specific fetal growth standards were needed, in recognition of the fact that fetal size is commonly estimated from dimensions (head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length) in which there are known differences in children (...) for the best physiological growth for children aged 0-5 years. INTERGROWTH made the same assumption (ie, that there would be no differences internationally among countries or racial/ethnic groups in fetal growth when conditions were optimal). INTERGROWTH found differences in crown-rump length and head circumference among countries but interpreted the differences as not meaningful and presented a pooled standard. The World Health Organization Multicentre Growth Reference Study was designed to create

2017 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

35. Association of Maternal Obesity With Longitudinal Ultrasonographic Measures of Fetal Growth: Findings From the NICHD Fetal Growth Studies-Singletons. (PubMed)

-dimensional ultrasonograms to capture weekly fetal growth data throughout the remainder of their pregnancies.On each ultrasonogram, fetal humerus length, femur length, biparietal diameter, head circumference, and abdominal circumference were measured. Fetal growth curves were estimated using linear mixed models with cubic splines. Median differences in the fetal measures at each gestational week of the obese and nonobese participants were examined using the likelihood ratio and Wald tests after adjustment (...) 70.2 mm; P = .01; median humerus length, 62.2 vs 61.6 mm; P = .03). Averaged across gestation, head circumference was significantly larger in fetuses of obese women than those of nonobese women (P = .02). Fetal abdominal circumference was not greater in the obese cohort than in the nonobese cohort but was significantly larger than in fetuses of normal-weight women (with body mass indexes between 19.0-24.9) commencing at 32 weeks (median, 282.1 vs 280.2 mm; P = .04). Starting from 30 weeks

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2017 JAMA pediatrics

36. Fractional Fetal Thigh Volume in the prediction of normal and abnormal fetal growth during the third trimester of pregnancy. (PubMed)

<3rd customized birthweight centile. Logistic regression was used to compare estimated fetal weight (Hadlock), estimated fetal weight (biparietal diameter-abdominal circumference-fractional thigh volume), fractional thigh volume, and abdominal circumference for the prediction of small for gestational age or fetal growth restriction at birth. Screening performance was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve.There was a better correlation between fractional thigh volume (...) and estimated fetal weight ((biparietal diameter-abdominal circumference-fractional thigh volume) obtained at 34-36 weeks with birthweight than between 2-dimensional biometry measures such as abdominal circumference and estimated fetal weight (Hadlock). There was also a modest improvement in the detection of both small for gestational age and fetal growth restriction using fractional thigh volume-derived measures compared to standard 2-dimensional measurements (area under receiver operating characteristic

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2017 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

37. Fetal 3D Study (Fetal Body Composition and Volumes Study)

Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : Standards for fetal body composition and organ volumes by maternal race/ethnicity [ Time Frame: 3 years ] Growth trajectories in singletons and dichorionic twin pregnancies will be created using two- and selected three-dimensional ultrasound measures. Measures in singletons include fetal body composition from 2D abdominal circumference, arm and thigh volumes; cerebellum; adrenal glands; kidneys; liver; pancreas; lungs; first trimester gestational sac (...) , embryo and placenta, using standardized protocols. Measures in twins include 2D abdominal circumference and thigh volumes, and first trimester gestational sac, embryo and placenta. Measurements will be performed using stored ultrasound images and 3D volumes that were collected in the NICHD Fetal Growth Studies - Singleton and Twins ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00912132 and NCT01369940, respectively. Women were recruited during the first trimester and followed until delivery. Each woman had

2017 Clinical Trials

38. A revisit of the fetal foot length and fetal measurements in early pregnancy sonography (PubMed)

A revisit of the fetal foot length and fetal measurements in early pregnancy sonography To present the fetal measurements in relation to the foot length at 10-16 weeks gestation on antenatal ultrasound.We reviewed the fetal measurements in 47 scans performed at 10-16 weeks gestation in women attending routine antenatal care. The fetal measurements and measurement ratios were examined in relation to the foot length.The fetal biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, femur (...) length and foot length increase linearly with the gestational age at 10-16 weeks gestation. The correlation between fetal foot length and fetal biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference and femur length are better than with the crown rump length. The femur length to foot length ratio and the femur length to abdominal circumference ratios increase with the gestational age in an inverse relationship throughout the same period.Fetal foot length is an accurate estimate

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2017 International journal of women's health

39. Prediction of small-for-gestational age by fetal growth rate according to gestational age. (PubMed)

the ultrasonographic parameters that contribute substantially to the birthweight determination.This was a retrospective study of 442 healthy pregnant women with singleton pregnancies. There were 328 adequate-for-gestational age (AGA) neonates and 114 SGA infants delivered between 37+0 and 41+6 weeks of gestation. We compared the biparietal diameters (BPD), head circumferences (HC), abdominal circumferences (AC), femur lengths (FL), and estimated fetal weights (EFW) obtained on each ultrasound to determine which (...) Prediction of small-for-gestational age by fetal growth rate according to gestational age. Small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants should be identified before birth because of an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of fetal growth rate by gestational age on the prediction of SGA and to identify the optimal time to initiate intensive fetal monitoring to detect SGA in low-risk women. We also sought to determine which

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2019 PLoS ONE

40. The effect of a maternal meal on fetal liver blood flow. (PubMed)

was 39.3 (‒83.0-156.1) ml/min (p<0.001); in contrast, we observed no statistically significant change in the overweight group (‒44.5 (‒229.0-123.2) ml/min; p = 0.073). As a substitute for liver size, we divided the delta liver flow values by abdominal circumference and found no changes in the statistical significance results within or between the two weight groups.In our healthy study population, we observed a statistically significant difference in liver blood flow after maternal intake of a regular (...) meal. This effect depended on gestational age and maternal prepregancy body mass index, but apparently was independent of liver size, based on abdominal circumference as a proxy measure.

2019 PLoS ONE

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