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Fetal Abdominal Circumference

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21. Fetal Growth Patterns in Pregnancy-Associated Hypertensive Disorders: NICHD Fetal Growth Studies. (Abstract)

constituted the normotensive group. Growth curves for estimated fetal weight and individual biometric parameters including biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, femur and humerus length were calculated for each group using linear mixed models with cubic splines. Global and weekly pairwise comparisons were performed between women with a hypertensive disorder compared with normotensive women to analyze differences while adjusting for confounding variables. Delivery gestational (...) significantly smaller fetal abdominal circumference between 23 to 31 and 33 to 37 weeks' gestation (weekly pair-wise P values <.04). Scattered weekly growth differences were noted on other biometric parameters between these two groups. The consistent differences in estimated fetal weight and abdominal circumference were not observed between women with other hypertensive disorders and those who were normotensive. Women with severe preeclampsia delivered significantly earlier (mean gestational age 35.9 ± 3.2

2019 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

22. Associations between estimated foetal weight discordance and clinical characteristics within dichorionic twins: The NICHD Fetal Growth Studies. (Abstract)

Associations between estimated foetal weight discordance and clinical characteristics within dichorionic twins: The NICHD Fetal Growth Studies. Birthweight discordance is well studied, with less known about longitudinal inter-twin differences in foetal growth.To examine inter-twin per cent differences in EFW (EFW% ), head (HC% ) and abdominal circumference (AC% ), and femur length (FL% ) across gestation in dichorionic twin gestations and explore associated characteristics.Foetal biometrics (...) were assessed by ultrasound and EFW calculated at ≤6 study visits among women with dichorionic twin pregnancies enrolled in the NICHD Fetal Growth Studies cohort (US, 2012-2013). Inter-twin per cent difference was defined: ([Sizelarger twin  - Sizesmaller twin ]/Sizelarger twin  × 100). Linear mixed models evaluated per cent differences in foetal biometrics at 15 weeks and their change per week overall and by maternal/neonatal characteristics in unadjusted and adjusted models.In 140 pregnancies

2019 Paediatric and perinatal epidemiology

23. Evaluating the accuracy and precision of sonographic fetal weight estimation models in extremely early-onset fetal growth restriction. (Abstract)

% - 49.5%) and random error (median 11.6%; range 9.7% - 23.8%) varied widely across models. The best performing model was Hadlock head circumference-abdominal circumference-femur length (HC-AC-FL), regardless of gestational age, fetal size, fetal presentation or asymmetry, with an overall systematic error of 1.5% and random error of 9.7%. Despite this, it only calculated the estimated fetal weight within 10% of birthweight in 64.6% of cases. There was a weak negative relationship between mean (...) Evaluating the accuracy and precision of sonographic fetal weight estimation models in extremely early-onset fetal growth restriction. Birthweight is a critical predictor of survival in extremely early-onset fetal growth restriction (fetal growth restriction diagnosed pre-28 weeks' gestation, with abnormal umbilical/uterine artery Doppler waveforms), therefore accurate fetal weight estimation is a crucial component of antenatal management. Currently available sonographic fetal weight estimation

2019 Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica

24. Glycemic control and fetal abdominal circumference Full Text available with Trip Pro

Glycemic control and fetal abdominal circumference To study about the correlation between the glycemic status and increase in fetal abdominal circumference in gestational diabetes patients and its relationship with fetal birth weight.Seventy-five gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients were taken up for study with duly informed consent and suggested for anthropometry profile and glycemic profile with HbA1C. Fetal abdominal circumference was measured during routine scans. The patients were (...) followed up till delivery and the fetal birth was noted.Seventy-five gestational diabetic mothers who have attended a secondary level diabetic clinic and on regular follow-up were included in the study.Pre-GDM mothers, patients with co-morbid disease were excluded from the study.Fetal abdominal circumference correlated well with fluctuating glycemic control and fetal birth weight.

2012 Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism

25. Intrapartum fetal surveillance – Indications

or fetal complications, intrapartum fetal monitoring may be performed by intermittent auscultation Consensus In women with hyper- or hypothyroidism and obstetric or fetal complications, intrapartum fetal monitoring should be performed according to the procedure for these complications Consensus Fetal weight deviation – 15 to – 22% Summary of evidence Grade of evidence Fetal weight deviation of more than -15 % in combination with deviating abdominal circumference is significantly associated with low (...) -15% 4 . 562 fostre havde vægtestimat under - 15%. 172 af disse havde ud over et vægtestimat på under -15% også et vigende abdominalomfang. Dette er i studiet defineret som vækst af abdominalomfang under 10 percentilen ved sammenligning af målinger i uge 20 og ved sidste scanning inden fødslen (Abdominal circumference growth velosity, ACGW). I gruppen af fostre med vægtestimat under -15% og vigende vækst af abdominalomfang fandtes en signifikant øget risiko for Apgar score under 7 efter 5 minutter

2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology

26. Melatonin Increases Fetal Weight in Wild-Type Mice but Not in Mouse Models of Fetal Growth Restriction Full Text available with Trip Pro

did, however, significantly increase abdominal circumference in P0+/- mice. Melatonin had no effect on placental weight in any group. Uterine arteries from eNOS-/- mice demonstrated aberrant function compared with WT but melatonin treatment did not affect uterine artery vascular reactivity in either of these genotypes. Umbilical arteries from melatonin treated P0+/- mice demonstrated increased relaxation in response to the nitric oxide donor SNP compared with control. The increased fetal weight (...) in WT mice and abdominal circumference in P0+/-, together with the lack of any effect in eNOS-/-, suggest that the presence of eNOS is required for the growth promoting effects of melatonin. This study supports further work on the possibility of melatonin as a treatment for FGR.

2018 Frontiers in physiology

27. Pomegranate Juice Supplementation Alters Utero-Placental Vascular Function and Fetal Growth in the eNOS−/− Mouse Model of Fetal Growth Restriction Full Text available with Trip Pro

respectively in both genotypes. Contrary to our hypothesis, the changes in artery function induced by PJ were not associated with an increase in fetal weight. However, PJ supplementation reduced litter size and fetal abdominal and head circumference in both genotypes. Collectively the data do not support maternal PJ supplementation as a safe or effective treatment for FGR. (...) Pomegranate Juice Supplementation Alters Utero-Placental Vascular Function and Fetal Growth in the eNOS−/− Mouse Model of Fetal Growth Restriction The eNOS-/- mouse provides a well-characterized model of fetal growth restriction (FGR) with altered uterine and umbilical artery function and reduced utero- and feto-placental blood flow. Pomegranate juice (PJ), which is rich in antioxidants and bioactive polyphenols, has been posited as a beneficial dietary supplement to promote cardiovascular

2018 Frontiers in physiology

28. Fetal Growth Velocity: the NICHD Fetal Growth Studies. Full Text available with Trip Pro

. Ultrasound biometric measurements included biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length, and estimated fetal weight was calculated. We used linear mixed models with cubic splines for the fixed effects and random effects to flexibly model ultrasound trajectories. We computed velocity percentiles in 2 ways: (1) difference between 2 consecutive weekly measurements (ie, weekly velocity), and (2) difference between any 2 ultrasounds at a clinically reasonable difference (...) by whether or not estimated fetal weight and estimated fetal weight velocity were <5th or ≥5th percentiles using χ2.Fetal growth velocity was nonmonotonic, with acceleration early in pregnancy, peaking at 13, 14, 15, and 16 weeks for biparietal diameter, head circumference, femur length, and abdominal circumference, respectively. Biparietal diameter, head circumference, and abdominal circumference had a second acceleration at 19-22, 19-21, and 27-31 weeks, respectively. Estimated fetal weight velocity

2018 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

29. Fetal Medicine Foundation fetal and neonatal population weight charts. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, should comprise all babies at a given gestational age, including those still in utero.Two sources of data were used for this study. For both, the inclusion criteria were singleton pregnancy, dating by fetal crown-rump length at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks' gestation, availability of ultrasonographic measurements of fetal head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) and live birth of phenotypically normal neonate. Dataset 1 comprised a sample of 5163 paired measurements (...) Fetal Medicine Foundation fetal and neonatal population weight charts. To develop fetal and neonatal population weight charts. The rationale was that, while reference ranges of estimated fetal weight (EFW) are representative of the whole population, the traditional approach of deriving birth-weight (BW) charts is misleading, because a large proportion of babies born preterm arise from pathological pregnancy. We propose that the reference population for BW charts, as in the case of EFW charts

2018 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

30. Are selection criteria for healthy pregnancies responsible for the gap between fetal growth in the French national Elfe birth cohort and the Intergrowth-21st fetal growth standards? Full Text available with Trip Pro

potential differences could be due to IG criteria for "healthy" pregnancies.We analysed data on femur length and abdominal circumference at the second and/or the third recommended ultrasound examination from 14 607 singleton pregnancies from the Elfe national birth cohort. We compared concordance of centile thresholds using the IG standards and current French references and used restricted cubic splines to plot z-scores by gestational age. A "healthy pregnancy" sub-sample was created based on maternal (...) and pregnancy selection criteria, as specified by IG.Mean gestational age-specific z-scores for femur length and abdominal circumference using French references fluctuated around 0 (-0.2 to 0.1), while those based on IG standards were higher (0.3-0.8). Using IG standards, 2.5% and 5.2% of fetuses at the third ultrasound were <10th centile for femur length and abdominal circumference, respectively, and 31.5% and 16.7% were >90th. Only 34% of pregnancies fulfilled IG low-risk criteria, but sub-analyses

2018 Paediatric and perinatal epidemiology

31. STRIDER NZAus: A multicentre randomised controlled trial of sildenafil therapy in early-onset fetal growth restriction (Abstract)

-treated [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.49, 95% CI 0.23-1.05] and had no effect on abdominal circumference Z-scores (P = 0.61). Sildenafil use was associated with a lower mean uterine artery pulsatility index after 48 hours of treatment (1.56 versus 1.81; P = 0.02). The live birth rate was 56/63 (88.9%) for sildenafil-treated and 47/59 (79.7%) for placebo-treated (adjusted OR 2.50, 95% CI 0.80-7.79); survival to hospital discharge free of major neonatal morbidity was 42/63 (66.7%) for sildenafil-treated (...) STRIDER NZAus: A multicentre randomised controlled trial of sildenafil therapy in early-onset fetal growth restriction To assess the effect of maternal sildenafil therapy on fetal growth in pregnancies with early-onset fetal growth restriction.A randomised placebo-controlled trial.Thirteen maternal-fetal medicine units across New Zealand and Australia.Women with singleton pregnancies affected by fetal growth restriction at 22+0 to 29+6 weeks.Women were randomised to oral administration of 25 mg

2019 EvidenceUpdates

32. Modulation of the Intestinal Flora With the Probiotic VIVOMIXXâ„¢ in Pregnant Women at Risk of Metabolic Complications

to the patients at each visit. Height will be assessed at Visit 1, while the following parameters will be measured at each visit: weight, waits/hip circumference ratio, arterial blood pressure, plasma hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Ht), fasting glycemia, fasting insulin and fasting glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c1). A blood sample for the evaluation of homocysteine will be taken as well as urine and a faeces sample will be collected for nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics and intestinal microbiota (...) analysis. Furthermore, an Arm-band will be positioned for monitoring sleep and physical activities for one week at each visit. At Visit 2 and 3 data regarding ultrasound examinations (Amniotic fluid index, abdominal circumference, cephalic circumference ratio) will be also collected. Two-three days after delivery (Visit 4) data regarding the delivery (mode of delivery, gestational age at delivery) as well as the newborn (Apgar score, glycemia and serum bilirubin) were collected. Moreover, a sample

2016 Clinical Trials

33. Prediction of small-for-gestational age by fetal growth rate according to gestational age. Full Text available with Trip Pro

the ultrasonographic parameters that contribute substantially to the birthweight determination.This was a retrospective study of 442 healthy pregnant women with singleton pregnancies. There were 328 adequate-for-gestational age (AGA) neonates and 114 SGA infants delivered between 37+0 and 41+6 weeks of gestation. We compared the biparietal diameters (BPD), head circumferences (HC), abdominal circumferences (AC), femur lengths (FL), and estimated fetal weights (EFW) obtained on each ultrasound to determine which (...) Prediction of small-for-gestational age by fetal growth rate according to gestational age. Small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants should be identified before birth because of an increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of fetal growth rate by gestational age on the prediction of SGA and to identify the optimal time to initiate intensive fetal monitoring to detect SGA in low-risk women. We also sought to determine which

2019 PLoS ONE

34. The effect of a maternal meal on fetal liver blood flow. Full Text available with Trip Pro

The effect of a maternal meal on fetal liver blood flow. During the third trimester of development, the human fetus accumulates fat, an important energy reservoir during the early postnatal period. The fetal liver, perfused by the nutrient-rich and well-oxygenated blood coming directly from the placenta, is assumed to play a central role in these processes. Earlier studies have linked fetal liver blood flow with maternal nutritional status and response to the maternal oral glucose tolerance (...) was 39.3 (‒83.0-156.1) ml/min (p<0.001); in contrast, we observed no statistically significant change in the overweight group (‒44.5 (‒229.0-123.2) ml/min; p = 0.073). As a substitute for liver size, we divided the delta liver flow values by abdominal circumference and found no changes in the statistical significance results within or between the two weight groups.In our healthy study population, we observed a statistically significant difference in liver blood flow after maternal intake of a regular

2019 PLoS ONE

35. A Comparison of Methods for the Diagnosis of Fetal Growth Restriction Between the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (Abstract)

A Comparison of Methods for the Diagnosis of Fetal Growth Restriction Between the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) defines fetal growth restriction as ultrasound-estimated fetal weight less than the 10th percentile or abdominal circumference less than the 10th percentile; the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) defines fetal growth (...) 30 days of delivery. Estimated fetal weights and percentiles were calculated using the Hadlock intrauterine growth curve. Small for gestational age was defined as birth weight less than the 10th percentile based on a recent, sex-specific curve. We calculated the area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios for various approaches using abdominal circumference and estimated fetal weight to diagnose fetal growth restriction, including the definitions

2018 EvidenceUpdates

36. A maternal "mixed, high sugar" dietary pattern is associated with fetal growth. Full Text available with Trip Pro

pattern score, baseline BMI (kg/m2 ), and GWG (kg/week) and the following fetal growth outcomes: (a) biparietal diameter (cm), (b) head circumference (cm), (c) abdominal circumference (cm), and (d) femur length (cm). In the pooled LMM, a +1 standard deviation (SD) increase in the mixed, high sugar dietary pattern score was associated with higher biparietal diameter (0.03 cm/+1 SD; p = .007), head circumference (0.07 cm/+1 SD; p = .026), abdominal circumference (0.08 cm/+1 SD; p = .038), and femur (...) length (0.02 cm/+1 SD; p = .015). Although these associations were independent of maternal BMI and GWG, higher baseline BMI was independently and positively associated with abdominal circumference (0.03 cm/+1 kg/m2 ; p = .011) and femur length (0.01 cm/+1 kg/m2 ; p = .007) and 1 kg/week greater GWG was associated with a 0.82 cm increase in abdominal circumference (p = .007). In urban African settings, where preconception maternal obesity prevalence is high and processed, high sugar diets are common

2020 Maternal & child nutrition

37. The World Health Organization Fetal Growth Charts: A Multinational Longitudinal Study of Ultrasound Biometric Measurements and Estimated Fetal Weight. Full Text available with Trip Pro

, even after adjusting for gestational age. Thirty-one women had a miscarriage, and three fetuses had intrauterine death. The 8,203 sets of ultrasound measurements were scrutinized for outliers and leverage points, and those measurements taken at 14 to 40 wk were selected for analysis. A total of 7,924 sets of ultrasound measurements were analyzed by quantile regression to establish longitudinal reference intervals for fetal head circumference, biparietal diameter, humerus length, abdominal (...) The World Health Organization Fetal Growth Charts: A Multinational Longitudinal Study of Ultrasound Biometric Measurements and Estimated Fetal Weight. Perinatal mortality and morbidity continue to be major global health challenges strongly associated with prematurity and reduced fetal growth, an issue of further interest given the mounting evidence that fetal growth in general is linked to degrees of risk of common noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. Against this background, WHO made

2017 PLoS medicine

38. Association of Maternal Obesity With Longitudinal Ultrasonographic Measures of Fetal Growth: Findings From the NICHD Fetal Growth Studies-Singletons. Full Text available with Trip Pro

-dimensional ultrasonograms to capture weekly fetal growth data throughout the remainder of their pregnancies.On each ultrasonogram, fetal humerus length, femur length, biparietal diameter, head circumference, and abdominal circumference were measured. Fetal growth curves were estimated using linear mixed models with cubic splines. Median differences in the fetal measures at each gestational week of the obese and nonobese participants were examined using the likelihood ratio and Wald tests after adjustment (...) 70.2 mm; P = .01; median humerus length, 62.2 vs 61.6 mm; P = .03). Averaged across gestation, head circumference was significantly larger in fetuses of obese women than those of nonobese women (P = .02). Fetal abdominal circumference was not greater in the obese cohort than in the nonobese cohort but was significantly larger than in fetuses of normal-weight women (with body mass indexes between 19.0-24.9) commencing at 32 weeks (median, 282.1 vs 280.2 mm; P = .04). Starting from 30 weeks

2017 JAMA pediatrics

39. Fetal growth standards: the NICHD fetal growth study approach in context with INTERGROWTH-21st and the World Health Organization Multicentre Growth Reference Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

a pooled reference, although they evaluated for and presented country differences, along with discussion of the implications. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study was designed to assess whether racial/ethnic-specific fetal growth standards were needed, in recognition of the fact that fetal size is commonly estimated from dimensions (head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length) in which there are known differences in children (...) for the best physiological growth for children aged 0-5 years. INTERGROWTH made the same assumption (ie, that there would be no differences internationally among countries or racial/ethnic groups in fetal growth when conditions were optimal). INTERGROWTH found differences in crown-rump length and head circumference among countries but interpreted the differences as not meaningful and presented a pooled standard. The World Health Organization Multicentre Growth Reference Study was designed to create

2017 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

40. A revisit of the fetal foot length and fetal measurements in early pregnancy sonography Full Text available with Trip Pro

A revisit of the fetal foot length and fetal measurements in early pregnancy sonography To present the fetal measurements in relation to the foot length at 10-16 weeks gestation on antenatal ultrasound.We reviewed the fetal measurements in 47 scans performed at 10-16 weeks gestation in women attending routine antenatal care. The fetal measurements and measurement ratios were examined in relation to the foot length.The fetal biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, femur (...) length and foot length increase linearly with the gestational age at 10-16 weeks gestation. The correlation between fetal foot length and fetal biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference and femur length are better than with the crown rump length. The femur length to foot length ratio and the femur length to abdominal circumference ratios increase with the gestational age in an inverse relationship throughout the same period.Fetal foot length is an accurate estimate

2017 International journal of women's health

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