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Fetal Abdominal Circumference

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201. Estimation of Fetal Weight (Diagnosis)

and the gestational age of the newborns (especially those with very low or extremely low birth weight). [ ] Successfully and accurately classifying fetuses in each of these three broad categories before delivery can help in predicting and possibly avoiding neonatal complications in underweight newborns. Fetal macrosomia The term fetal macrosomia denotes a fetus that is too large (see the image below). Photograph of a macrosomic newborn soon after birth. In ideal usage, this designation should be referenced (...) Herrero et al, 1999 9.5; 61 NA; NA 9.5; 62 Hendrix et al, 2000 10.6; 58 16.5; 32 NA; NA Dar et al, 2000 8.5; 61 5.9; 83 NA; NA Nahum et al, 2002 9.9; 51 8.3; 71 11.5; 55 Total 7.2-10.6; 51-73 5.9-16.5; 32-83 8.7-11.5; 55-70 * Sonographic prediction algorithms used to estimate fetal weight were those of Shepard, [ ] Hadlock, [ , ] Sabbagha, [ ] and Warsof, [ , ] in addition to the best of 8 algorithms based on various combinations of abdominal circumference (AC), femoral length (FL), biparietal

2014 eMedicine.com

202. Fetal Growth Restriction (Diagnosis)

measurements and individual parameters. Assessing individual values is important to identify a fetus that is growing asymmetrically. In the presence of normal head and femur measurements, abdominal circumference (AC) measurements of less than 2 standard deviations below the mean appear to be a reasonable cutoff to consider a fetus asymmetric. Baschat and Weiner showed that a low AC percentile had the highest sensitivity (98.1%) for diagnosing IUGR (birth weight < 10th percentile). The sensitivity of EFW (...) . Fetal Diagn Ther . 2000 Jan-Feb. 15(1):8-19. . Gardosi J, Mul T, Mongelli M, Fagan D. Analysis of birthweight and gestational age in antepartum stillbirths. Br J Obstet Gynaecol . 1998 May. 105(5):524-30. . Campbell S, Thoms A. Ultrasound measurement of the fetal head to abdomen circumference ratio in the assessment of growth retardation. Br J Obstet Gynaecol . 1977 Mar. 84(3):165-74. . Dashe JS, McIntire DD, Lucas MJ, Leveno KJ. Effects of symmetric and asymmetric fetal growth on pregnancy outcomes

2014 eMedicine.com

203. Abdominal Hernias (Diagnosis)

-Danlos syndrome), should be considered as possibilities in children with large umbilical hernias. Richter hernia A Richter hernia occurs when only the antimesenteric border of the bowel herniates through the fascial defect. This hernia involves only a portion of the circumference of the bowel. Thus, the bowel may not be obstructed, even if the hernia is incarcerated or strangulated, and the patient may not present with vomiting. A Richter hernia can occur with any of the abdominal hernias (...) hernia - Bulge in the inguinal region or scrotum, sometimes intermittent; may be accompanied by a dull ache or burning pain, which often worsens with exercise or straining (eg, coughing) Spigelian hernia - Local pain and signs of obstruction from incarceration; pain increases with contraction of the abdominal musculature Interparietal hernia - Similar to spigelian hernia; occurs most frequently in previous incisions Internal supravesical hernias - Symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) obstruction

2014 eMedicine Surgery

204. Abdominal Hernias (Overview)

-Danlos syndrome), should be considered as possibilities in children with large umbilical hernias. Richter hernia A Richter hernia occurs when only the antimesenteric border of the bowel herniates through the fascial defect. This hernia involves only a portion of the circumference of the bowel. Thus, the bowel may not be obstructed, even if the hernia is incarcerated or strangulated, and the patient may not present with vomiting. A Richter hernia can occur with any of the abdominal hernias (...) hernia - Bulge in the inguinal region or scrotum, sometimes intermittent; may be accompanied by a dull ache or burning pain, which often worsens with exercise or straining (eg, coughing) Spigelian hernia - Local pain and signs of obstruction from incarceration; pain increases with contraction of the abdominal musculature Interparietal hernia - Similar to spigelian hernia; occurs most frequently in previous incisions Internal supravesical hernias - Symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) obstruction

2014 eMedicine Surgery

205. The use of ultrasound measurements in environmental epidemiological studies of air pollution and fetal growth Full Text available with Trip Pro

by ultrasound measurements.The six studies published to date found that exposure to certain ambient air pollutants during pregnancy is negatively associated with the growth rates and average attained size of fetal parameters belonging to the growth profile. Fetal parameters may respond to maternal air pollution exposures uniquely, and this response may vary by pollutant and timing of gestational exposure. Current literature suggests that mean changes in head circumference, abdominal circumference, femur (...) The use of ultrasound measurements in environmental epidemiological studies of air pollution and fetal growth Recently, several international research groups have suggested that studies about environmental contaminants and adverse pregnancy outcomes should be designed to elucidate potential underlying biological mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to examine the epidemiological studies addressing maternal exposure to air pollutants and fetal growth during gestation as assessed

2013 Current Opinion in Pediatrics

206. Evaluation of fetal anthropometric measures to predict the risk for shoulder dystocia. (Abstract)

, biparietal diameter (BPD), occipitofrontal diameter (OFD), head circumference, abdominal diameter (AD), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length were analyzed. The influences of independent risk factors were calculated and their combination used in a predictive model.The incidence of shoulder dystocia was 1.14%. Different combinations of sonographic parameters showed comparable ROC curves without advantage for a particular combination. The difference between AD and BPD (AD - BPD) (area under (...) Evaluation of fetal anthropometric measures to predict the risk for shoulder dystocia. To evaluate the quality of anthropometric measures to improve the prediction of shoulder dystocia by combining different sonographic biometric parameters.This was a retrospective cohort study of 12,794 vaginal deliveries with complete sonographic biometry data obtained within 7 days before delivery. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves of various combinations of the biometric parameters, namely

2013 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

207. Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Fetal Biometry: The INMA Mother and Child Cohort Study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

that was established between 2003 and 2008. Biparietal diameter, femur length, abdominal circumference, and estimated fetal weight were evaluated at 12, 20, and 34 weeks of gestation. Fetal size and growth were assessed by standard deviation scores adjusted by maternal and fetal characteristics. Maternal smoking was assessed using questionnaire and a sample of urinary cotinine at week 32 of gestation. Associations were estimated using multiple regression analysis. Smokers at week 12 of gestation showed decreased (...) fetal growth as reflected by all growth parameters at 20-34 weeks, leading to a reduced fetal size at week 34. The reduction was greatest in femur length, at -9.4% (95% confidence interval -13.4, -5.4) and least in abdominal circumference, at -4.4% (95% CI: -8.7, -0.1). Fetuses of smokers who quit smoking before week 12 showed reduced growth only in femur length (-5.5; 95% CI: -10.1, -0.9). Dose-response curves for smoking versus fetal growth parameters (abscissa: log2 cotinine) were linear

2013 American Journal of Epidemiology

208. Longitudinal measurement of fetal thigh soft tissue parameters and its role in the prediction of birth weight. (Abstract)

abdominal circumference, femur length, biparietal diameter, and head circumference.The fetal abdominal subcutaneous tissue (FAST) and thigh muscle and fat show an increase with gestation. At 28 weeks gestation, the abdominal circumference, thigh fat, FAST, and EFW percentile were found to be significant predictors of BW. A combination of EFW percentile and thigh fat were found to be the optimal multivariate model at 28 weeks for predicting BW. At 37 weeks, BW prediction using EFW percentile, FAST (...) Longitudinal measurement of fetal thigh soft tissue parameters and its role in the prediction of birth weight. The aim of this study was to profile longitudinal changes in thigh muscle and fat with gestation and to determine whether thigh measurements can improve the prediction of birth weight (BW).A prospective longitudinal study of subcutaneous soft tissue measurements was conducted in 328 singleton fetuses at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Estimated fetal weight (EFW) was calculated using

2013 Prenatal diagnosis

209. Fetal isolated short femur in the second trimester and adverse pregnancy outcomes. (Abstract)

from the earliest scan of singleton pregnancies was selected. An ISF was defined as a FL less than the tenth percentile in a fetus with an abdominal circumference greater than or equal to the tenth percentile. The primary outcomes were small for gestational age (SGA), birth weight below the third and fifth percentiles, low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB) and preeclampsia (PE). A 5-min Apgar score of less than 7 and a neonatal intensive care unit admission were secondary outcomes.Of the 4992 (...) Fetal isolated short femur in the second trimester and adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study aims to evaluate the association of isolated short femur (ISF) in the second trimester ultrasound with adverse pregnancy outcomes.All obstetric scans between 16 and 24 weeks of gestation from 1 January 2006 to 1 June 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. Multiple pregnancies, major congenital or chromosomal anomalies and subjects with incomplete outcome data were excluded. Femur length (FL) measurement

2013 Prenatal diagnosis

210. Fetal biometry: how well can offline measurements from 3D volumes substitute real time 2D measurements? (Abstract)

measurements was similar to that for 2D measurements. Planes from some volumes could not be extracted (7% for head circumference, 9% for abdominal circumference and 11% for femur length). The median time required to perform a full fetal biometric scan was significantly higher for 3D than for 2D (3:04 min vs 1:57 min, respectively; P < 0.001).Fetal measurements derived from 3D volume acquisitions exhibited good agreement with those obtained by real-time 2D scanning, with no extra systematic or random error (...) Fetal biometry: how well can offline measurements from 3D volumes substitute real time 2D measurements? To assess the feasibility, accuracy and reproducibility of manipulating three-dimensional (3D) volume sets in order to reconstruct optimal two-dimensional (2D) planes for fetal biometry throughout gestation and compare them with those derived from real-time 2D scanning.Sixty-five fetuses were evaluated at a gestational age of 14-41 weeks. For each fetus a duplicate set of seven standard fetal

2013 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

211. Does 17-α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate affect fetal biometry and birth weight in twin pregnancy? (Abstract)

been previously included in a randomized clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of 17-OHPC and placebo on neonatal outcomes and preterm birth rates in multiple pregnancy. In the present study, the individual growth patterns of femur length, head circumference and abdominal circumference were compared between fetuses of women who had been randomized to receive weekly injections of either 17-OHPC (n = 52) or placebo (n = 58) at between 16-20 and 36 weeks' gestation.The three biometric variables (...) Does 17-α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate affect fetal biometry and birth weight in twin pregnancy? Increasingly, maternal administration of 17-α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC) is utilized to prevent preterm birth, but the fetal safety of 17-OHPC is still a matter of concern. This study aimed to assess whether exposure to 17-OHPC during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy affects fetal biometry in twin gestations.This study included a subset of women with a twin pregnancy who had

2013 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

212. Fetal Macrosomia

Macrosomia , Large for Gestational Age From Related Chapters II. Definition Macrosomia Fetal weight 4500 grams (ranges from 4000-5000 grams) Large for Gestational Age Birth weight above 90th percentile III. Risk Factors: Macrosomia Maternal or Multiparity Prior history of macrosomic infant Post-Dates Gestation Maternal or excessive weight gain Male fetus Parental stature tic disorders Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome Sotos Syndrome IV. Pathophysiology Overgrowth Hallmark of No concurrent vascular disease (...) ( ) Error in weight estimation: 300 grams More accurate than estimate Estimate altered by physiologic characteristics Amniotic fluid volume and configuration Mother's body habitus Error in weight estimation: 300 to 550 grams Estimated fetal weight and Abdominal circumference Correlates 88% with diagnosis of macrosomia VII. Efficacy: Fetal Macrosomia prediction and prevention Methods proven ineffective at complication prevention Elective Analysis based on permanent C/S for EFW 4500g prevents 1 case/3700

2015 FP Notebook

213. Fetal Femur Length

Femur Length II. Technique Start with transducer at abdominal circumference Move transducer inferiorly to transect Rotate transducer 30 degrees to view femur Exclude distal femoral epiphyses present after 32 weeks Tibia is at times mistaken for femur III. Images Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Fetal Femur Length." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related (...) Fetal Femur Length Fetal Femur Length Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Fetal Femur Length Fetal Femur Length Aka: Fetal

2015 FP Notebook

214. Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Fetal Growth Restriction

-Probability Sample Study Population Pregnant patients admitted for fetal growth restriction (cases) and normal patients in labor at term (controls). Criteria Inclusion Criteria: Gestational age between 24-34 weeks. Ultrasonographic evidence of fetal growth restriction Abdominal circumference < 3rd percentile. Doppler with increase of placental resistance. Exclusion Criteria: Known antiphospholipid syndrome. Known presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Contacts (...) Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Fetal Growth Restriction Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Fetal Growth Restriction - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Fetal Growth

2012 Clinical Trials

215. Defining the spatial relationships between eight anatomic planes in the 11+6 to 13+6 weeks fetus: a pilot study. (Abstract)

of the transverse abdominal circumference plane. Parallel shift was utilized and the spatial relationships between eight anatomic planes were established. The median and the range were calculated for each of the planes, and they were evaluated as a function of the fetal crown-rump length. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.A total of 63 volume data sets were analyzed. The eight anatomic planes were found to adhere to normal distribution curves, and most of the planes were in a definable (...) relationship to each other with statistically significant correlations.To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe the possible spatial relationships between eight two-dimensional anatomic planes in the 11+6 to 13+6 weeks fetus, utilizing a standardized approach. Defining these spatial relationships may serve as the first step for the potential future development of automation software for fetal anatomic assessment at 11+6 to 13+6 weeks.© 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

2012 Prenatal diagnosis

216. Longitudinal reference ranges for fetal ultrasound biometry in twin pregnancies Full Text available with Trip Pro

scans were performed every three weeks, and biparietal and occipitofrontal diameters, head and abdominal circumferences, and femur diaphysis length measurements were obtained for each fetus at each visit. Estimated fetal weight, biparietal/occipitofrontal diameter, head circumference/abdominal circumference, and femur diaphysis length/abdominal circumference ratios were also calculated. Multilevel regression analysis was performed on normalized data.A total of 807 ultrasound examinations were (...) (r = -0.11), head/abdomen circumference ratio (r = -0.56), and log of the femur length/abdominal circumference ratio (r = 0.61). Values corresponding to the 10(th), 50(th), and 90(th) percentiles for estimated fetal weight at 28, 32, and 36 weeks, respectively, were as follows: 937, 1,096, 1,284 g; 1,462, 1,720, 2,025 g; and 2,020, 2,399, 2,849 g.In twin pregnancies, fetal ultrasound biometry measurements and growth parameters show a significant correlation with gestational age.

2012 Clinics

217. Fetal growth and birth size is associated with maternal anthropometry and body composition. (Abstract)

was calculated. Sonographic measurements of the fetus were made at 15, 25 and 35 weeks gestation. Weight, crown-heel length and head circumference were measured at birth. Analyses were confined to 360 (85%) women; 65 women did not complete the study. Maternal height was positively associated with femoral length at 25 and 35 weeks gestation and with head circumference at 35 weeks (all P < 0.02). Maternal weight was positively associated with abdominal circumference and femoral length at 25 weeks (...) , and with larger head and abdominal circumference and longer femur at 35 weeks (all P < 0.02). Maternal lean mass had similar associations to maternal weight and they were both positively associated with estimated fetal weight (all P < 0.02). All three maternal measurements were positively associated with birthweight, length and head circumference. Maternal size was associated with fetal size as early as 25 weeks gestation, with height strongly associated with femoral length, and with weight and lean mass

2012 Maternal & child nutrition

218. Fetoplacental biometry and umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry in the overnourished adolescent model of fetal growth restriction. (Abstract)

overnourished (n = 27) or control-fed (n = 15) and were scanned at weekly intervals from 83-126 days' gestation and necropsied at 131 days' gestation (term = 145 days).Ultrasonographic placental measurements were reduced and UA Doppler indices were increased from 83 days' gestation; measurements of fetal abdominal circumference and femur length, renal volume and tibia length, and biparietal diameter were reduced from 98, 105, and 112 days' gestation, respectively, in overnourished vs control-intake (...) Fetoplacental biometry and umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry in the overnourished adolescent model of fetal growth restriction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate ultrasonographically fetal growth trajectories, placental biometry, and umbilical artery (UA) Doppler indices in growth-restricted pregnancies of overnourished adolescent ewes and normally developing pregnancies of control-fed ewes.Singleton pregnancies were established using embryo transfer in 42 adolescent ewes that were

2012 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

219. Fetal growth profiles of macrosomic and non-macrosomic infants of women with pregestational or gestational diabetes. (Abstract)

women with DM2 and in 99 women with GDM. Altogether 897 ultrasound examinations were performed and 145 uncomplicated pregnancies with 843 ultrasound examinations were included as controls. Ultrasound data included head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL) and HC/AC ratio.The AC, but not HC and FL, evolved differently in diabetic pregnancies, with a smaller AC in early pregnancy and larger AC at term (significant for DM1 and DM2). The most striking differences were (...) Fetal growth profiles of macrosomic and non-macrosomic infants of women with pregestational or gestational diabetes. To assess fetal growth profiles in an unselected group of pregnant women with either type-1 diabetes (DM1), type-2 diabetes (DM2) or gestational diabetes (GDM), with emphasis on intergroup differences and development of disproportionate fetal growth and macrosomia.Second- and third-trimester longitudinal ultrasound measurements of fetal growth were made in 77 women with DM1, 68

2012 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

220. Intra- and interobserver variability in fetal ultrasound measurements. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Intra- and interobserver variability in fetal ultrasound measurements. To assess intra- and interobserver variability of fetal biometry measurements throughout pregnancy.A total of 175 scans (of 140 fetuses) were prospectively performed at 14-41 weeks of gestation ensuring an even distribution throughout gestation. From among three experienced sonographers, a pair of observers independently acquired a duplicate set of seven standard measurements for each fetus. Differences between and within (...) gestation. When expressed as a percentage or Z-score, the 95% limits of agreement for intraobserver difference for head circumference (HC) were ± 3.0% or 0.67; they were ± 5.3% or 0.90 and ± 6.6% or 0.94 for abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL), respectively. The corresponding values for interobserver differences were ± 4.9% or 0.99 for HC, ± 8.8% or 1.35 for AC and ± 11.1% or 1.43 for FL.Although intra- and interobserver variability increases with advancing gestation when expressed

2012 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

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