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Fetal Abdominal Circumference

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181. Abdominal Hernias (Overview)

by the rectus sheath. Proof that umbilical hernias persist from childhood to present in adulthood is only hinted at by an increased incidence among black Americans. Multiparity, increased abdominal pressure, and a single midline decussation are associated with umbilical hernias. Congenital hypothyroidism, fetal hydantoin syndrome, Freeman-Sheldon syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, and disorders of collagen and polysaccharide metabolism (such as Hunter-Hurler syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, and Ehlers (...) -Danlos syndrome), should be considered as possibilities in children with large umbilical hernias. Richter hernia A Richter hernia occurs when only the antimesenteric border of the bowel herniates through the fascial defect. This hernia involves only a portion of the circumference of the bowel. Thus, the bowel may not be obstructed, even if the hernia is incarcerated or strangulated, and the patient may not present with vomiting. A Richter hernia can occur with any of the abdominal hernias

2014 eMedicine Surgery

182. Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Fetal Biometry: The INMA Mother and Child Cohort Study. (PubMed)

that was established between 2003 and 2008. Biparietal diameter, femur length, abdominal circumference, and estimated fetal weight were evaluated at 12, 20, and 34 weeks of gestation. Fetal size and growth were assessed by standard deviation scores adjusted by maternal and fetal characteristics. Maternal smoking was assessed using questionnaire and a sample of urinary cotinine at week 32 of gestation. Associations were estimated using multiple regression analysis. Smokers at week 12 of gestation showed decreased (...) fetal growth as reflected by all growth parameters at 20-34 weeks, leading to a reduced fetal size at week 34. The reduction was greatest in femur length, at -9.4% (95% confidence interval -13.4, -5.4) and least in abdominal circumference, at -4.4% (95% CI: -8.7, -0.1). Fetuses of smokers who quit smoking before week 12 showed reduced growth only in femur length (-5.5; 95% CI: -10.1, -0.9). Dose-response curves for smoking versus fetal growth parameters (abscissa: log2 cotinine) were linear

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2013 American Journal of Epidemiology

183. Does 17-α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate affect fetal biometry and birth weight in twin pregnancy? (PubMed)

been previously included in a randomized clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of 17-OHPC and placebo on neonatal outcomes and preterm birth rates in multiple pregnancy. In the present study, the individual growth patterns of femur length, head circumference and abdominal circumference were compared between fetuses of women who had been randomized to receive weekly injections of either 17-OHPC (n = 52) or placebo (n = 58) at between 16-20 and 36 weeks' gestation.The three biometric variables (...) Does 17-α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate affect fetal biometry and birth weight in twin pregnancy? Increasingly, maternal administration of 17-α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC) is utilized to prevent preterm birth, but the fetal safety of 17-OHPC is still a matter of concern. This study aimed to assess whether exposure to 17-OHPC during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy affects fetal biometry in twin gestations.This study included a subset of women with a twin pregnancy who had

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2013 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

184. Evaluation of fetal anthropometric measures to predict the risk for shoulder dystocia. (PubMed)

, biparietal diameter (BPD), occipitofrontal diameter (OFD), head circumference, abdominal diameter (AD), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length were analyzed. The influences of independent risk factors were calculated and their combination used in a predictive model.The incidence of shoulder dystocia was 1.14%. Different combinations of sonographic parameters showed comparable ROC curves without advantage for a particular combination. The difference between AD and BPD (AD - BPD) (area under (...) Evaluation of fetal anthropometric measures to predict the risk for shoulder dystocia. To evaluate the quality of anthropometric measures to improve the prediction of shoulder dystocia by combining different sonographic biometric parameters.This was a retrospective cohort study of 12,794 vaginal deliveries with complete sonographic biometry data obtained within 7 days before delivery. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves of various combinations of the biometric parameters, namely

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2013 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

185. Fetal biometry: how well can offline measurements from 3D volumes substitute real time 2D measurements? (PubMed)

measurements was similar to that for 2D measurements. Planes from some volumes could not be extracted (7% for head circumference, 9% for abdominal circumference and 11% for femur length). The median time required to perform a full fetal biometric scan was significantly higher for 3D than for 2D (3:04 min vs 1:57 min, respectively; P < 0.001).Fetal measurements derived from 3D volume acquisitions exhibited good agreement with those obtained by real-time 2D scanning, with no extra systematic or random error (...) Fetal biometry: how well can offline measurements from 3D volumes substitute real time 2D measurements? To assess the feasibility, accuracy and reproducibility of manipulating three-dimensional (3D) volume sets in order to reconstruct optimal two-dimensional (2D) planes for fetal biometry throughout gestation and compare them with those derived from real-time 2D scanning.Sixty-five fetuses were evaluated at a gestational age of 14-41 weeks. For each fetus a duplicate set of seven standard fetal

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2013 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

186. The use of ultrasound measurements in environmental epidemiological studies of air pollution and fetal growth (PubMed)

by ultrasound measurements.The six studies published to date found that exposure to certain ambient air pollutants during pregnancy is negatively associated with the growth rates and average attained size of fetal parameters belonging to the growth profile. Fetal parameters may respond to maternal air pollution exposures uniquely, and this response may vary by pollutant and timing of gestational exposure. Current literature suggests that mean changes in head circumference, abdominal circumference, femur (...) The use of ultrasound measurements in environmental epidemiological studies of air pollution and fetal growth Recently, several international research groups have suggested that studies about environmental contaminants and adverse pregnancy outcomes should be designed to elucidate potential underlying biological mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to examine the epidemiological studies addressing maternal exposure to air pollutants and fetal growth during gestation as assessed

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2013 Current Opinion in Pediatrics

187. Assessment of Antepartum Fetal Growth by Customized “GROW” Curves Versus Noncustomized Growth Curves in Correlation with Neonatal Growth Pattern (PubMed)

Assessment of Antepartum Fetal Growth by Customized “GROW” Curves Versus Noncustomized Growth Curves in Correlation with Neonatal Growth Pattern To study the antepartum fetal growth between customized "GROW" curves and noncustomized growth curves with neonatal growth pattern.Fetal growth scans are performed between 30 and 35 weeks to singleton mother. Estimated fetal weights (EFWs) were determined using ultrasound variables (biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference (...) , and femur length). This EFW is plotted on SONOCARE software [noncustomized growth curves developed by Medialogic solutions (P) Ltd., Chennai, India] and customized "GROW" curves to determine the type of antenatal fetal growth as AGA, small for gestational age (SGA), or large for gestational age (LGA). The fetuses were followed longitudinally till birth, and the newborns' growth patterns were determined according to birth weight at the gestational age of delivery (<10th percentile for gestational age

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2014 Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology of India

188. Reference charts for fetal biometric parameters in twin pregnancies according to chorionicity. (PubMed)

), abdominal circumference (AC), femurs length (FL) and estimated fetal weight (EFW). To evaluate the correlation between biometric parameters and gestational age, polynomial regression models were created, with adjustments using the coefficient of determination (R(2) ). Comparison between monochorionic and dichorionic pregnancies was performed using analysis of covariance.The mean BPD, AC, FL and EFW for the dichorionic pregnancies were 56.16 mm, 191.1 mm, 41.08 mm and 816.1 g, respectively. The mean BPD (...) Reference charts for fetal biometric parameters in twin pregnancies according to chorionicity. The objective of this article is to determine reference values for fetal biometric parameters in twin pregnancies and to compare these values between monochorionic and dichorionic pregnancies.A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among 157 monochorionic and 176 dichorionic twin pregnancies between 14 and 38 weeks of gestation. Biometric measurements included the biparietal diameter (BPD

2014 Prenatal diagnosis

189. Predictive value of fetal lung volume in prenatally diagnosed skeletal dysplasia. (PubMed)

diagnosis of skeletal dysplasia for which fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed between 21 and 38 weeks of gestation and ultrasound biometry data were available. Femur length to abdominal circumference ratio (FL/AC) and O/E lung volumes were calculated. The association between O/E lung volume, FL/AC, and lethality was measured using logistic regression.Lethality was significantly associated with O/E lung volume (p = 0.002) and FL/AC (p = 0.0476). Analysis with receiver-operating (...) Predictive value of fetal lung volume in prenatally diagnosed skeletal dysplasia. Pulmonary hypoplasia is a major cause of death in lethal skeletal dysplasias. We hypothesize that in fetuses with prenatally diagnosed skeletal dysplasia, comparison of observed-to-expected (O/E) lung volume will help predict lethality.We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients referred for evaluation of suspected fetal skeletal anomalies. Twenty-three pregnancies were identified with confirmed fetal

2014 Prenatal diagnosis

190. Fetal biometry in the Korean population: reference charts and comparison with charts from other populations. (PubMed)

Fetal biometry in the Korean population: reference charts and comparison with charts from other populations. The objectives of this article were to construct size charts for fetal biometry in the Korean population and to identify ethnic differences in fetal biometry.A prospective, cross-sectional study was performed with 986 fetuses between 15 to 40 weeks of gestation. The following biometric variables were measured: biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (...) (AC), and long bones lengths including the femur, tibia, humerus, and ulna. For each measurement, regression models were fitted to estimate the mean and standard deviation at each gestational age. The calculated centiles were compared with centiles from other populations using Z-scores.New charts for the Korean population were presented for the fetal biometric variables. Most of the parameters were similar to those for the Italian population. Also, in comparison with the North American and UK

2014 Prenatal diagnosis

191. Fetal subcutaneous tissue measurements in pregnancy as a predictor of neonatal total body composition. (PubMed)

then correlated with neonatal body composition, which was analysed using the PEAPOD™ Infant Body Composition System (Cosmed USA, Concord, CA, USA).At 38 weeks gestation, fetal abdominal subcutaneous tissue (FAST) in millimetres was significantly associated with infant fat mass at delivery (+64 g per mm of FAST, p < 0.001). Thigh fat (TF) at 28 weeks gestation was associated with infant fat mass at delivery (+79 g/mm TF, p = 0.023). TF at 38 weeks gestation was associated with infant fat mass (+63/mm TF, p (...)  = 0.004). TF and FAST at 38 weeks were also predictive of both birth weight and increased abdominal circumference (AC) (p = 0.001) with FAST measurement predicting an additional 5.7 mm in AC per millimetre of FAST (p = 0.002) and TF predicting an additional 6.9 mm per mm of TF (p = 0.002).We believe that this study further validates the use of prenatal measures of subcutaneous tissue and may help to highlight fetuses at risk of newborn adiposity and metabolic syndrome.© 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

2014 Prenatal diagnosis

192. Second-trimester prediction of delivery of a small-for-gestational-age neonate: integrating sequential Doppler information, fetal biometry, and maternal characteristics. (PubMed)

, and low abdominal circumference (AC) z-score were independent predictors of SGA. No difference was found in the magnitude of ΔUtA-PI and ΔUA-PI between SGA and no-SGA. Receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis yielded an area under the curve of 0.700 for AC z-score. The combination of low AC and bilateral notching had high specificity (99%) but low sensitivity (7%) for SGA prediction.A small second-trimester fetal AC is a specific marker for SGA when found with bilateral UtA notching. Only (...) Second-trimester prediction of delivery of a small-for-gestational-age neonate: integrating sequential Doppler information, fetal biometry, and maternal characteristics. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive accuracy of second-trimester ultrasound parameters, maternal characteristics, and sequential Doppler changes between first and second trimesters for the prediction of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants (birth weight < 10th percentile).We conducted a prospective study

2014 Prenatal diagnosis

193. Sildenafil Citrate Rescues Fetal Growth in the Catechol-O-Methyl Transferase Knockout Mouse Model. (PubMed)

with preeclampsia. The ability of sildenafil citrate to increase uterine artery vasodilation, thereby decreasing uterine artery resistance and, hence, ameliorated preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction, was tested in a mouse model of preeclampsia, the catechol-O-methyl transferase knockout mouse (COMT(-/-)). COMT(-/-) and C57BL/6J mice were treated (0.2 mg/mL in drinking water, n=6-12) from gestational day 12.5 to 18.5. Measures of pup growth, including body weight, crown/rump length, and abdominal (...) Sildenafil Citrate Rescues Fetal Growth in the Catechol-O-Methyl Transferase Knockout Mouse Model. Preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction are responsible for the majority of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with complicated pregnancies. Although their etiologies are complex and multifactorial, both are associated with increased uterine artery resistance. Sildenafil citrate is able to rescue the dysfunction observed ex vivo in uterine arteries of women

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2012 Hypertension

194. Fetal and Infant Growth and Asthma Symptoms in Preschool Children. The Generation R Study. (PubMed)

, abdominal circumference, and weight) were estimated by repeated ultrasounds. Infant growth (head circumference, length, and weight) was measured at birth and at the ages of 3, 6, and 12 months. Parental report of asthma symptoms until the age of 4 years was yearly obtained by questionnaires.Both fetal restricted and accelerated growth, defined as a negative or positive change of more than 0.67 standard deviation score, were not associated with asthma symptoms until the age of 4 years. Accelerated weight (...) Fetal and Infant Growth and Asthma Symptoms in Preschool Children. The Generation R Study. Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of wheezing in childhood.We examined the associations of longitudinally measured fetal and infant growth patterns with the risks of asthma symptoms in preschool children.This study was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort study among 5,125 children. Second- and third-trimester fetal growth characteristics (head circumference, femur length

2012 American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine

195. Fetal growth profiles of macrosomic and non-macrosomic infants of women with pregestational or gestational diabetes. (PubMed)

women with DM2 and in 99 women with GDM. Altogether 897 ultrasound examinations were performed and 145 uncomplicated pregnancies with 843 ultrasound examinations were included as controls. Ultrasound data included head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL) and HC/AC ratio.The AC, but not HC and FL, evolved differently in diabetic pregnancies, with a smaller AC in early pregnancy and larger AC at term (significant for DM1 and DM2). The most striking differences were (...) Fetal growth profiles of macrosomic and non-macrosomic infants of women with pregestational or gestational diabetes. To assess fetal growth profiles in an unselected group of pregnant women with either type-1 diabetes (DM1), type-2 diabetes (DM2) or gestational diabetes (GDM), with emphasis on intergroup differences and development of disproportionate fetal growth and macrosomia.Second- and third-trimester longitudinal ultrasound measurements of fetal growth were made in 77 women with DM1, 68

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2012 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

196. Intra- and interobserver variability in fetal ultrasound measurements. (PubMed)

gestation. When expressed as a percentage or Z-score, the 95% limits of agreement for intraobserver difference for head circumference (HC) were ± 3.0% or 0.67; they were ± 5.3% or 0.90 and ± 6.6% or 0.94 for abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL), respectively. The corresponding values for interobserver differences were ± 4.9% or 0.99 for HC, ± 8.8% or 1.35 for AC and ± 11.1% or 1.43 for FL.Although intra- and interobserver variability increases with advancing gestation when expressed (...) Intra- and interobserver variability in fetal ultrasound measurements. To assess intra- and interobserver variability of fetal biometry measurements throughout pregnancy.A total of 175 scans (of 140 fetuses) were prospectively performed at 14-41 weeks of gestation ensuring an even distribution throughout gestation. From among three experienced sonographers, a pair of observers independently acquired a duplicate set of seven standard measurements for each fetus. Differences between and within

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2012 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

197. Fetoplacental biometry and umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry in the overnourished adolescent model of fetal growth restriction. (PubMed)

overnourished (n = 27) or control-fed (n = 15) and were scanned at weekly intervals from 83-126 days' gestation and necropsied at 131 days' gestation (term = 145 days).Ultrasonographic placental measurements were reduced and UA Doppler indices were increased from 83 days' gestation; measurements of fetal abdominal circumference and femur length, renal volume and tibia length, and biparietal diameter were reduced from 98, 105, and 112 days' gestation, respectively, in overnourished vs control-intake (...) Fetoplacental biometry and umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry in the overnourished adolescent model of fetal growth restriction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate ultrasonographically fetal growth trajectories, placental biometry, and umbilical artery (UA) Doppler indices in growth-restricted pregnancies of overnourished adolescent ewes and normally developing pregnancies of control-fed ewes.Singleton pregnancies were established using embryo transfer in 42 adolescent ewes that were

2012 American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

198. Accuracy of imaging parameters in the prediction of lethal pulmonary hypoplasia secondary to mid-trimester prelabor rupture of fetal membranes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

studies that reported on the prediction of lethal pulmonary hypoplasia. The quality of the included studies was poor to mediocre. The estimated sROC curves for the chest circumference/abdominal circumference ratio and other parameters showed limited accuracy in the prediction of pulmonary hypoplasia. In women with mid-trimester PPROM, the available evidence indicates limited accuracy of biometric parameters in the prediction of pulmonary hypoplasia.Copyright © 2012 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley (...) Accuracy of imaging parameters in the prediction of lethal pulmonary hypoplasia secondary to mid-trimester prelabor rupture of fetal membranes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. In women who have suffered mid-trimester prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM), prediction of pulmonary hypoplasia is important for optimal management. We performed a systematic review to assess the capacity of imaging parameters to predict pulmonary hypoplasia. We searched for published articles that reported

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2012 Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

199. Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Fetal Growth Restriction

-Probability Sample Study Population Pregnant patients admitted for fetal growth restriction (cases) and normal patients in labor at term (controls). Criteria Inclusion Criteria: Gestational age between 24-34 weeks. Ultrasonographic evidence of fetal growth restriction Abdominal circumference < 3rd percentile. Doppler with increase of placental resistance. Exclusion Criteria: Known antiphospholipid syndrome. Known presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Contacts (...) Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Fetal Growth Restriction Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Fetal Growth Restriction - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before adding more. Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Fetal Growth

2012 Clinical Trials

200. Systematic review of methodology used in ultrasound studies aimed at creating charts of fetal size. (PubMed)

of retrieved articles.Observational studies whose primary aim was to create ultrasound size charts for bi-parietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference and femur length in fetuses from singleton pregnancies.Studies were scored against a predefined set of independently agreed methodological criteria and an overall quality score was given to each study. Multiple regression analysis between quality scores and study characteristics was performed.Eighty-three studies met the inclusion criteria (...) Systematic review of methodology used in ultrasound studies aimed at creating charts of fetal size. Reliable ultrasound charts are necessary for the prenatal assessment of fetal size, yet there is a wide variation of methodologies for the creation of such charts.To evaluate the methodological quality of studies of fetal biometry using a set of predefined quality criteria of study design, statistical analysis and reporting methods.Electronic searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL, and references

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2012 BJOG

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