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Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

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1. Does prenatal alcohol exposure cause a metabolic syndrome? (Non-)evidence from a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. (PubMed)

Does prenatal alcohol exposure cause a metabolic syndrome? (Non-)evidence from a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) reduces offspring growth, it may increase obesity risk at adolescence. Animal models of PAE display glucose intolerance and increased adiposity, suggesting that PAE causes metabolic reprogramming. We tested this hypothesis in a mouse model of binge PAE, wherein pregnant C57Bl/6J females received 3 g/kg alcohol (ETOH) daily from (...) three caloric groups (MCT, MD, ETOH), such that caloric groups had greater post-weaning weight gain (both sexes), reduced gonadal fat weight (males), and reduced glucose clearance (males) compared against H2O offspring. PAE did not affect body composition, respiratory exchange ratio, metabolic adaption to high-fat or low-fat diet, eating behavior, and blood pressure, and ETOH values did not differ from those obtained from isocaloric controls. Exposure to a higher alcohol dose (4.5 g/kg) or a high

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2018 PLoS ONE

2. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: April 2018 Summary Considered a spectrum of disorders that includes fetal alcohol syndrome, partial fetal alcohol syndrome, alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder, and alcohol-related birth defects. Caused by fetal exposure (...) problems. Definition Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) refers to a group of conditions that may result from fetal exposure to alcohol. Streissguth AP, O'Malley K. Neuropsychiatric implications and long-term consequences of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Semin Clin Neuropsychiatry. 2000;5:177-190. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11291013?tool=bestpractice.com Disorders include fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial FAS, alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder, and alcohol-related birth

2018 BMJ Best Practice

3. Identifying Effective Approaches to Support Parents and Caregivers of Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

Identifying Effective Approaches to Support Parents and Caregivers of Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Rapid Synthesis Identifying Effective Approaches to Support Parents and Caregivers of Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder 12 October 2018 McMaster Health Forum 1 Evidence >> Insight >> Action Rapid Synthesis: Identifying Effective Approaches to Support Parents and Caregivers of Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder 60-day response 12 October 2018 Identifying (...) Effective Approaches to Support Parents and Caregivers of Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder 2 Evidence >> Insight >> Action McMaster Health Forum and Forum+ The goal of the McMaster Health Forum, and its Forum+ initiative, is to generate action on the pressing health- and social-system issues of our time, based on the best available research evidence and systematically elicited citizen values and stakeholder insights. We aim to strengthen health and social systems – locally, nationally

2018 McMaster Health Forum

4. Diagnosis, Assessment, and Treatment of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Clinical and Cost-Effectiveness and Guidelines

-disciplinary diagnosis based on criteria related to facial features, prenatal alcohol exposure, and neurodevelopmental effects. Tags pediatrics, diagnosis, fetal alcohol syndrome, needs assessment, Assessment, Diagnostic, Treating, FASD, Screening, Treatment Files Rapid Response Summary with Critical Appraisal Published : May 3, 2017 Related Content Follow us: © 2019 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health Get our newsletter: (...) Diagnosis, Assessment, and Treatment of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Clinical and Cost-Effectiveness and Guidelines Diagnosis, Assessment, and Treatment of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Clinical and Cost-Effectiveness and Guidelines | CADTH.ca Find the information you need Diagnosis, Assessment, and Treatment of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Clinical and Cost-Effectiveness and Guidelines Diagnosis, Assessment, and Treatment of Fetal Alcohol

2017 Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health - Rapid Review

5. Cohort study: In Western Australia, 70% of mothers of babies with fetal alcohol syndrome did not have an alcohol-related diagnosis recorded during pregnancy

Cohort study: In Western Australia, 70% of mothers of babies with fetal alcohol syndrome did not have an alcohol-related diagnosis recorded during pregnancy In Western Australia, 70% of mothers of babies with fetal alcohol syndrome did not have an alcohol-related diagnosis recorded during pregnancy | Evidence-Based Nursing We use cookies to improve our service and to tailor our content and advertising to you. You can manage your cookie settings via your browser at any time. To learn more about (...) how we use cookies, please see our . Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? Search for this keyword Search for this keyword Main menu Log in using your username and password For personal accounts OR managers of institutional accounts Username * Password * your user name or password? You are here In Western Australia, 70% of mothers of babies with fetal alcohol syndrome did not have

2014 Evidence-Based Nursing

6. Estimation of national, regional, and global prevalence of alcohol use during pregnancy and fetal alcohol syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (PubMed)

Estimation of national, regional, and global prevalence of alcohol use during pregnancy and fetal alcohol syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Alcohol use during pregnancy is the direct cause of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). We aimed to estimate the prevalence of alcohol use during pregnancy and FAS in the general population and, by linking these two indicators, estimate the number of pregnant women that consumed alcohol during pregnancy per one case of FAS.We began by doing two (...) independent comprehensive systematic literature searches using multiple electronic databases for original quantitative studies that reported the prevalence in the general population of the respective country of alcohol use during pregnancy published from Jan 1, 1984, to June 30, 2014, or the prevalence of FAS published from Nov 1, 1973, to June 30, 2015, in a peer-reviewed journal or scholarly report. Each study on the prevalence of alcohol use during pregnancy was critically appraised using a checklist

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2017 The Lancet. Global health

7. The Combined Use of Ultrasound and Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging for a Comprehensive Fetal Neurological Assessment in Fetal Congenital Cardiac Defects

. For example, the prevalence of CHD in Down syndrome is approximately 45%, other associated chromosomal aneuploidies include trisomy 13 and 18 and Turner syndrome. Single gene defects account for a further 3–5% of cases of CHD, including DiGeorge syndrome, Alagille syndrome, Holt–Oram syndrome and Noonan syndrome. - Nonchromosomal or genetic causes include some well recognised associations, such as maternal diabetes, phenylketonuria, maternal obesity, rubella infection, alcohol use and drug exposure (e.g (...) maturation. , Other advanced approaches include DTI to assess tissue microstructure and brain connectivity, MRI spectroscopy to assess cerebral metabolites, and phase contrast and T2 mapping techniques to assess fetal cerebral blood flow and oxygen extraction, but these all remain largely in the research environment. MRI studies also need to consider imaging outside the brain to detect subtler abnormalities not identifiable with ultrasound that may increase the risk of a specific syndrome, e.g. absence

2019 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists

8. Genetic predisposition to fetal alcohol syndrome: association with congenital disorders of N-glycosylation. (PubMed)

Genetic predisposition to fetal alcohol syndrome: association with congenital disorders of N-glycosylation. BackgroundFetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy; although additional factors might be involved, as development and severity are not directly related to alcohol intake. The abnormal glycosylation caused by alcohol might play a role in FAS according to the clinical similarities shared with congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). Thus (...) , mutations underlying CDG, affecting genes involved in glycosylation, could also be involved in FAS.MethodsA panel of 74 genes involved in N-glycosylation was sequenced in 25 FAS patients and 20 controls with prenatal alcohol exposure. Transferrin glycoforms were evaluated by HPLC.ResultsRare (minor allele frequency<0.009) missense/splice site variants were more frequent in FAS than controls (84% vs. 50%; P=0.034, odds ratio: 5.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-20.9). Remarkably, three patients

2017 Pediatric Research

9. A Rat Model of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Series of Undergraduate Laboratory Exercises for Biopsychology Courses (PubMed)

A Rat Model of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Series of Undergraduate Laboratory Exercises for Biopsychology Courses Many undergraduate students are aware that consuming alcohol during pregnancy can result in many serious physical and behavioral deficits. Student interest in this clinical syndrome allows instructors to provide engaging laboratory exercises that relate topics covered in most biopsychology courses to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). Through this series of experiments, students will use (...) rodents to study the behavioral deficits that can be caused by developmental alcohol exposure, including impaired ultrasonic vocalizations, hyperactivity, balance, and spatial learning. Other possible exercises include analyzing blood alcohol concentrations (BACs), completing histological studies of anatomical effects, and/or discussing the societal implications of developmental alcohol exposure. The instructor has the flexibility to determine which of the exercises fit into the class schedule

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2017 Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education

10. The Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Its Impact on a Child’s Classroom Performance: A Case Study of a Rural South African School (PubMed)

The Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Its Impact on a Child’s Classroom Performance: A Case Study of a Rural South African School Alcohol consumption is high among farm labourers in the Western and Northern Cape of South Africa. Excessive alcohol consumption during pregnancy is common, resulting in a high prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) among children. FAS causes intellectual and behavioural problems, which create considerable obstacles to a child's education. The aim

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2017 International journal of environmental research and public health

11. Digital assessment of the fetal alcohol syndrome facial phenotype: reliability and agreement study (PubMed)

Digital assessment of the fetal alcohol syndrome facial phenotype: reliability and agreement study To examine the three facial features of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in a cohort of Australian Aboriginal children from two-dimensional digital facial photographs to: (1) assess intrarater and inter-rater reliability; (2) identify the racial norms with the best fit for this population; and (3) assess agreement with clinician direct measures.Photographs and clinical data for 106 Aboriginal children (...) (aged 7.4-9.6 years) were sourced from the Lililwan Project. Fifty-eight per cent had a confirmed prenatal alcohol exposure and 13 (12%) met the Canadian 2005 criteria for FAS/partial FAS. Photographs were analysed using the FAS Facial Photographic Analysis Software to generate the mean PFL three-point ABC-Score, five-point lip and philtrum ranks and four-point face rank in accordance with the 4-Digit Diagnostic Code. Intrarater and inter-rater reliability of digital ratings was examined in two

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2017 BMJ Paediatrics Open

12. Differences in neural crest sensitivity to ethanol account for the infrequency of anterior segment defects in the eye compared to craniofacial anomalies in a zebrafish model of fetal alcohol syndrome (PubMed)

Differences in neural crest sensitivity to ethanol account for the infrequency of anterior segment defects in the eye compared to craniofacial anomalies in a zebrafish model of fetal alcohol syndrome Ethanol (ETOH) exposure during pregnancy is associated with craniofacial and neurologic abnormalities, but infrequently disrupts the anterior segment of the eye. In these studies, we used zebrafish to investigate differences in the teratogenic effect of ETOH on craniofacial, periocular, and ocular (...) into the developing eye. However, ETOH had minimal effect on the periocular and ocular expression of transcription factors (pitx2 and foxc1) that regulate anterior segment development.Neural crest cells contributing to the anterior segment of the eye exhibit increased ability to withstand ETOH-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. These studies explain the rarity of anterior segment dysgenesis despite the frequent craniofacial abnormalities in fetal alcohol syndrome. Birth Defects Research 109:1212-1227, 2017

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2017 Birth Defects Research

13. Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in 4 US Communities. (PubMed)

Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in 4 US Communities. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are costly, life-long disabilities. Older data suggested the prevalence of the disorder in the United States was 10 per 1000 children; however, there are few current estimates based on larger, diverse US population samples.To estimate the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, including fetal alcohol syndrome, partial fetal alcohol syndrome, and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental (...) disorder, in 4 regions of the United States.Active case ascertainment methods using a cross-sectional design were used to assess children for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders between 2010 and 2016. Children were systematically assessed in the 4 domains that contribute to the fetal alcohol spectrum disorder continuum: dysmorphic features, physical growth, neurobehavioral development, and prenatal alcohol exposure. The settings were 4 communities in the Rocky Mountain, Midwestern, Southeastern

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2018 JAMA

14. Population-based prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in Canada. (PubMed)

Population-based prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in Canada. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is one of the most disabling potential outcomes of prenatal alcohol exposure. The population-based prevalence of FASD among the general population of Canada was unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the population-based prevalence of FASD among elementary school students, aged 7 to 9 years, in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) in Ontario, Canada.This screening study used (...) is approximately double or possibly even triple previous crude estimates. FASD prevalence exceeds that of other common birth defects such as Down's syndrome, spina bifida, trisomy 18, as well as autism spectrum disorder in Canada. More effective prevention strategies targeting alcohol use during pregnancy, surveillance of FASD, and timely interventions and support to individuals with FASD and their families are urgently needed.

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2019 BMC Public Health

15. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetal Alcohol (...) Syndrome Aka: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome , Fetal Alcohol Effect , Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders , Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome , Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder , Alcohol-Related Birth Defect From Related Chapters II. Definition Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) Includes all Fetal Alcohol Syndromes (e.g. FAS, PFAS) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Most severe form of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Facial dysmorphology (2 or more features), growth deficiency, CNS dysfunction

2018 FP Notebook

16. Societal costs of fetal alcohol syndrome in Sweden (PubMed)

Societal costs of fetal alcohol syndrome in Sweden To estimate the annual societal cost of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in Sweden, focusing on the secondary disabilities thought feasible to limit via early interventions.Prevalence-based cost-of-illness analysis of FAS in Sweden for 2014. Direct costs (societal support, special education, psychiatric disorders and alcohol/drug abuse) and indirect costs (reduced working capacity and informal caring), were included. The calculations were based

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2016 The European Journal of Health Economics

17. Comparing diagnostic classification of neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure with the Canadian fetal alcohol spectrum disorder guidelines: a cohort study (PubMed)

alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) multidisciplinary diagnostic guidelines as the standard of comparison. First, classification of ND-PAE was compared with Canadian FASD diagnoses of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial FAS and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder. Second, classification of ND-PAE was compared with FAS and pFAS only, a criterion for which includes facial features highly predictive of prenatal alcohol exposure and effects.Eighty-two patients underwent multidisciplinary clinical (...) Comparing diagnostic classification of neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure with the Canadian fetal alcohol spectrum disorder guidelines: a cohort study Diagnostic criteria have recently been introduced in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5), for neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure (ND-PAE). The purpose of this study is to assess the classification of this condition using the Canadian fetal

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2017 CMAJ open

18. Psychosocial outcomes of fetal alcohol syndrome in adulthood (PubMed)

Psychosocial outcomes of fetal alcohol syndrome in adulthood Primary disabilities in children prenatally exposed to alcohol have a major impact on their daily life. It is suggested that these issues persist into adulthood, but few studies have addressed the outcome in adults with prenatal exposure, especially those with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The aim of this follow-up study was to investigate outcome variables, such as education, employment, health, and criminal acts, in 79 adults (...) similar. The FAS group had higher hospital admission rates for alcohol abuse (9% vs 2%) and psychiatric disorders (33% vs 5%) and was more likely to be prescribed psychotropic drugs (57% vs 27%).Swedish children with FAS have quite diverse psychosocial outcomes in adulthood, considerably worse than for majority population peers. Potential risk and protective factors within the FAS group deserve study to enable development of effective interventions.Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy

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2015 EvidenceUpdates

19. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)—diagnosis and moral policing; an ethical dilemma for paediatricians (PubMed)

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)—diagnosis and moral policing; an ethical dilemma for paediatricians 25005521 2014 12 18 2018 11 13 1468-2044 99 11 2014 Nov Archives of disease in childhood Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)-diagnosis and moral policing; an ethical dilemma for paediatricians. 969-70 10.1136/archdischild-2014-306774 Larcher Vic V Paediatric Bioethics Centre, Great Ormond St Hospital (...) , London, UK. Brierley Joe J Paediatric Bioethics Centre, Great Ormond St Hospital, London, UK. eng Journal Article 2014 07 08 England Arch Dis Child 0372434 0003-9888 AIM IM Alcohol Drinking adverse effects legislation & jurisprudence Ethics, Medical Female Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders diagnosis Humans Morals Mothers legislation & jurisprudence Pediatrics ethics Pregnancy Ethics Fetal Medicine 2014 7 10 6 0 2014 7 10 6 0 2014 12 19 6 0 ppublish 25005521 archdischild-2014-306774 10.1136

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2014 Archives of Disease in Childhood

20. Utility of Genetic Testing in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. (PubMed)

Utility of Genetic Testing in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. To study the utility of genetic evaluation and testing in patients with suspected fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD).We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients (n = 36) referred for evaluation for suspected FASD to the genetics clinic at Boston Children's Hospital between January 2006 and January 2013. Records of all patients were reviewed to obtain the medical history, family history, examination findings (...) , and investigations, including genetic testing.Of the 36 patients, definite prenatal exposure was documented in 69%. Eight patients did not fulfill clinical criteria for FASD. Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) detected 19 copy number variants (CNVs) in 14 patients. Among patients who fulfilled criteria for FASD and underwent CMA, pathogenic CNVs were detected in 3 patients (2q37del, 22q11.22dup, and 4q31.21del syndromes), giving a yield of 14.3%. All 3 patients had overlapping features between FASD

2018 Journal of Pediatrics

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