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Family Practice Notebook Updates 2016

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2541. hypermelanosis (generalised)

hypermelanosis (generalised) hypermelanosis (generalised) - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search hypermelanosis (generalised) Causes of diffuse hyperpigmentation include: congenital: familial or racial irradiation, especially UV light endocrine: chronic primary hypoadrenalism Cushing's syndrome with high ACTH - not adrenal adenoma acromegaly oestrogens, pregnancy systemic disease: chronic renal failure cachexia (...) e.g. TB or malignancy primary biliary cirrhosis haemochromatosis malabsorption - e.g. Whipples disease, coeliac disease drug-induced: cytotoxic drugs - busulphan, bleomycin and cyclophosphamide may cause generalized brown pigmentation phenothiazines e.g. chlorpromazine - bluish pigmentation on light exposed skin arsenic Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed

2010 GP Notebook

2542. Christmas disease

Christmas disease Christmas disease - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search Christmas disease Haemophilia B results from a congenital deficiency of Factor IX coagulant activity. It is an X-linked recessive disorder affecting 1 in 30 000 males. It 'breeds' true so that family members tend to be all severely affected or all mildly affected. It is clinically indistinguishable from haemophilia A, presenting (...) with recurrent haemorrhage, spontaneously or post-operatively, into soft tissues and joints. Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2016 Oxbridge Solutions Ltd®. Any distribution or duplication of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited. Oxbridge

2010 GP Notebook

2543. factor IX deficiency

factor IX deficiency factor IX deficiency - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search factor IX deficiency Haemophilia B results from a congenital deficiency of Factor IX coagulant activity. It is an X-linked recessive disorder affecting 1 in 30 000 males. It 'breeds' true so that family members tend to be all severely affected or all mildly affected. It is clinically indistinguishable from haemophilia A, presenting (...) with recurrent haemorrhage, spontaneously or post-operatively, into soft tissues and joints. Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2016 Oxbridge Solutions Ltd®. Any distribution or duplication of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited. Oxbridge

2010 GP Notebook

2544. BRCA genes

Reference: Pulse (2005); 65(14):55-60. Evans DGR et al. (1994). Familial breast cancer. BMJ; 308:183-7 McPherson et al. (1994). BMJ;309: 1004 Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2016 Oxbridge Solutions Ltd®. Any distribution or duplication (...) BRCA genes BRCA genes - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search BRCA genes Up to 10% of breast cancer in western countries is due to genetic predisposition. Susceptibility to breast cancer appears to be inherited as an autosomal dominant with limited penetrance and may thus be inherited from either father or mother. About 5% of breast cancer is due to highly penetrant dominant genes. More than five genes are thought

2010 GP Notebook

2545. target cholesterol levels - primary prevention in reducing CV risk

disease [glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2] positive family history of premature CVD. HDL and triglycerides (2) although low HDL cholesterol is an independent risk factor for CVD, no specific treatment goals are as yet defined, but may be considered at concentrations >1.0 mmol/L (40 mg/dL) in men and >1.2 mmol/ 45 mg/dL) in women. Similarly, fasting triglycerides should be <.1.7 mmol/L (150 mg/dL). Reference: Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information (...) target cholesterol levels - primary prevention in reducing CV risk target cholesterol levels - primary prevention in reducing CV risk - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search target cholesterol levels - primary prevention in reducing CV risk use the QRISK2 risk assessment tool to assess CVD risk for the primary prevention of CVD in people up to and including age 84 years do not use a risk assessment tool to assess

2010 GP Notebook

2546. target cholesterol levels - primary prevention of cardiovascular (CV) disease

with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease [glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2] positive family history of premature CVD. HDL and triglycerides (2) although low HDL cholesterol is an independent risk factor for CVD, no specific treatment goals are as yet defined, but may be considered at concentrations >1.0 mmol/L (40 mg/dL) in men and >1.2 mmol/ 45 mg/dL) in women. Similarly, fasting triglycerides should be <.1.7 mmol/L (150 mg/dL). Reference: Links: General Practice Notebook General (...) Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2016 Oxbridge Solutions Ltd®. Any distribution or duplication of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited. Oxbridge Solutions Ltd® receives funding from advertising but maintains editorial independence. GPnotebook stores small data files on your

2010 GP Notebook

2547. target lipid levels - primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD)

to severe chronic kidney disease [glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2] positive family history of premature CVD. HDL and triglycerides (2) although low HDL cholesterol is an independent risk factor for CVD, no specific treatment goals are as yet defined, but may be considered at concentrations >1.0 mmol/L (40 mg/dL) in men and >1.2 mmol/ 45 mg/dL) in women. Similarly, fasting triglycerides should be <.1.7 mmol/L (150 mg/dL). Reference: Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice (...) target lipid levels - primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) target lipid levels - primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search target lipid levels - primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) use the QRISK2 risk assessment tool to assess CVD risk for the primary prevention of CVD in people up to and including age 84 years do not use a risk

2010 GP Notebook

2548. diagnosis and assessment of chronic heart failure (CHF) in primary care

dysfunction [eGFR less than 60 ml/minute/1.73m2], sepsis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, or cirrhosis of the liver) Reference: (2) Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2016 Oxbridge Solutions Ltd®. Any distribution or duplication (...) diagnosis and assessment of chronic heart failure (CHF) in primary care diagnosis and assessment of chronic heart failure (CHF) in primary care - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search diagnosis and assessment of chronic heart failure (CHF) in primary care the NICE clinical guideline on CHF the use of BNP as a diagnostic tool for heart failure (1,2) refer patients with suspected heart failure and previous

2010 GP Notebook

2549. spirometry in diagnosis of COPD

spirometry in diagnosis of COPD spirometry in diagnosis of COPD - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search spirometry in diagnosis of COPD Think of diagnosis of COPD in patients who are (1,2): over 35 and smokers or ex-smokers and have any of these symptoms: exertional breathlessness chronic cough regular sputum production frequent winter ’bronchitis’ wheeze and have no clinical features of asthma , for example (...) (2004) Standards for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with COPD: a summary of the ATS/ERS position paper. European Respiratory Journal 23(6): 932-46. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) (2008) Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Reference: (1) (2) (3) Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical

2010 GP Notebook

2550. arterial leg ulcer

arterial leg ulcer arterial leg ulcer - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search arterial leg ulcer Arterial ulceration is caused by reduced blood supply to the lower limb. it is the second most common ulcer in the lower extremity and accounts for about 10% all leg ulcers both sexes are equally affected (1) Arterial or arteriolar obstruction leads to ischemia of the skin and subcutaneous tissues which may result (...) or macrovascular disease, vasculitis, pyoderma gangrenosum, thalassaemia, and sickle cell disease (1,2) Reference: (1) (2) Agale SV. Chronic Leg Ulcers: Epidemiology, Aetiopathogenesis, and Management. Ulcers 2013;vol. 2013, Article ID 413604, 9 pages (3) Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all

2010 GP Notebook

2551. mesothelioma

: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2016 Oxbridge Solutions Ltd®. Any distribution or duplication of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited. Oxbridge Solutions Ltd® receives funding from advertising but maintains editorial independence (...) mesothelioma mesothelioma - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search mesothelioma a mesothelioma is associated with exposure to asbestos, especially blue asbestos. A mesothelioma is a tumour of mesothelial cells which generally occurs in the pleura (rarely a mesothelioma may occur in the peritoneum or other organs) exposure may only be brief. There may be a lag-time of 20 to 40 years. Only approximately 20

2010 GP Notebook

2552. infantile autism

infantile autism infantile autism - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search infantile autism Autism is characterized by impaired reciprocal social interaction and communication, as well as stereotyped behaviour and interests, with an onset typically before 3 years of age (1) a broader range of phenotypes is also recognized, termed autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which include 'strict' autism, atypical autism (...) in approximately 50% of young people with autism (4) Autism was once thought to be an uncommon developmental disorder, but recent studies have reported increased prevalence and the condition is now thought to occur in at least 1% of children. This rising prevalence has increased demand for diagnostic services for children and young people of all ages in the health service. Reference: 1) 2) 3) 4) Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used

2010 GP Notebook

2553. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine

/CMO/2005/3, PL/CNO/2005/3, PL/CPHO/2005/3. Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2016 Oxbridge Solutions Ltd®. Any distribution or duplication of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited. Oxbridge Solutions Ltd® receives funding from (...) Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine The BCG vaccine is a live attenuated strain of mycobacterium tuberculosis which confers a useful degree of immunity in some individuals. It is given via intradermal injection (1). about 4 weeks after the injection a local skin reaction is produced and there may be regional

2010 GP Notebook

2554. BCG vaccine

: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2016 Oxbridge Solutions Ltd®. Any distribution or duplication of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited. Oxbridge Solutions Ltd® receives funding from advertising but maintains editorial independence (...) BCG vaccine BCG vaccine - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search BCG vaccine The BCG vaccine is a live attenuated strain of mycobacterium tuberculosis which confers a useful degree of immunity in some individuals. It is given via intradermal injection (1). about 4 weeks after the injection a local skin reaction is produced and there may be regional lymphadenopathy in individuals who have developed an immune

2010 GP Notebook

2555. epilepsy (rolandic, benign, of childhood)

Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2016 Oxbridge Solutions Ltd®. Any distribution or duplication of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited. Oxbridge Solutions Ltd® receives funding from advertising but maintains editorial independence. GPnotebook (...) epilepsy (rolandic, benign, of childhood) Rolandic epilepsy - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search Rolandic epilepsy Rolandic epilepsy typically occurs in children aged seven to ten, but may start as young as three years of age, and is twice as common in boys speech dyspraxia and language impairments are frequent comorbidities predating the onset of seizures. There is a six times higher odds of dyslexia, which

2010 GP Notebook

2556. aortic stenosis (congenital)

hypertrophy of the left ventricle and interventricular septum which obstructs the outflow tract of the left ventricle during systole, ie a hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2016 Oxbridge Solutions Ltd®. Any (...) aortic stenosis (congenital) congenital aortic stenosis - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search congenital aortic stenosis Congenital aortic stenosis is a common congenital heart lesion which may occur in isolation or in combination with other heart defects. In the majority of cases the aortic valve itself is narrowed by congenital deformity. The deformed valve may be bicuspid instead of tricuspid and the cusps

2010 GP Notebook

2557. cylindroma

cylindroma cylindroma - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search cylindroma Cylindromas are: benign tumours which are derived from sweat glands or hair follicles particularly common on the scalp where they may be multiple (turban tumour) occasionally familial with autosomal dominant inheritance Management includes excision biopsy of the skin lump with subsequent histology. Links: General Practice Notebook General (...) Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2016 Oxbridge Solutions Ltd®. Any distribution or duplication of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited. Oxbridge Solutions Ltd® receives funding from advertising but maintains editorial independence. GPnotebook stores small data files on your

2010 GP Notebook

2558. language delay

language delay language delay - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search language delay speech (1) is a motor act of communication through articulation of verbal expression (2) is the sound that originates in the mouth it should be differentiated from language language (1) is the knowledge of a symbol system used for communication between persons (2) is associated with meanings, rather than sounds is a measure (...) . For example the parents of a 2 year-old boy with obviously normal development but a vocabulary of only 10 to 20 words may be comparing him with the little girl of similar age in the same street but with a vocabulary of 200 words. Both are within the normal range. Reference: (1) (2) Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted

2010 GP Notebook

2559. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (diagnosis of)

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (diagnosis of) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (diagnosis of) - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (diagnosis of) Think of diagnosis of COPD in patients who are (1,2): over 35 and smokers or ex-smokers and have any of these symptoms: exertional breathlessness chronic cough regular sputum production frequent winter ’bronchitis (...) with mild airflow obstruction **Or FEV1 Celli BR, MacNee W (2004) Standards for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with COPD: a summary of the ATS/ERS position paper. European Respiratory Journal 23(6): 932-46. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) (2008) Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Reference: (1) (2) (3) Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should

2010 GP Notebook

2560. post traumatic stress disorder

post traumatic stress disorder post traumatic stress disorder - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search post traumatic stress disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a reaction which a person may develop in response to one or more traumatic events/stressors. a stressor which precipitates a PTSD is often of such a magnitude that the patient's coping strategies and defense mechanisms are overwhelmed post (...) talking about their problems even when presenting with associated complaints children, particularly those aged under 8 years, may not complain directly of PTSD symptoms such as re-experiencing or avoidance instead, symptoms may take the form of re-enacting the experience, repetitive play or frightening dreams with no recognisable content Reference: (1) (2) (3) Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any

2010 GP Notebook

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