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Family Practice Notebook Updates 2016

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2441. epilepsy in pregnancy

then consult the full guideline (4) Reference: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin (2005); 43(2):13-16. Prescriber (2001); 12 (18): 30-36. BNF 4.8 Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2016 Oxbridge Solutions Ltd®. Any distribution or duplication of the information (...) epilepsy in pregnancy epilepsy in pregnancy - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search epilepsy in pregnancy In the UK, 1800-2400 infants are born every year to women with epilepsy (1). Maternal epilepsy increases the risk to the fetus in pregnancy three fold, even in the absence of treatment. With treatment, there are recognised fetopathies with most drugs used. Children with one epileptic parent or more have

2010 GP Notebook

2442. arterial leg ulceration

arterial leg ulceration arterial leg ulceration - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search arterial leg ulceration Arterial ulceration is caused by reduced blood supply to the lower limb. it is the second most common ulcer in the lower extremity and accounts for about 10% all leg ulcers both sexes are equally affected (1) Arterial or arteriolar obstruction leads to ischemia of the skin and subcutaneous tissues which (...) with microvascular or macrovascular disease, vasculitis, pyoderma gangrenosum, thalassaemia, and sickle cell disease (1,2) Reference: (1) (2) Agale SV. Chronic Leg Ulcers: Epidemiology, Aetiopathogenesis, and Management. Ulcers 2013;vol. 2013, Article ID 413604, 9 pages (3) Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment

2010 GP Notebook

2443. hallux valgus

hallux valgus hallux valgus - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search hallux valgus Hallux valgus is the commonest of the foot deformities. In this condition the big toe - the hallux - assumes a valgus position. There are two groups of patients with hallux valgus: adolescents or young adults: there is often a family history of hallux valgus the articular surfaces are intact the primary deformity is a varus first (...) metatarsal elderly ladies (occasionally men): the first metatarsophalangeal joint shows degenerative changes or rheumatoid arthritis there may be secondary deformities in adjoining toes Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2016 Oxbridge Solutions Ltd®. Any

2010 GP Notebook

2444. COPD (diagnosis of)

COPD (diagnosis of) COPD (diagnosis of) - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search COPD (diagnosis of) Think of diagnosis of COPD in patients who are (1,2): over 35 and smokers or ex-smokers and have any of these symptoms: exertional breathlessness chronic cough regular sputum production frequent winter ’bronchitis’ wheeze and have no clinical features of asthma , for example in asthma (1): commonly develops symptoms (...) ) Standards for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with COPD: a summary of the ATS/ERS position paper. European Respiratory Journal 23(6): 932-46. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) (2008) Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Reference: (1) (2) (3) Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition

2010 GP Notebook

2445. colonic polyp

colonic polyp colonic polyp - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search colonic polyp Colonic polyps may be single or multiple. Familial polyposis coli is a condition that is inherited in autosomal dominant manner in which there is extensive polyposis of the large bowel. Polyps are a common finding in the colon. All polyps have malignant potential although the majority are adenomas, i.e. benign neoplasms. A polyp may (...) have undergone malignant change but still be at an early stage, and hence is potentially curable. All polyps should be assumed to be malignant until proved otherwise. Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2016 Oxbridge Solutions Ltd®. Any distribution

2010 GP Notebook

2446. xanthomata

- xanthelasma. Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2016 Oxbridge Solutions Ltd®. Any distribution or duplication of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited. Oxbridge Solutions Ltd® receives funding from advertising but maintains editorial (...) xanthomata xanthomata - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search xanthomata Xanthomata are localised collections of lipid-laden foam cells, which are histiocytes containing cytoplasmic lipid material. They are tumour-like enlargements rather than true neoplasms. The cells contain cholesterol, both free and esterified, triglycerides, and phospholipids. With the exception of xanthelasma, lesions may be surrounded

2010 GP Notebook

2447. tick-borne encephalitis (TBE)

tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is caused by members of the flavivirus family that can affect the central nervous system although TBE is most commonly recognised as a meningo-encephalitis, mild febrile illnesses can also occur there are three versions of the disease related to the virus (...) and the military laboratory workers who may be exposed to TBE should be vaccinated Reference: Immunisation Against Infectious Disease - "The Green Book".Chapter 31 Tick-borne encephalitis (August 2006) Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2016 Oxbridge Solutions

2010 GP Notebook

2448. speech delay

speech delay speech delay - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search speech delay speech (1) is a motor act of communication through articulation of verbal expression (2) is the sound that originates in the mouth it should be differentiated from language language (1) is the knowledge of a symbol system used for communication between persons (2) is associated with meanings, rather than sounds is a measure (...) . For example the parents of a 2 year-old boy with obviously normal development but a vocabulary of only 10 to 20 words may be comparing him with the little girl of similar age in the same street but with a vocabulary of 200 words. Both are within the normal range. Reference: (1) (2) Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted

2010 GP Notebook

2449. Rett syndrome (RS)

male patients in the same family have Rett syndrome with severe mental retardation (3) two males in a second family had progressive spasticity (4) Reference: Percy A et al "Rett syndrome and the autistic disorders". Neurol. Clin. 1990, 8(3), p.659-76 Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any (...) Rett syndrome (RS) Rett syndrome (RS) - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search Rett syndrome (RS) Rett syndrome is a sporadic pervasive developmental disorder which is observed almost exclusively in females (see notes at end of page) The prognosis is poor, with symptomatic relief being the only treatment option. Rett syndrome (RS) is a neurodevelopmental syndrome affecting almost exclusively female children of 17

2010 GP Notebook

2450. maternal mortality in pregnancy and childbirth

maternal mortality in pregnancy and childbirth maternal mortality in pregnancy and childbirth - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search maternal mortality in pregnancy and childbirth Maternal mortality is defined as death while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy. tenth revision of the International Classification of Diseases, Injuries and Causes of Death, (ICD 10) defines a maternal death (...) 100 000 maternities reported for the previous triennium, 2003-05. Reference: Centre for Maternal and Child Enquiries (CMACE). Saving Mothers'Lives: reviewing maternal deaths to make motherhood safer: 2006-08. The Eighth Report on Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the Uni- ted Kingdom. BJOG 2011;118(Suppl. 1):1-203. Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition

2010 GP Notebook

2451. idiopathic pulmonary hypertension

hypertension must also be differentiated from raised pulmonary pressure due to liver disease, chronic pulmonary parenchymal disease or persistent obstruction of the upper airway. Approximately 6-10% of cases of primary pulmonary hypertension are familial and the underlying genetic defect generally involves a mutation in a receptor member of the transforming growth factor-beta family (1). Reference: BHF Factfile (1/2003). Pulmonary Hypertension. Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook (...) idiopathic pulmonary hypertension idiopathic pulmonary hypertension - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search idiopathic pulmonary hypertension Primary pulmonary hypertension is a disease of unknown aetiology. Primary pulmonary hypertension has an incidence of 1-2/million per year. It is more common in women - the female: male ration is ratio 2.3:1. It occurs most often in the 3rd and 4th decades. Symptoms often

2010 GP Notebook

2452. colonic polyps

colonic polyps colonic polyps - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search colonic polyps Colonic polyps may be single or multiple. Familial polyposis coli is a condition that is inherited in autosomal dominant manner in which there is extensive polyposis of the large bowel. Polyps are a common finding in the colon. All polyps have malignant potential although the majority are adenomas, i.e. benign neoplasms. A polyp (...) may have undergone malignant change but still be at an early stage, and hence is potentially curable. All polyps should be assumed to be malignant until proved otherwise. Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2016 Oxbridge Solutions Ltd®. Any

2010 GP Notebook

2453. pes planus

pes planus pes planus - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search pes planus Flat foot is a lack of the medial arch of the foot. The development of the medial arch occurs within 2-3 years of walking. In younger children the medial arch is largely obliterated by a fat pad. most children have flexible flat feet with normal arches on tiptoeing; most resolve by 6 years (1) Flat feet may be a familial condition or it may (...) on the Rheumatic Diseases 2008;14. Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2016 Oxbridge Solutions Ltd®. Any distribution or duplication of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited. Oxbridge Solutions Ltd® receives funding from advertising

2010 GP Notebook

2454. CO poisoning

family may in fact be the result of CO poisoning. Prolonged exposure to concentrations that produce only minor symptoms may, in some cases, be associated with lasting neurological effects such as diffi culties in concentrating and emotional lability. Complaints about such problems should alert the doctor to the possibility of CO poisoning Reference: 1. PL/CMO/2008/8, PL/CNO/2008/8: Recognising Carbon Monoxide Poisoning – 'Think CO' Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook (...) CO poisoning CO poisoning - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search CO poisoning Carbon monoxide is an odourless gas formed by burning carbon or organic fuels in a limited supply of oxygen. The majority of cases of CO toxicity are due to: car exhausts combustion of fuel in an inadequate flue - for example, a blocked domestic heater Cyanosis does not occur as the carboxyhaemoglobin maintains a deceptive pink colour

2010 GP Notebook

2455. COC and myocardial infarction (MI)

Bulletin (2000); 38 (1): 1-5. MeReC Bulletin 2006;17(2):1-9. Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2016 Oxbridge Solutions Ltd®. Any distribution or duplication of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited. Oxbridge Solutions Ltd® receives (...) COC and myocardial infarction (MI) COC and myocardial infarction (MI) - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search COC and myocardial infarction (MI) the current evidence suggests that there is no detectable increase in the risk of myocardial infarction with either second- or third-generation pills in women with no additional risk factors a Drug and Therapeutics bulletin review (1) suggests that the risk of myocardial

2010 GP Notebook

2456. anticonvulsant drug treatment in epilepsy

Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2016 Oxbridge Solutions Ltd®. Any distribution or duplication of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited. Oxbridge Solutions Ltd® receives funding from advertising but maintains editorial independence. GPnotebook (...) anticonvulsant drug treatment in epilepsy anticonvulsant drug treatment in epilepsy - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search anticonvulsant drug treatment in epilepsy Anticonvulsant drugs (AEDs) are the mainstay of antiepileptic drug therapy (1). NICE (1) state that: an epilepsy specialist should: recommend initiation of appropriate AED treatment plan continuation of treatment manage, or provide guidance

2010 GP Notebook

2457. carbon monoxide

of a whole family may in fact be the result of CO poisoning. Prolonged exposure to concentrations that produce only minor symptoms may, in some cases, be associated with lasting neurological effects such as diffi culties in concentrating and emotional lability. Complaints about such problems should alert the doctor to the possibility of CO poisoning Reference: 1. PL/CMO/2008/8, PL/CNO/2008/8: Recognising Carbon Monoxide Poisoning – 'Think CO' Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook (...) carbon monoxide carbon monoxide - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search carbon monoxide Carbon monoxide is an odourless gas formed by burning carbon or organic fuels in a limited supply of oxygen. The majority of cases of CO toxicity are due to: car exhausts combustion of fuel in an inadequate flue - for example, a blocked domestic heater Cyanosis does not occur as the carboxyhaemoglobin maintains a deceptive pink

2010 GP Notebook

2458. carbon monoxide poisoning

Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2016 Oxbridge Solutions Ltd®. Any distribution or duplication of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited. Oxbridge Solutions Ltd® receives funding from advertising but maintains editorial independence. GPnotebook (...) carbon monoxide poisoning carbon monoxide poisoning - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search carbon monoxide poisoning Carbon monoxide is an odourless gas formed by burning carbon or organic fuels in a limited supply of oxygen. The majority of cases of CO toxicity are due to: car exhausts combustion of fuel in an inadequate flue - for example, a blocked domestic heater Cyanosis does not occur

2010 GP Notebook

2459. pancreatitis (chronic)

pancreatitis (chronic) chronic pancreatitis - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search chronic pancreatitis Chronic pancreatitis is characterised by irreversible glandular destruction and permanent loss of endocrine and exocrine function. It may follow episodes of acute pancreatitis or may occur without an identifiable attack. The incidence is increasing. In the UK, about 5 new cases are reported annually per 100,000 (...) (digestive) function and reduced endocrine function (diabetes) can also give rise to specific complications including painful inflammatory mass and obstructed pancreatic duct, biliary or duodenal obstruction, haemorrhage, or accumulation of fluid in the abdomen (ascites) or chest (pleural effusion) significantly increases the risk of pancreatic cancer. This risk is much higher in people with hereditary pancreatitis. Reference: Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information

2010 GP Notebook

2460. oral contraceptive pill and cardiovascular risk

) Reference: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin (2000); 38 (1): 1-5. MeReC Bulletin 2006;17(2):1-9. Links: General Practice Notebook General Practice Notebook The information provided herein should not be used for diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical practitioner should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Copyright 2016 Oxbridge Solutions Ltd®. Any distribution or duplication of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited (...) oral contraceptive pill and cardiovascular risk oral contraceptive pill and cardiovascular risk - General Practice Notebook This site is intended for healthcare professionals General Practice Notebook | Medical search oral contraceptive pill and cardiovascular risk the current evidence suggests that there is no detectable increase in the risk of myocardial infarction with either second- or third-generation pills in women with no additional risk factors a Drug and Therapeutics bulletin review (1

2010 GP Notebook

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