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421. Treatment of acute retinal necrosis syndrome with oral antiviral medications. (PubMed)

Treatment of acute retinal necrosis syndrome with oral antiviral medications. Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a distinct ocular viral syndrome traditionally treated with intravenous acyclovir followed by oral acyclovir. We investigated the use of the oral antiviral medications valacyclovir and famciclovir as the sole treatment for patients with newly diagnosed ARN syndrome.Retrospective, uncontrolled, interventional case series.Eight consecutive patients with newly diagnosed ARN treated solely (...) with oral antiviral medications.All patients received famciclovir or valacyclovir without antecedent intravenous therapy. One patient with bilateral ARN treated with famciclovir received a single intravitreal injection of foscarnet in the more severely involved eye.Clinically and photographically documented complete resolution of retinitis and best-corrected visual acuity on final follow-up.Active retinitis resolved completely in 10/10 (100%) affected eyes. Initial response to treatment was seen

2007 Ophthalmology

422. Primary treatment of acute retinal necrosis with oral antiviral therapy. (PubMed)

Primary treatment of acute retinal necrosis with oral antiviral therapy. To explore the possibility of oral antiviral therapy in lieu of intravenous acyclovir for treating acute retinal necrosis (ARN), a necrotizing retinopathy caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or 2 or by varicella zoster virus.Retrospective, interventional, small case series.Four patients (6 eyes).Patients were treated with oral antiviral therapy. Medications included valacyclovir (1 g 3 times daily), oral famciclovir (500 (...) detachment in the fellow eye was repaired 2 months later. Duration of antiviral therapy ranged from 5 weeks to 3 months.For 4 patients with relatively indolent cases of ARN, oral antiviral therapy alone was effective in eliminating signs and symptoms of the disease. In particular, oral valacyclovir and famciclovir appeared to be effective, although further study is necessary to determine whether these drugs are as effective as intravenous acyclovir for initial treatment of ARN.

2006 Ophthalmology

423. Effect of formulary policy decisions on antimicrobial drug utilization in British Columbia. (PubMed)

and famciclovir were also added to the formulary. During the time clarithromycin was off the formulary, the rate of change in its monthly consumption was 0.0061 DDD/1000 population/day; following its relisting, the rate of change increased by 818% to 0.0560 DDD/1000 population/day (P=0.002). After the listing of valaciclovir on the formulary, the rate of change in its monthly consumption increased 57% from a baseline of 0.0014 to 0.0022 DDD/1000 population/day (P=0.07). A similar effect was seen (...) with the addition of famciclovir to the formulary whereby the rate of change in monthly consumption increased from 0.0008 (before addition to the formulary) to 0.0018 (after addition to the formulary) (P

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2005 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

424. Recurrent antiviral-resistant genital herpes in an immunocompetent patient. (PubMed)

as resistant to acyclovir and penciclovir. Antiviral resistance occurred in the setting of long-term prednisone treatment and intermittent acyclovir prophylaxis at suboptimal doses and persisted despite the cessation of oral steroid treatment. The patient's genital herpes outbreaks were not controlled by high-dose prophylaxis with acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir. Cessation of antiviral prophylaxis resulted in reversion of this patient's HSV-2 isolates to acyclovir and penciclovir sensitivity

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2005 Journal of Infectious Diseases

425. Management of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in HIV type 1-infected persons. (PubMed)

. Nucleoside analogues (acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir) decrease the frequency and severity of HSV-2 recurrences and asymptomatic HSV-2 reactivation and are effective, safe, well-tolerated drugs in patients with HIV-1 infection. These anti-HSV drugs may result in additional clinical and public health benefits for persons with HIV-1 and HSV-2 coinfection by decreasing HIV-1 levels in the blood and genital tract. Given these benefits, HIV-1-infected persons should be routinely tested for HSV-2

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2006 Clinical Infectious Diseases

426. Recommendations for the management of herpes zoster. (PubMed)

at a consensus meeting. The results of controlled trials and the clinical experience of the authors support the use of acyclovir, brivudin (where available), famciclovir, and valacyclovir as first-line antiviral therapy for the treatment of patients with HZ. Specific recommendations for the use of these medications are provided. In addition, suggestions are made for treatments that, when used in combination with antiviral therapy, may further reduce pain and other complications of HZ.

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2007 Clinical Infectious Diseases

427. Recurrent benign lymphocytic meningitis. (PubMed)

, and famciclovir have been administered to some patients for both episodic therapy and suppression of recurrences. This therapy is thought to be beneficial, although there is no controlled trial data to support efficacy and safety.

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2006 Clinical Infectious Diseases

428. Hepatitis B virus kinetics and mathematical modeling. (PubMed)

Hepatitis B virus kinetics and mathematical modeling. In this article, we review modeling and interpretation of kinetics data obtained from patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection that has been treated with lamivudine, adefovir dipivoxil, and lamivudine plus famciclovir combination therapy.

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2004 Seminars in Liver Disease

429. Five-year follow-up of a hepatitis B virus-positive recipient of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive living donor liver graft. (PubMed)

graft. A 43-yr-old HBV-positive patient with hepatorenal syndrome received a living donor liver graft in October 2000 from a 27-yr-old HBsAg-positive carrier with no clinical evidence of HBV infection other than the serologic markers. The recipient recovered slowly after liver transplantation (LT). Recipient serum HBsAg was continuously positive despite anti-HBV therapy with high-dose hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and lamivudine. The patient was also treated with famciclovir and interferon

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2006 Liver Transplantation

430. A new strategy for studying in vitro the drug susceptibility of clinical isolates of human hepatitis B virus. (PubMed)

quasispecies isolated throughout the course of therapy from patients selected according to their mutation profile. A multiclonal and longitudinal analysis enabled us to measure the variation of drug susceptibility of different viral quasispecies by comparison of IC(50)/IC(90)s with standards. The presence of famciclovir- or lamivudine-induced mutations in the viral population caused a change in viral DNA synthesis capacity and drug susceptibility in vitro, demonstrating the clinical relevance of the assay

2004 Hepatology

431. Clinical emergence of entecavir-resistant hepatitis B virus requires additional substitutions in virus already resistant to Lamivudine. (PubMed)

, and the additional substitutions rtI169T and rtM250V emerged during ETV-3TC combination treatment. Reduced ETV susceptibility in vitro required the rtM250V substitution in addition to the 3TC(r) substitutions. For liver transplant patient B (AI463015-B), previous famciclovir, ganciclovir, foscarnet, and 3TC therapies had failed, and RT changes rtS78S/T, rtV173L, rtL180M, rtT184S, and rtM204V were present at study entry. Viral rebound occurred after 76 weeks of therapy with ETV at 1.0 mg, with the emergence

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2004 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

432. Susceptibilities of several clinical varicella-zoster virus (VZV) isolates and drug-resistant VZV strains to bicyclic furano pyrimidine nucleosides. (PubMed)

is presently based on four molecules, acyclovir (ACV), valaciclovir, famciclovir, and (in Europe) brivudine (BVDU). We present here our data on the antiviral activity of a new class of potent and selective anti-VZV compounds, bicylic pyrimidine nucleoside analogues (BCNAs), against a broad variety of clinical isolates and different drug-resistant virus strains. The results show that the BCNAs are far more potent inhibitors than ACV and BVDU against clinical VZV isolates as well as the VZV reference strains

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2005 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

433. Predicting and preventing post-herpetic neuralgia: are current risk factors useful in clinical practice? (PubMed)

a case of zoster identifies those patients who are most likely to develop long-term pain and treats them accordingly. In particular, prodrugs such as famciclovir and valaciclvoir may be more beneficial in reducing PHN than the shorter acting aciclovir, but can be more expensive. Measures that could be used to predict patients likely to develop PHN would also facilitate the evaluation of early use of antiepileptic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents in the prevention of PHN. In a prospective study

2006 European Journal of Pain

434. Systemic acyclovir reaction subsequent to acyclovir contact allergy: which systemic antiviral drug should then be used? (PubMed)

with the components of Zovirax cream (acyclovir, propylene glycol and sodium lauryl sulfate) and with other antiviral drugs. Patch tests were positive to Zovirax cream, acyclovir, valacyclovir and propylene glycol. Patch and prick tests with famciclovir were negative, but its oral administration caused an itchy erythematous dermatitis on the trunk and extremities. Our patient developed a systemic acyclovir reaction subsequent to acyclovir allergic contact dermatitis, with cross-reactions to valacyclovir (...) and famciclovir. Their common chemical structure is the 2-aminopurine nucleus. It is probably this part of the molecule that provokes both contact allergy and systemic reactions. The only antiviral drugs not having this core are foscarnet and cidofovir, and these could therefore be alternatives.

2003 Contact Dermatitis

435. Chickenpox (PubMed)

relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acyclovir, famciclovir, live attenuated vaccine, valaciclovir, varicella zoster immunoglobulin, and zoster immunoglobulin.

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2007 BMJ Clinical Evidence

436. Profiling penciclovir susceptibility and prevalence of resistance of herpes simplex virus isolates across eleven clinical trials. (PubMed)

Profiling penciclovir susceptibility and prevalence of resistance of herpes simplex virus isolates across eleven clinical trials. Asusceptibility testing program was established to determine the prevalence of resistance to penciclovir among herpes simplex virus isolates collected from patients participating in 11 world-wide clinical trials involving penciclovir (topical or intravenous formulations) or famciclovir, the oral prodrug of penciclovir. These trials represented nine randomised double (...) the susceptibility profile for a total of 2145 herpes simplex virus isolates from 913 immunocompetent and 288 immunocompromised patients treated with penciclovir, famciclovir, aciclovir or placebo (depending on trial design). HSV isolates were tested for susceptibility to penciclovir using the plaque reduction assay (PRA) in MRC-5 cells. Resistance was defined as an IC(50)>or=2.0 microg/ml or an IC(50)> 10-fold above the wild type control virus IC(50) within that particular assay. Penciclovir-resistant HSV

2003 Archives of virology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

437. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of emtricitabine in combination with other nucleoside antivirals in healthy volunteers. (PubMed)

nucleoside antivirals that are extensively eliminated by renal excretion. Potential interactions with stavudine and famciclovir were evaluated in single-dose studies, whereas interactions with zidovudine and its major metabolite, zidovudine glucuronide, were evaluated in a multiple-dose study. Plasma pharmacokinetic profiles and, in some studies, urinary excretion data were evaluated when each drug was administered alone and in combination with emtricitabine. Safety and plasma pharmacokinetic profiles

2007 Journal of clinical pharmacology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

438. [Effect of Huangbai Liquid on expression of human beta-defensin-2 mRNA in skin lesions of patients with recurrent genital herpes]. (PubMed)

[Effect of Huangbai Liquid on expression of human beta-defensin-2 mRNA in skin lesions of patients with recurrent genital herpes]. To investigate the expression of human beta-defensin-2 (HBD-2) mRNA in skin lesions of patients with recurrent genital herpes (RGH) and the effect of Huangbai Liquid (HL) on it.Twenty-seven patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups, the HL group (n = 14) treated with HL and the famciclovir group (n = 13) with famciclovir. HBD-2 expression of patients were detected (...) before and after the treatment and compared with that of 10 healthy subjects.HBD-2 expression was found in the skin lesions of both the healthy persons and the RGH patients before treatment. It is higher significantly in the HL group than in the famciclovir group after treatment.HL was suitable for treatment of RGH since it could improve immune function of RGH patients and keep a rather higher concentration of HBD-2 expression in local skin lesions.

2006 Zhongguo Zhong xi yi jie he za zhi Zhongguo Zhongxiyi jiehe zazhi = Chinese journal of integrated traditional and Western medicine / Zhongguo Zhong xi yi jie he xue hui, Zhongguo Zhong yi yan jiu yuan zhu ban Controlled trial quality: uncertain

439. Single-day therapy for recurrent genital herpes. (PubMed)

evaluated the effectiveness of patient-initiated single-day famciclovir versus placebo in the treatment of genital herpes and found that single-day famciclovir decreased healing time and the duration of pain and other symptoms, and increased the proportion of patients who did not progress to a full outbreak. Compared with previous studies, the results of single-day therapy are similar to or better than the results of conventional therapies of 2-5 days' duration. In addition, the convenience of single

2006 American journal of clinical dermatology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

440. Phenotypic and Genetic Characterization of Thymidine Kinase from Clinical Strains of Varicella-Zoster Virus Resistant to Acyclovir (PubMed)

Phenotypic and Genetic Characterization of Thymidine Kinase from Clinical Strains of Varicella-Zoster Virus Resistant to Acyclovir Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a common herpesvirus responsible for disseminated or chronic infections in immunocompromised patients. Effective drugs such as acyclovir (ACV), famciclovir (prodrug of penciclovir), and foscarnet are available to treat these infections. Here we report the phenotypic and genetic characterization of four ACV-resistant VZV strains

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1999 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

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