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401. The treatment of herpes simplex infections: an evidence-based review. (Full text)

The treatment of herpes simplex infections: an evidence-based review. Genital and labial herpes simplex virus infections are frequently encountered by primary care physicians in the United States. Whereas the diagnosis of this condition is often straightforward, choosing an appropriate drug (eg, acyclovir, valacyclovir hydrochloride, or famciclovir) and dosing regimen can be confusing in view of (1) competing clinical approaches to therapy; (2) evolving dosing schedules based on new research

2008 Archives of Internal Medicine PubMed abstract

402. The prevention and management of herpes zoster. (Abstract)

The prevention and management of herpes zoster. The burden of illness from herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in the Australian community is high. The incidence and severity of HZ and PHN increase with age in association with a progressive decline in cell-mediated immunity to varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Antiviral medications (valaciclovir, famciclovir, aciclovir) have been shown to be effective in reducing much but not all of the morbidity associated with HZ and PHN

2008 Medical Journal of Australia

403. Acyclovir to prevent reactivation of varicella zoster virus (herpes zoster) in multiple myeloma patients receiving bortezomib therapy. (Abstract)

prophylactically to all symptomatic myeloma patients.A retrospective review of the records of 125 myeloma patients who were treated with bortezomib and who also received routine acyclovir prophylaxis at the dose of 400 mg daily in >80% of patients was undertaken. Alternatives, used in <20% of patients, were 200 mg of acyclovir, 250/500 mg of valacyclovir, or 500 mg of famciclovir administered daily. This was accompanied by patient education regarding the importance of compliance with these prophylactic

2008 Cancer

404. Herpes zoster antivirals and pain management. (Abstract)

searching by pertinent topics, authors, and journals.If started within 72 hours of the onset of the acute HZ rash, the oral antiviral agents acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir significantly shorten the periods of acute pain, virus shedding, rash, acute and late-onset anterior segment complications, and, in the case of valacyclovir and famciclovir, the incidence and severity of PHN. However, these medications do not prevent PHN, which remains a common and debilitating complication of HZ in older

2008 Ophthalmology

405. Atypical herpes simplex infection masquerading as recalcitrant pemphigus vulgaris. (Abstract)

. Dramatic resolution was observed and the patient has remained free of disease for 13 months while taking only prophylactic famciclovir.

2007 Australasian Journal of Dermatology

406. Effect of formulary policy decisions on antimicrobial drug utilization in British Columbia. (Full text)

and famciclovir were also added to the formulary. During the time clarithromycin was off the formulary, the rate of change in its monthly consumption was 0.0061 DDD/1000 population/day; following its relisting, the rate of change increased by 818% to 0.0560 DDD/1000 population/day (P=0.002). After the listing of valaciclovir on the formulary, the rate of change in its monthly consumption increased 57% from a baseline of 0.0014 to 0.0022 DDD/1000 population/day (P=0.07). A similar effect was seen (...) with the addition of famciclovir to the formulary whereby the rate of change in monthly consumption increased from 0.0008 (before addition to the formulary) to 0.0018 (after addition to the formulary) (P

2005 Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

407. Management of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in HIV type 1-infected persons. (Full text)

. Nucleoside analogues (acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir) decrease the frequency and severity of HSV-2 recurrences and asymptomatic HSV-2 reactivation and are effective, safe, well-tolerated drugs in patients with HIV-1 infection. These anti-HSV drugs may result in additional clinical and public health benefits for persons with HIV-1 and HSV-2 coinfection by decreasing HIV-1 levels in the blood and genital tract. Given these benefits, HIV-1-infected persons should be routinely tested for HSV-2

2006 Clinical Infectious Diseases PubMed abstract

408. Recurrent benign lymphocytic meningitis. (Full text)

, and famciclovir have been administered to some patients for both episodic therapy and suppression of recurrences. This therapy is thought to be beneficial, although there is no controlled trial data to support efficacy and safety.

2006 Clinical Infectious Diseases PubMed abstract

409. Recommendations for the management of herpes zoster. (Full text)

at a consensus meeting. The results of controlled trials and the clinical experience of the authors support the use of acyclovir, brivudin (where available), famciclovir, and valacyclovir as first-line antiviral therapy for the treatment of patients with HZ. Specific recommendations for the use of these medications are provided. In addition, suggestions are made for treatments that, when used in combination with antiviral therapy, may further reduce pain and other complications of HZ.

2007 Clinical Infectious Diseases PubMed abstract

410. Hepatitis B virus kinetics and mathematical modeling. (Abstract)

Hepatitis B virus kinetics and mathematical modeling. In this article, we review modeling and interpretation of kinetics data obtained from patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection that has been treated with lamivudine, adefovir dipivoxil, and lamivudine plus famciclovir combination therapy.

2004 Seminars in Liver Disease

411. Five-year follow-up of a hepatitis B virus-positive recipient of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive living donor liver graft. (Abstract)

graft. A 43-yr-old HBV-positive patient with hepatorenal syndrome received a living donor liver graft in October 2000 from a 27-yr-old HBsAg-positive carrier with no clinical evidence of HBV infection other than the serologic markers. The recipient recovered slowly after liver transplantation (LT). Recipient serum HBsAg was continuously positive despite anti-HBV therapy with high-dose hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and lamivudine. The patient was also treated with famciclovir and interferon

2006 Liver Transplantation

412. Susceptibilities of several clinical varicella-zoster virus (VZV) isolates and drug-resistant VZV strains to bicyclic furano pyrimidine nucleosides. (Full text)

is presently based on four molecules, acyclovir (ACV), valaciclovir, famciclovir, and (in Europe) brivudine (BVDU). We present here our data on the antiviral activity of a new class of potent and selective anti-VZV compounds, bicylic pyrimidine nucleoside analogues (BCNAs), against a broad variety of clinical isolates and different drug-resistant virus strains. The results show that the BCNAs are far more potent inhibitors than ACV and BVDU against clinical VZV isolates as well as the VZV reference strains

2005 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

413. Clinical emergence of entecavir-resistant hepatitis B virus requires additional substitutions in virus already resistant to Lamivudine. (Full text)

, and the additional substitutions rtI169T and rtM250V emerged during ETV-3TC combination treatment. Reduced ETV susceptibility in vitro required the rtM250V substitution in addition to the 3TC(r) substitutions. For liver transplant patient B (AI463015-B), previous famciclovir, ganciclovir, foscarnet, and 3TC therapies had failed, and RT changes rtS78S/T, rtV173L, rtL180M, rtT184S, and rtM204V were present at study entry. Viral rebound occurred after 76 weeks of therapy with ETV at 1.0 mg, with the emergence

2004 Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy PubMed abstract

414. Recurrent antiviral-resistant genital herpes in an immunocompetent patient. (Full text)

as resistant to acyclovir and penciclovir. Antiviral resistance occurred in the setting of long-term prednisone treatment and intermittent acyclovir prophylaxis at suboptimal doses and persisted despite the cessation of oral steroid treatment. The patient's genital herpes outbreaks were not controlled by high-dose prophylaxis with acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir. Cessation of antiviral prophylaxis resulted in reversion of this patient's HSV-2 isolates to acyclovir and penciclovir sensitivity

2005 Journal of Infectious Diseases PubMed abstract

415. A new strategy for studying in vitro the drug susceptibility of clinical isolates of human hepatitis B virus. (Abstract)

quasispecies isolated throughout the course of therapy from patients selected according to their mutation profile. A multiclonal and longitudinal analysis enabled us to measure the variation of drug susceptibility of different viral quasispecies by comparison of IC(50)/IC(90)s with standards. The presence of famciclovir- or lamivudine-induced mutations in the viral population caused a change in viral DNA synthesis capacity and drug susceptibility in vitro, demonstrating the clinical relevance of the assay

2004 Hepatology

416. Primary treatment of acute retinal necrosis with oral antiviral therapy. (Abstract)

Primary treatment of acute retinal necrosis with oral antiviral therapy. To explore the possibility of oral antiviral therapy in lieu of intravenous acyclovir for treating acute retinal necrosis (ARN), a necrotizing retinopathy caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or 2 or by varicella zoster virus.Retrospective, interventional, small case series.Four patients (6 eyes).Patients were treated with oral antiviral therapy. Medications included valacyclovir (1 g 3 times daily), oral famciclovir (500 (...) detachment in the fellow eye was repaired 2 months later. Duration of antiviral therapy ranged from 5 weeks to 3 months.For 4 patients with relatively indolent cases of ARN, oral antiviral therapy alone was effective in eliminating signs and symptoms of the disease. In particular, oral valacyclovir and famciclovir appeared to be effective, although further study is necessary to determine whether these drugs are as effective as intravenous acyclovir for initial treatment of ARN.

2006 Ophthalmology

417. Treatment of acute retinal necrosis syndrome with oral antiviral medications. (Abstract)

Treatment of acute retinal necrosis syndrome with oral antiviral medications. Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a distinct ocular viral syndrome traditionally treated with intravenous acyclovir followed by oral acyclovir. We investigated the use of the oral antiviral medications valacyclovir and famciclovir as the sole treatment for patients with newly diagnosed ARN syndrome.Retrospective, uncontrolled, interventional case series.Eight consecutive patients with newly diagnosed ARN treated solely (...) with oral antiviral medications.All patients received famciclovir or valacyclovir without antecedent intravenous therapy. One patient with bilateral ARN treated with famciclovir received a single intravitreal injection of foscarnet in the more severely involved eye.Clinically and photographically documented complete resolution of retinitis and best-corrected visual acuity on final follow-up.Active retinitis resolved completely in 10/10 (100%) affected eyes. Initial response to treatment was seen

2007 Ophthalmology

418. A decline in hepatitis B virus surface antigen (hbsag) predicts clearance, but does not correlate with quantitative hbeag or HBV DNA levels. (Abstract)

liver transplant patients and 18 heart transplant recipients were retrospectively analysed. Patients had been treated with famciclovir and/or lamivudine, in addition some had also received adefovir in cases of lamivudine resistance. Quantitative HBsAg and hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) levels were determined with the Architect assay. HBV DNA levels were determined with different assays available at given time points.We did not find a significant correlation between either HBsAg or HBeAg and HBV

2008 Antiviral Therapy

419. Predicting and preventing post-herpetic neuralgia: are current risk factors useful in clinical practice? (Abstract)

a case of zoster identifies those patients who are most likely to develop long-term pain and treats them accordingly. In particular, prodrugs such as famciclovir and valaciclvoir may be more beneficial in reducing PHN than the shorter acting aciclovir, but can be more expensive. Measures that could be used to predict patients likely to develop PHN would also facilitate the evaluation of early use of antiepileptic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents in the prevention of PHN. In a prospective study

2006 European Journal of Pain

420. A meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of oral antiviral treatment to prevent genital herpes outbreaks. (Abstract)

A meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of oral antiviral treatment to prevent genital herpes outbreaks. Efficacy of oral antiviral therapies, ie, acyclovir, valacyclovir (VACV), and famciclovir, for suppression of recurrent genital herpes was studied at different doses and regimens.We sought to compare the clinical efficacies of the different oral antiviral drugs prescribed prophylactically to suppress recurrent genital herpes.MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles on genital (...) evaluated regimens, with comparable efficacies, were given twice daily, ie, acyclovir (400 mg twice daily), VACV (250 mg twice daily), and famciclovir (250 mg twice daily), or once daily (VACV 500 mg).The only end point available for all the studies was the number of patients presenting at least one recurrence of genital herpes during the observation period.The results of this first meta-analysis confirmed the high clinical efficacy of oral acyclovir, VACV, or famciclovir for prophylaxis against

2007 Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology

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