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Factor IX Deficiency

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161. New Direct-acting Antiviral for Hepatitis C (Epclusa?

. It interferes with vitamin K reductase, inhibiting vitamin K cycle and activation of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors II (fibrinogen), VII, IX, and X, and works as an anticoagulant. Note2:An enzyme which hydrolyzes ester. There are various kinds of esterase. Hemorrhage could be predicted based on the results of animal tests: The package insert explains that mechanism of onset and risk factors of hemorrhage due to interaction with warfarin are unknown [3,8]. However, at least vitamin K deficiency (...) K, which activates factors II, VII, IX and X, and prolongs PT and skin. It should be noted that there are cases in which bleeding occurred on the day of the treatment (cases 3 and 4) and those in which bleeding occurred and abnormality in coagulation factors was detected several days after the treatment (cases 1 and 2). In the latter, PT and PT-INR were immeasurable and there were increased potential risks of irreversible hemorrhage and death. Xofluza is metabolized by esterase (Note 2

2019 Med Check - The Informed Prescriber

162. Haemophilia

Haemophilia Haemophilia - Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Haemophilia Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: March 2018 Summary A bleeding disorder, usually inherited, characterised by the deficiency of coagulation factor VIII or IX. Occurs almost exclusively in males due to an X-linked pattern of inheritance. Graded as mild, moderate, or severe, based on factor VIII or IX level. Musculoskeletal (...) bleeding is the most common type of haemorrhage. Treatment consists of coagulation factor VIII or IX replacement. A major complication of treatment is the development of inhibitory antibodies against infused factor VIII or IX. Definition Haemophilia is a bleeding disorder, usually inherited with an X-linked recessive inheritance pattern, which results from the deficiency of a coagulation factor. Haemophilia A results from the deficiency of clotting factor VIII. Haemophilia B results from the deficiency

2018 BMJ Best Practice

163. Assessment of taste disorders

of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V). Surgical procedures involving the posterior mandible may damage the lingual nerve, causing a transient or permanent loss of taste. The posterior third of the tongue is innervated by the lingual branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve (cranial nerve IX) and the base of the tongue and epiglottis by the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X). From the cranial nerves, the fibres converge in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) in the brainstem. Leaving the NTS, the taste fibres still (...) of taste. Saliva is the natural oral solvent that dissolves food components to reach the taste receptors. Taste is also influenced by salivary composition, as a specific quality must be above normal saliva concentration in order to be perceived. Epidermal growth factor and nerve growth factor in saliva in taste function may play a role. Thus, both saliva quantity and quality can influence gustatory sensation. Bardow A, Nyvad B, Nauntofte B. Relationships between medication intake, complaints of dry

2018 BMJ Best Practice

164. Commentary on the KDIGO Guideline on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, Prevention and Treatment of CKD-MBD

of abnormal PTH levels in CKD-MBD Guideline 4.2.1 We suggest that CKD G3a-G5 patients with progressively rising or persistently elevated PTH levels should be evaluated for modifiable factors, which now includes high phosphate intake and vitamin D deficiency; treatment decisions should not be based on a single elevated value. Guideline 4.2.2 The updated guideline no longer recommends routine use of calcitriol or its analogs in non-dialysis CKD patients. We suggest that clinicians should reserve their use (...) (not graded) 2017 KDIGO Update 3.2.1: In patients with CKD G3a–G5D with evidence of CKD-MBD and/or risk factors for osteoporosis, we suggest BMD testing to assess fracture risk if results will impact treatment decisions (2B) Rationale It is now well established that patients with CKD G3a–G5D have increased fracture rates compared with the general population. In addition, it is clear that incident hip fractures are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, again, greater than that seen in age

2018 Renal Association

165. Updated recommendations on first-line and second-line antiretroviral regimens and post-exposure prophylaxis and recommendations on early infant diagnosis of HIV

warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall WHO be liable for damages arising from its use.iiiiv Updated recommendations on first-line and second-line antiretroviral regimens and post-exposure prophylaxis and recommendations on early infant diagnosis of HIV CONTENTS Acknowledgements vi Summary of key terms viii Abbreviations and acronyms ix Executive summary x 1. Objectives and target (...) of 600 mg (EFV 600) as the preferred first-line ART regimen for adults and adolescents to better harmonize across the majority of subpopulations and because of its known safety and efficacy profile (2) . DTG was recommended as an alternative option for first-line ART because data on the safety and efficacy of DTG had not been established during pregnancy or among people with both HIV and TB using rifampicin. Higher cost and lack of generic fixed-dose combinations were also important limiting factors

2019 World Health Organisation HIV Guidelines

166. Management of Stroke in Neonates and Children

, no single cause can be identified. Evaluation A recent prospective case-control study on neonates with AIS has suggested that routine thrombophilia testing is not indicated. This study demonstrated that thrombophilic conditions, including decreased levels of protein C, protein S, or antithrombin, increased levels of factor VIII, factor IX, factor XI, fibrinogen, lipoprotein(a), homocysteine, and anticardiolipin antibodies. The presence of lupus anticoagulant and genotyping of factor V Leiden (FVL (...) bruit) or a family history suggestive of an autosomal dominant syndrome such as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Management Markedly low platelet counts and coagulation factor deficiencies should be corrected. Large doses of vitamin K may be needed to correct factor deficiencies resulting from maternal medications. Surgical evacuation of a hematoma may reduce extremely high intracranial pressure (ICP) but is rarely performed in neonates, and it is not clear whether surgery improves

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2019 American Heart Association

167. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics

. Physical Inactivity e99 5. Nutrition e119 6. Overweight and Obesity e138 Health Factors and Other Risk Factors 7. High Blood Cholesterol and Other Lipids e161 8. High Blood Pressure e174 9. Diabetes Mellitus e193 10. Metabolic Syndrome e212 11. Kidney Disease e233 12. Sleep e249 Cardiovascular Conditions/Diseases 13. Total Cardiovascular Diseases e257 14. Stroke (Cerebrovascular Disease) e281 15. Congenital Cardiovascular Defects and Kawasaki Disease e327 16. Disorders of Heart Rhythm e346 17. Sudden (...) e511 26. Economic Cost of Cardiovascular Disease e516 Supplemental Materials 27. At-a-Glance Summary Tables e522 28. Glossary e526 Summary Each year, the American Heart Association (AHA), in conjunction with the National Institutes of Health and other government agencies, brings together in a single document the most up-to-date statistics related to heart disease, stroke, and the cardiovascular risk factors in the AHA’s My Life Check − Life’s Simple 7 ( ), which include core health behaviors

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2019 American Heart Association

168. AIM Cancer Treatment Pathways

, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (MVAC) chemotherapy and recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor vs classic MVAC in advanced urothelial tract tumors: European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Protocol no. 30924. J Clin Oncol. 2001 May;19(10):2638-46. PMID: 11352955 8. Sternberg CN, de Mulder P, Schornagel JH, et al. Seven year update of an EORTC phase III trial of high-dose intensity MVAC chemotherapy and GCSF versus classic MVAC in advanced urothelial tract tumours (...) chemotherapy for operable breast carcinoma: final analysis with 10- year follow-up. Cancer. 2003 Jun 1;97(11):2716-2723. 36. Joensuu H, Kellokumpu-Lehtinen PL, FinHer Study Investigators, et al. Adjuvant docetaxel or vinorelbine with or without trastuzumab for breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006 Feb 23;354(8):809-820. 37. Coudert BP, Largillier R, Arnould L, et al. Multicenter phase II trial of neoadjuvant therapy with trastuzumab, docetaxel, and carboplatin for human epidermal growth factor receptor-2

2019 AIM Specialty Health

169. Public health guidance on active case finding of communicable diseases in prison settings

manifested active TB Public health guidance on active case finding of communicable diseases in prison settings SCIENTIFIC ADVICE vi Mandatory testing Testing which is offered to all eligible people and cannot be refused Opt-in testing Testing which is voluntary and offered to all eligible people, often on the basis of identified risk factors; the person chooses whether to have the test Opt-out testing Testing modality where all eligible people are informed that the test will be performed unless (...) in prison settings and for the general population, as the vast majority of people in prison eventually return to their communities. There are several risk factors associated with increased transmission rates in prison settings, e.g. proximity (aggravated by overcrowding), which is common in some EU/EEA correctional facilities; high-risk sexual behaviour; injecting drug use; sharing of injecting equipment; and tattooing and piercing [10,12]. Diet and individual hygiene are also important risk factors

2018 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Public Health Guidance

170. Management of Cardiovascular Diseases during Pregnancy

Fertility treatment 3209 10.7 Recommendations 3209 11. Venous thrombo-embolic disease during pregnancy and the puerperium 3210 11.1 Epidemiology and maternal risk 3210 11.2 Risk factors for pregnancy-related venous thrombo-embolism and risk stratification 3210 11.3 Prevention of venous thrombo-embolism 3210 11.4 Management of acute venous thrombo-embolism 3210 11.4.1 Pulmonary embolism 3210 11.4.2 Acute deep vein thrombosis 3211 11.5 Recommendations 3211 11.5.1 Management of delivery 3211 12. Drugs (...) record a mean age between 28.8–31.2 years. The mild increase in maternal age does not justify an increase in CVD during pregnancy because of maternal age. However, pregnancies in the late reproductive years (or between ages of 40–50 years) are more frequently associated with an increasing prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, especially diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. Additionally, an increasing number of women with congenital heart disease reach childbearing age. In western countries

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2018 European Society of Cardiology

171. Overweight, Obesity and Contraception

use and venous thromboembolism (VTE). D Whilst obesity alone does not restrict the use of DMPA (UKMEC 1), DMPA use becomes a UKMEC 3 when obesity is one of multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease (e.g. smoking, diabetes and hypertension). B DMPA use appears to be associated with some weight gain, particularly in women under 18 years of age with a BMI =30 kg/m 2 . Clinical recommendation ü For women with obesity: ? If using intramuscular DMPA or norethisterone enanthate injectable (...) , consider use of a longer-length needle or deltoid administration to ensure the muscle layer is reached. ? Consider use of subcutaneous DMPA. Progestogen-only pill (POP) Key information D The available evidence suggests that effectiveness of the progestogen-only pill (POP) is not affected by body weight or BMI. D The available evidence suggests that POP is a safe contraceptive option for women who are overweight and women with obesity. ix Copyright ©Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare 2019 FSRH

2019 Faculty of Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare

172. ACR–ASNR–SCBT-MR Practice Parameter for the Performance of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the Adult Spine

calibration or by obtaining additional lines of k-space with each sequence as “auto calibration.” Numerous image reconstruction algorithms have been developed, including space domain–based techniques (SENSE), k-space regenerative techniques (SMASH, generalized SMASH and GRAPPA) and other hybrid techniques (SPACE-RIP). The maximum reduction in imaging time, reflected in parallel imaging acceleration factor, is 2 to 3 in each phase-encoding direction. The limitation of the accelerating factor is due (...) to increased noise associated with both reduced temporal averaging and the reconstruction process. The reduction in signal-to-noise ratio associated with higher parallel imaging factors can be counterbalanced by the increased signal-to-noise ratio at higher fields, improved surface coils, and advanced acquisition schemes. When imaging a small field of view, the sensitivity maps may be used to reduce wraparound artifact if the images are acquired without reduced k-space sampling. Parallel imaging

2019 American Society of Neuroradiology

173. Developing a Value Framework for Genetic Diagnosis: Part I A Systematic Review of Outcomes Hierarchies and Measurement Approaches

was abstracted into a Microsoft Access database (ACMG Value) designed for this project. Information was entered by Key Question (or subquestions) addressed and other factors (e.g., study methods if applicable, level of review). A bibliographic database was also established in EndNote (Thomson Reuters, Carlsbad, CA) to track all literature identified and reviewed during the study. A second reviewer (GEP) was available for discussion as needed. Data Analysis While some have debated the appropriateness (...) 4,5,17,56 , and quality improvement. 123 ? The first dimension, outcome, refers to change in a patient’s health status (e.g., survival, restoration of function) as a consequence of care provided. While outcomes represent a principal indicator of the quality of medical care, Donabedian noted that health outcomes reflect “..quality of care in the aggregate..” and do not provide insight into the “..nature and location of deficiencies or strengths to which the outcome might be attributed.” ? This conclusion

2019 American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics

174. Society of Interventional Radiology Consensus Guidelines for the Periprocedural Management of Thrombotic and Bleeding Risk in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Image-Guided Interventions—Part I: Review of Anticoagulation Agents and Clinical Considerations

, the entire clinical picture must be taken into consideration to understand the patient’s true bleeding risk. Table 1 Interpretation of Routine Coagulation Tests PT/INR PTT Fibrinogen D-Dimers Thrombin Time Platelet Count Interpretation ↑ Normal Normal Normal Normal Normal Liver disease, vitamin K antagonist, factor VII deficiency, oral factor Xa inhibitors Normal ↑ Normal Normal ↑ Normal Unfractionated heparin, dabigatran Normal ↑ Normal Normal Normal Normal With history of bleeding: factor VIII, IX (...) , or IX deficiency Normal ↑ Normal Normal Normal Normal Without history of bleeding: lupus anticoagulant, factor XII deficiency ↑ ↑ ↓ ↑ ↑ ↓ Acute disseminated intravascular coagulation Normal Normal Normal ↑ Normal Normal Acute thrombosis (nonspecific) INR = International Normalized Ratio; PT = prothrombin time; PTT = partial thromboplastin time. There are several classes of anticoagulant medications, such as low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and most direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), that may

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2019 Society of Interventional Radiology

175. Renal Cell Carcinoma

-operative circulating osteopontin, carbonic anhydrase IX and CRP in renal cell carcinoma. Br J Cancer, 2012. 107: 1131. 181. Sabatino, M., et al. Serum vascular endothelial growth factor and fibronectin predict clinical response to high-dose interleukin-2 therapy. J Clin Oncol, 2009. 27: 2645. 182. Li, G., et al. Serum carbonic anhydrase 9 level is associated with postoperative recurrence of conventional renal cell cancer. J Urol, 2008. 180: 510. 183. Choueiri, T.K., et al. A phase I study (...) . World J Urol, 2016. 34: 687. 32. Urge, T., et al. Typical signs of oncocytic papillary renal cell carcinoma in everyday clinical praxis. World J Urol, 2010. 28: 513. 33. Volpe, A., et al. Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC): oncological outcomes and prognostic factors in a large multicentre series. BJU Int, 2012. 110: 76. 34. Amin, M.B., et al. Collecting duct carcinoma versus renal medullary carcinoma: an appeal for nosologic and biological clarity. Am J Surg Pathol, 2014. 38: 871. 35. Shah, A.Y

2019 European Association of Urology

176. Guidelines for malaria vector control

on sprayed surfaces in houses (as in indoor residual spraying), attention should be paid to the environmental conditions and possible adverse factors (e.g. washing, re-plastering, soot) that affect the deposits on treated surfaces; these factors may reduce the effectiveness of treatment in a way that differs from the intrinsic rate of decay of the insecticide. biological insecticide* Pesticides made from natural materials that are meant to kill or control insects. These natural source materials may (...) of insecticide resistance in a vector population is an evolutionary phenomenon due to either behavioural avoidance (e.g. exophily instead of endophily) or physiological factors whereby the insecticide is metabolized, not potentiated, or absorbed less than by susceptible mosquitoes. integrated vector management Rational decision-making for optimal use of resources for vector control Note: The aim is to improve the efficacy, cost- effectiveness, ecological soundness and sustainability of vector control

2019 World Health Organisation Guidelines

178. Canadian guideline on HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis

, respectively. 6 National data on HIV incidence among sex workers and their cli- ents are scarce, perhaps in part because sex work is criminalized in Canada; as such, this guideline should be applied to these indi- viduals based on the presence of other risk factors. We adopted a client perspective, as our primary intended audi- ence is clinicians working in primary care, infectious diseases, emergency medicine, nursing, pharmacy and related disciplines. GUIDELINE Canadian guideline on HIV pre-exposure (...) and industrialized country guidelines. The World Health Orga- nization recommends PrEP for any risk group with HIV incidence higher than 3%. 34 More granular recommendations are made for MSM, PWID and heterosexual populations in guidelines from Europe, the United Kingdom, United States and Australia, based on addi- tional risk factors. 35–38 For MSM, most recommend PrEP for those with a previous STI, and previous nPEP is also included by the Interna- tional Antiviral Society–USA guideline. In contrast, no other

2017 CPG Infobase

179. Screen-based activities and children and young people’s mental health and psychosocial wellbeing: a systematic map of reviews

). - Fewer reviews attempted to explore the risk factors (n=6) or consequences (n=11) of screen- based activities by conducting syntheses of longitudinal data. - Even fewer reviews explored CYP’s experience of engagement with screen-based activities by conducting a qualitative evidence synthesis (n=4). Outcomes A wide spectrum of mental health and psychosocial outcomes were investigated across the reviews. These included commonly recognised mental health outcomes such as depression and anxiety (...) , in addition to outcomes such as self-esteem, loneliness, social connectedness and life satisfaction. Population focus Fifty-seven reviews focused solely on CYP populations (i.e. people up to the age of 25 years), while the remaining twenty-five reviews included populations of any age. Overall, there was greater ix emphasis on CYP populations in the context of screen time, gaming, social media, cyberbullying, and sexting compared to internet use and problematic internet use. Size and analysis

2018 EPPI Centre

180. Interventions to improve the labour market outcomes of youth: a systematic review of training, entrepreneurship promotion, employment services and subsidized employment interventions

” and, in this regard, targeting disadvantaged youth may act as a key factor for success. 14 The Campbell Collaboration | www.campbellcollaboration.org There is a need to strengthen the evidence base with more studies of promising programmes, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Further research should investigate intermediate outcomes and soft skills, and should collect cost data. How up-to-date is this review? The review authors searched for studies published up to January 2015. This Campbell systematic review (...) to assess factors associated with the magnitude of reported effect size estimates. RESULTS The primary and complementary searches identified 32,117 records, of which a total of 1,141 records were selected for full text screening. The subsequent selection process led to a sample of 113 reports, which were considered to be of adequate content and methodological rigour for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The 113 reports represented 107 interventions. The evidence base spanned 31 countries and covered 55

2017 Campbell Collaboration

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