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Facial Nerve Paralysis Causes

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101. A novel syndrome caused by the E410K amino acid substitution in the neuronal β-tubulin isotype 3. (PubMed)

does indeed segregate with the mutation, and expand the TUBB3 E410K phenotype to include Kallmann syndrome (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia), stereotyped midface hypoplasia, intellectual disabilities and, in some cases, vocal cord paralysis, tracheomalacia and cyclic vomiting. Neuroimaging reveals a thin corpus callosum and anterior commissure, and hypoplastic to absent olfactory sulci, olfactory bulbs and oculomotor and facial nerves, which support underlying abnormalities in axon (...) A novel syndrome caused by the E410K amino acid substitution in the neuronal β-tubulin isotype 3. Missense mutations in TUBB3, the gene that encodes the neuronal-specific protein β-tubulin isotype 3, can cause isolated or syndromic congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles, a form of complex congenital strabismus characterized by cranial nerve misguidance. One of the eight TUBB3 mutations reported to cause congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles, c.1228G>A results in a TUBB3 E410K

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2013 Brain

102. Clinical features and management of facial nerve paralysis in children: analysis of 24 cases. (PubMed)

Clinical features and management of facial nerve paralysis in children: analysis of 24 cases. To evaluate the causes, treatment modalities and recovery rate of paediatric facial nerve paralysis.We analysed 24 cases of paediatric facial nerve paralysis diagnosed in the otolaryngology department of Gachon University Gil Medical Center between January 2001 and June 2006.The most common cause was idiopathic palsy (16 cases, 66.7 per cent). The most common degree of facial nerve paralysis on first (...) presentation was House-Brackmann grade IV (15 of 24 cases). All cases were treated with steroids. One of the 24 cases was also treated surgically with facial nerve decompression. Twenty-two cases (91.6 per cent) recovered to House-Brackmann grade I or II over the six-month follow-up period.Facial nerve paralysis in children can generally be successfully treated with conservative measures. However, in cases associated with trauma, radiological investigation is required for further evaluation and treatment.

2009 Journal of Laryngology & Otology

103. The Effect of Surgical Timing on Functional Outcomes of Traumatic Facial Nerve Paralysis. (PubMed)

The Effect of Surgical Timing on Functional Outcomes of Traumatic Facial Nerve Paralysis. The optimal timing for surgical exploration of traumatic facial paralysis to best preserve facial function is currently controversial. This article reviews the final outcomes of facial function in patients with traumatic intratemporal facial nerve injury according to the timing of surgical exploration.We performed a retrospective review of 58 patients with complete facial nerve paralysis caused by temporal (...) grading systems.The final functional gains in early-operated patients were 3.7 +/- 0.59 on the House-Brackmann (HB) scale and 75.6 +/- 10.88 on the Sunnybrook scale. The outcome in late-operated patients was 2.17 +/- 0.52 on the HB scale and 34.7 +/- 16.95 on the Sunnybrook scale, and that of nonoperated patients was 2.0 +/- 0.63 on the HB scale and 26.8 +/- 6.27 on the Sunnybrook scale.This study demonstrated that some patients with traumatic facial nerve paralysis who had nerve conduction studies

2009 Journal of Trauma

104. Overview of Neuro-ophthalmologic and Cranial Nerve Disorders

disease (eg, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) *Disorders that cause diffuse motor paralysis (eg, myasthenia gravis, botulism, variant Guillain-Barré syndrome, poliomyelitis with bulbar involvement) often affect cranial nerves. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis may cause prominent tongue fasciculations. Causes and symptoms of neuro-ophthalmologic and cranial nerve disorders overlap. Both types of disorders can result from tumors, inflammation, trauma, systemic disorders, and degenerative or other processes (...) , causing such symptoms as vision loss, diplopia, ptosis, pupillary abnormalities, periocular pain, facial pain, or headache. Diagnosis Evaluation of neuro-ophthalmologic and cranial nerve disorders includes the following: Detailed questioning about symptoms Tests to detect nystagmus (see ) Visual system examination includes ophthalmoscopy and testing of visual acuity, visual fields (see Table: ), pupils (see Table: ), and eye movements (ocular motility—see Table: ). As part of this testing, the 2nd

2013 Merck Manual (19th Edition)

105. Central facial palsy

. To examine facial muscle movement often, (TMS) is used. Upper motoneuron lesions to the face often cause paralysis. The lesions cause weakness in various areas of the face while not affecting other areas of the face. This pattern of weakness due to the input of the motor neurons of the lower facial muscles is often maintained contralateral. The strength of the muscles in the upper region of the face are preserved better than the muscles in the lower face. It was found that in many anatomical studies (...) . from both sides of the brain) while the ventral division receives only input (i.e. from the opposite side of the brain). Thus, lesions of the between the and and the facial motor nucleus destroy or reduce input to the ventral division, but input (i.e. from the same side) to the dorsal division is retained. As a result, central facial palsy is characterized by hemiparalysis or of the contralateral , but not the muscles of the . Contents Signs and symptoms [ ] Central facial palsy is the paralysis

2012 Wikipedia

106. Suspected neurological conditions: recognition and referral

and referral (NG127) © NICE 2019. All rights reserved. Subject to Notice of rights (https://www.nice.org.uk/terms-and- conditions#notice-of-rights). Page 11 of 731.6 Headaches in adults For advice on referral for headaches in adults, see the NICE guideline on headaches in over 12s. 1.7 Limb or facial weakness in adults Sudden-onset limb weakness Sudden-onset limb weakness 1.7.1 Be aware that sudden-onset weakness, even in restricted distribution (for example, sudden hand weakness), may be caused (...) claudication symptoms in adults with adequate peripheral circulation might be caused by lumbar canal stenosis and need specialist assessment and imaging. Recurrent limb or facial weakness as part of a functional neurological disorder Recurrent limb or facial weakness as part of a functional neurological disorder 1.7.7 Be aware that, for adults who have been diagnosed with a functional neurological disorder by a specialist, recurrent limb weakness might be part of the disorder and the person might not need

2019 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

107. Facial animation in patients with Moebius and Moebius-like syndromes. (PubMed)

Facial animation in patients with Moebius and Moebius-like syndromes. Moebius syndrome, a rare congenital disorder of varying severity, involves multiple cranial nerves and is characterised predominantly by bilateral or unilateral paralysis of the facial and abducens nerves. Facial paralysis causes inability to smile and bilabial incompetence with speech difficulties, oral incompetence, problems with eating and drinking, including pocketing of food in the cheek and dribbling, as well as severe (...) was observed with an excellent or good facial symmetry at rest in all patients and whilst smiling in 87% of cases. In conclusion, according to the literature, the gracilis muscle free transfer can be considered a safe and reliable technique for facial reanimation with good aesthetic and functional results.Copyright © 2010 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2010 International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

108. A case of middle-ear cavernous lymphangioma with facial palsy. (PubMed)

with facial nerve tissue, which was resected at its horizontal portion, and the remaining facial nerve was fixed by end-to-end anastomosis. Complete facial paralysis occurred after the operation, but the patient's House-Brackmann grade gradually improved to grade III. Post-operative histopathological examination revealed infiltration of the lymphangioma into the facial nerve tissue, together with mild neural atrophy of the facial nerve.These findings suggested that tumour invasion was the cause of facial (...) A case of middle-ear cavernous lymphangioma with facial palsy. Only a few benign tumours of the middle ear have been reported to lead to the development of facial palsy. Here, we describe a patient with middle-ear cavernous lymphangioma and facial palsy.Single case study.A 61-year-old man presented with left-sided hearing impairment and incomplete left facial palsy. A tumour was confirmed to be occupying the epi- to mesotympanum and to be joined to the facial nerve. The tumour was removed along

2010 Journal of Laryngology & Otology

109. Is there any evidence of any therapy to improve a residual facial weakness following Bell's palsy in a 45 yr old woman who was treated with steroids and aciclovir on presentation 6 months ago?

evidence of any therapy to improve a residual facial weakness following Bell's palsy in a 45 yr old woman who was treated with steroids and aciclovir on presentation 6 months ago? eMedicine an American online textbook contains a chapter that looks at the follow-up of patients with Bell’s palsy (1). This notes: “If the paralysis is not resolved or is progressing to complete paralysis, a thorough neurologic and HEENT examination should be performed to rule out neoplastic causes of seventh nerve palsy (...) . The patient should be monitored if the initial EMG shows the involved facial muscles to have less than 25% of the function of the normal side. If the residual paralysis is severe, the patient should be referred for counseling.” A patient information leaflet published by the NHS (2)contains a section on further treatment which states: “The majority of people who have Bell's palsy will make a full recovery within nine months. If you have not made a complete recovery by this time, you may have experienced

2009 TRIP Answers

110. Otitis media (acute): antimicrobial prescribing

to hospital if they have acute otitis media associated with: a severe systemic infection (see the NICE guideline on sepsis) acute complications, including mastoiditis, meningitis, intracranial abscess, sinus thrombosis or facial nerve paralysis. See the evidence and committee discussion on choice of antibiotic. 1.2 Self-care All children and y All children and young people with acute otitis media oung people with acute otitis media 1.2.1 Offer regular doses of paracetamol or ibuprofen for pain, using (...) of infection, hearing loss (which is usually temporary) and perforated eardrum. However, antibiotics make little difference to the rates of these (see efficacy of antibiotics). Acute complications of acute otitis media (such as mastoiditis, meningitis, intracranial abscess, sinus thrombosis and facial nerve paralysis) are rare. The incidence of mastoiditis after otitis media is 1.8 per 10,000 episodes after antibiotics compared with 3.8 per 10,000 episodes without antibiotics. This gives a NNT of 4,831

2018 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence - Clinical Guidelines

111. Bell's palsy before Bell: Evert Jan Thomassen à Thuessink and idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis. (PubMed)

Bell's palsy before Bell: Evert Jan Thomassen à Thuessink and idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis. Bell's palsy is the eponym for idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis. It is named after Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842), who, in the first half of the nineteenth century, discovered the function of the facial nerve and attracted the attention of the medical world to facial paralysis. Our knowledge of this condition before Bell's landmark publications is very limited and is based on just a few (...) , idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis and trigeminal neuralgia were related, being different expressions of the same condition. Thomassen à Thuessink believed that idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis was caused by 'rheumatism' or exposure to cold. Many aetiological theories have since been proposed. Despite this, the cold hypothesis persists even today.

2009 Journal of Laryngology & Otology

112. Trigeminal nerve

to a peripheral nerve can cause paralysis of muscles on one side of the jaw, with the jaw deviating towards the paralyzed side when it opens. This direction of the mandible is due to the action of the functioning pterygoids on the opposite side. Sensation [ ] Main article: The two basic types of sensation are touch-position and pain-temperature. Touch-position input comes to attention immediately, but pain-temperature input reaches the level of consciousness after a delay; when a person steps on a pin (...) in the . Thalamic nuclei, in turn, send information to specific areas in the . Each pathway consists of three bundles of nerve fibers connected in series: The secondary neurons in each pathway (cross the spinal cord or brainstem), because the spinal cord develops in segments. Decussated fibers later reach and connect these segments with the higher centers. The is the primary cause of decussation; nasal fibers of the optic nerve cross (so each cerebral hemisphere receives contralateral—opposite—vision) to keep

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2012 Wikipedia

113. Overview of musculoskeletal pain

=bestpractice.com Most commonly results from motor vehicle accidents, gunshot or stab wounds, contact sports, or workplace accidents during heavy physical labour. The effects of the injury include paralysis, loss of sensation, and pain. The specific clinical presentation will depend on the nerve roots involved and the degree of injury to each root. A bursa is a sac containing a small amount of synovial fluid that lies between a tendon and either skin or bone to act as a friction buffer. In bursitis (...) Overview of musculoskeletal pain Overview of musculoskeletal pain - Summary of relevant conditions | BMJ Best Practice You'll need a subscription to access all of BMJ Best Practice Search  Overview of musculoskeletal pain Last reviewed: February 2019 Last updated: July 2018 Introduction Musculoskeletal pain is very common, may be acute or chronic, and is a major cause of morbidity and occupational sickness absence. Studies have found a prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal pain

2018 BMJ Best Practice

114. Management of Stroke in Neonates and Children

scientific statement on pediatric stroke was published 10 years ago. Although stroke has long been recognized as an adult health problem causing substantial morbidity and mortality, it is also an important cause of acquired brain injury in young patients, occurring most commonly in the neonate and throughout childhood. This scientific statement represents a synthesis of data and a consensus of the leading experts in childhood cardiovascular disease and stroke. Methods— Members of the writing group were (...) health problem causing substantial morbidity and mortality, it is also an important cause of acquired brain injury in young patients, occurring most commonly in the neonate and throughout childhood. This scientific statement represents a synthesis of data and a consensus of the leading experts in childhood cardiovascular disease and stroke. Overview of Childhood and Perinatal Stroke Introduction and Definition The standard adult definition of stroke—an acute onset neurological sign or symptom

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2019 American Heart Association

115. Head and neck imaging

Laryngeal edema 17 Osseous lesions 17 Osteonecrosis of the jaw 17 Salivary gland ductal calculi 17 Torticollis (Pediatric only) 17 Tracheal stenosis or upper airway obstruction 18 Signs and Symptoms 18 Dizziness or vertigo 18 Hearing loss 18 Hoarseness, dysphonia, and vocal cord weakness/paralysis 19 Horner’s syndrome 20 Localized facial pain 20 Lymphadenopathy 20 Stridor 21 Tinnitus 21 Pulsatile tinnitus (Pediatric only) 21 Visual disturbance or visual field defect 22 References 22 Codes 24 History 24 (...) hearing loss PEDIATRIC Advanced imaging is considered medically necessary to evaluate for a structural cause of sensorineural, conductive, or mixed hearing loss. IMAGING STUDY - MRI brain preferred for evaluation of sensorineural hearing loss - CT orbit/sella/posterior fossa preferred for evaluation of conductive or mixed hearing loss Rationale The primary purpose of imaging sensorineural hearing loss is to detect retrocochlear pathology, typically a tumor of the vestibular nerve (cranial nerve 8

2019 AIM Specialty Health

116. Appropriate Use Criteria: Imaging of the Brain

sclerosis and other white matter diseases 11 Inflammatory conditions, unspecified 11 Trauma 11 Trauma 11 Tumor or Neoplasm 12 Acoustic neuroma (Adult only) 12 Pituitary adenoma (Adult only) 13 Tumor – not otherwise specified 13 Miscellaneous Conditions 14 Bell’s palsy (peripheral facial nerve palsy) 14 Cerebrovascular accident or transient ischemic attack 14 Dementia (Adult only) 15 Horner’s syndrome 16 Hydrocephalus/ventricular assessment 16 Mental status change and encephalopathy 17 Movement disorders (...) (Adult only) 17 Neurocutaneous disorders 18 Pseudotumor cerebri (Pediatric only) 18 Seizure disorder 18 Seizure, refractory 19 Imaging of the Brain Copyright © 2019. AIM Specialty Health. All Rights Reserved. 3 Trigeminal neuralgia and persistent idiopathic facial pain (Adult only) 20 Perioperative/Periprocedural Imaging 20 Lumbar puncture risk assessment 20 Signs and Symptoms 20 Dizziness or vertigo 21 Headache 21 Hearing loss 25 Papilledema 25 Syncope 26 Tinnitus (Adult only) 26 Visual disturbance

2019 AIM Specialty Health

117. Corticosteroids

), African Index Medicus (up to January 2015), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (up to July 2015), EMBASE (up to July 2015) and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) for ongoing trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised 2015 14. Antiviral Agents Added to Corticosteroids for Early Treatment of Adults With Acute Idiopathic Facial Nerve Paralysis (Bell Palsy). CLINICAL QUESTION: Compared with oral corticosteroids alone, are oral antiviral drugs associated (...) Discover NIHR Signal Corticosteroids improve recovery rates after Bell’s palsy Published on 29 November 2016 Taking a corticosteroid within 72 hours of Bell’s palsy first appearing reduces the number of people with incomplete facial recovery after six months. Bell’s palsy is a sudden onset of weakness or paralysis (...) of the muscles on one side of the face. Most people recover completely within nine months, often with no treatment, but about three in 10 people are left with some weakness or unwanted

2018 Trip Latest and Greatest

118. Acyclovir

have questions please contact us via jon.brassey@tripdatabase.com Top results for acyclovir 1. Valacyclovir versus acyclovir for the treatment of herpes zoster ophthalmicus in immunocompetent patients. BACKGROUND: Herpes zoster ophthalmicus affects the eye and vision, and is caused by the reactivation of the varicella zoster virus in the distribution of the first division of the trigeminal nerve. An aggressive management of acute herpes zoster ophthalmicus with systemic antiviral medication (...) . 17942873 2007 10 18 2007 10 25 2013 11 21 1533-4406 357 16 2007 Oct 18 The New England journal of medicine N. Engl. J. Med. Early treatment with prednisolone or acyclovir in Bell's palsy. 1598-607 Corticosteroids and antiviral agents are widely used to treat the early stages of idiopathic facial paralysis (i.e., Bell's palsy), but their effectiveness is uncertain. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized (...) , factorial trial involving patients with Bell's palsy who were recruited

2018 Trip Latest and Greatest

119. Treatment for Acute Pain: An Evidence Map

associated with drugs, a wide variety of nondrug therapies for pain are becoming more widely used, including ice, heat, acupuncture, chiropractic manipulation, physical therapy, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, massage therapy, exercise, and psychological approaches (cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness-based stress reduction). Purpose of Technical Brief This evidence map identifies and describes the current research on treatment for pain attributable to acute pain conditions selected (...) . Musculoskeletal pain, including back and neck pain, is frequently seen in a variety of settings. Back problems and headaches (including migraines) are two of the most common reasons people visit their healthcare providers. 33 Treating musculoskeletal pain appropriately requires identifying the cause (pain pathway). • KIs agreed on the importance of the acute pain conditions in the statement of work, but mentioned other conditions not as thoroughly addressed in available research, including compression

2019 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

120. Management of Stroke Rehabilitation

individuals annually in the United States (U.S.). Approximately 75% of these are first-time strokes, while the remaining 25% are recurrent strokes.[2] While often viewed as a disease of the elderly, stroke can occur at any age. Approximately 10% of all strokes occur in individuals aged 18-50.[2] Currently, stroke is the fifth most common cause of death in the U.S. and a leading cause of long-term disability.[2] While younger patients may be more physically capable of recovering from stroke than older (...) in the form of medical, surgical, or rehabilitation interventions is essential to help reduce disability severity, decrease the risk of further complications, and lessen potentially life-long deficits.[5,6] Unfortunately, in approximately 30% of ischemic stroke cases, the cause of the stroke remains unknown.[7] Ischemic strokes with no obvious cause are labelled as “cryptogenic” strokes and are more common in younger patients than in the elderly.[8] This is largely due to the lack of comorbidities

2019 VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guidelines

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