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Facial Nerve Paralysis Causes

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61. Validation of a French-language Version of Quality of Life Questionnaires in Patients With Peripheral Facial Palsy

Drug Product: No Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No Additional relevant MeSH terms: Layout table for MeSH terms Facies Paralysis Facial Paralysis Bell Palsy Disease Attributes Pathologic Processes Neurologic Manifestations Nervous System Diseases Signs and Symptoms Mouth Diseases Stomatognathic Diseases Herpesviridae Infections DNA Virus Infections Virus Diseases Facial Nerve Diseases Cranial Nerve Diseases (...) prognosis is not engaged in this pathology. Facial palsy remains a personal drama for patient. Consequences may take the form of: aesthetic deformation, modification of body image, with socio-professional consequences. Beside unsightly facial aspects, weakness of facial muscles can cause troubles in eating, drinking, talking, communicating personal emotions and communication. Facial palsy impacts patients' quality of life (QOL) and affects mental health. This wide multidimensional concept usually

2018 Clinical Trials

62. Facial diplegia, pharyngeal paralysis, and ophthalmoplegia after a timber rattlesnake envenomation. (PubMed)

called crotoxin, or the "canebrake toxin," which is a potent β-neurotoxin affecting presynaptic nerves that can cause paralysis by inhibiting appropriate neuromuscular transmission. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old boy bitten twice on his calf by a timber rattlesnake, who presented with a life-threatening envenomation and suffered multisystem organ failure as well as a prominent presynaptic neurotoxicity resulting in facial diplegia, pharyngeal paralysis, and ophthalmoplegia. (...) Facial diplegia, pharyngeal paralysis, and ophthalmoplegia after a timber rattlesnake envenomation. The timber rattlesnake, also known as Crotalus horridus, is well known to cause significant injury from toxins stored within its venom. During envenomation, toxic systemic effects immediately begin to cause damage to many organ systems including cardiovascular, hematologic, musculoskeletal, respiratory, and neurologic. One defining characteristic of the timber rattlesnake is a specific neurotoxin

2013 Pediatric Emergency Care

63. Facial nerve palsy caused by parotid gland abscess. (PubMed)

Facial nerve palsy caused by parotid gland abscess. We present the first report of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Propionibacterium acnes parotid abscesses complicated by facial nerve palsy. Facial nerve palsy secondary to parotid gland abscess is rare, with only eight previously reported cases.Case reports and literature review concerning parotid abscess and facial nerve palsy presentation and management.Within two months, two female patients presented with parotid gland (...) abscess complicated by unilateral facial paralysis. Both were treated with intravenous antibiotics and surgery. In the first case, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was cultivated, in the other, Propionibacterium acnes was found. In the first case, facial nerve function did not recover.Parotid gland abscess can lead to facial paralysis. Both methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Propionibacterium acnes may be involved. Ultrasonography or computed tomography is recommended

2011 Journal of Laryngology & Otology

64. Monitors, Facial Nerve

be expected during a given operative procedure depends on the following variables: The adequacy of intramuscular electrode placement The number of independent electromyographic channels The effectiveness of nerve stimulation The level of nerve irritability The conduction status of the nerve distal to the point of stimulation Silverstein pointed out that a conduction block in the distal portion of the nerve causes a loss in the monitoring value of the facial nerve monitor proximal to that point. [ ] Prass (...) of whether both the orbicularis oris and the orbicularis oculi channels are activated with intraoperative stimulation. Identification of injury risk The monitor can be used to determine that certain types of surgical manipulations are potentially injurious to the nerve. Tugging, torsion of the nerve, or scraping tumor from the nerve may result in facial nerve stimulations, which, in turn, can indicate to the surgeon that he or she is at risk of causing facial nerve injury. The surgeon can then adjust his

2014 eMedicine Surgery

65. Facial Nerve, Intratemporal Tumors

: Pathophysiology Most symptoms of facial nerve dysfunction due to a neoplasm are caused by compression of the nerve secondary to tumor growth. Therefore, a relatively small tumor can become symptomatic if it arises within a narrow bony canal (eg, at the labyrinthine segment), while a more proximal tumor within the cerebellopontine angle can become quite large before causing symptoms. In addition, hemangiomas can produce facial nerve paralysis even when they are too small (several millimeters in diameter (...) ) to cause nerve compression. Some have suggested that the hemangioma shunts blood flow away from the facial nerve segment, causing local ischemia and leading to paralysis. A study by Doshi et al of 28 patients with facial nerve schwannomas found that the tumor most frequently affected the facial nerve segment running through the internal auditory canal (19 patients, or 68%). The investigators also found that 46% of patients had multisegmental schwannomas. Hearing loss and facial weakness were the most

2014 eMedicine Surgery

66. Facial Nerve, Intratemporal Bone Trauma

to these anatomic factors. can result in devastating social consequences for the patient. The seventh, ie, facial, nerve contains motor, sensory, and parasympathetic fibers. Among its functions are the vital control of facial expression, taste to the anterior two thirds of the tongue, and salivary-gland and lacrimal-gland secretion. More than 40 causes of facial paralysis are known. Trauma is a distant second to idiopathic or as a cause of facial nerve paralysis. In an overview of 1322 patients with facial (...) paralysis, May (1983) reported that 16% were caused by trauma. [ ] Although the facial nerve is susceptible to trauma along its entire length, the temporal bone is the most common site of trauma resulting in facial paralysis. The objective of this article is to review facial paralysis resulting from trauma to the intratemporal bone. Next: Epidemiology Frequency Approximately 5% of people who have trauma have temporal bone fractures. These fractures are traditionally classified with respect to the axis

2014 eMedicine Surgery

67. Facial Nerve Repair

: Tang Ho, MD, MSc; Chief Editor: Arlen D Meyers, MD, MBA Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Facial Nerve Repair Overview Background This article describes facial nerve repair for facial paralysis. Paralysis of the facial nerve is a cause of significant functional and aesthetic compromise. [ ] Functional concerns primarily involve adequate protection of the eye, with a real risk of exposure keratitis if not properly addressed. In addition, swallowing, drooling, and speech difficulties (...) of the facial nerve. Facial paralysis has many causes, which may be conveniently divided into the following 5 categories: Congenital Idiopathic Traumatic Neoplastic Inflammatory Congenital facial paralysis, as in the well-described although poorly understood Möbius syndrome, is uncommon. Idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell palsy) is the most common type. It is often thought to be due to virally induced inflammation of the nerve that results in functional compromise, swelling, and vascular compromise. Facial

2014 eMedicine Surgery

68. Facial Nerve Embryology

, accurate diagnosis is important if the etiology is traumatic. In rare cases, surgery and facial nerve repair may be required in the newborn if the etiology is determined to be traumatic. The evaluation of facial nerve paralysis includes the use of electromyograms (EMGs), evoked electromyograms (EEMGs), and computed tomography (CT) scans. If the etiology is traumatic, the nerve can be stimulated for 3-5 days postnatal; fibrillation potentials on EMG develop 14-21 days after birth. If the cause (...) Stapedius muscle Manubrium of malleus Long process incus Stapes (except for footplate) Facial canal Styloid process Stylohyoid ligament Lesser cornu of hyoid Upper body of hyoid Previous Next: Congenital Facial Paralysis Abnormalities of the facial nerve may occur in conjunction with malformations of the ear, in isolation without associated anomalies, or in conjunction with a variety of syndromes that include abnormalities elsewhere in the body. In the newborn, the otolaryngologist evaluating a facial

2014 eMedicine Surgery

69. Facial Nerve Anatomy

is thought to be due to basal nuclei disease. Lower midbrain A lesion in the lower midbrain above the level of the facial nucleus may cause contralateral paresis of the face and muscles of the extremities, ipsilateral abducens muscle paresis (due to effects on the abducens nerve), and ipsilateral internal strabismus. If the lesion extends far enough laterally to include the emerging facial nerve fibers, a peripheral type of ipsilateral facial paralysis may be apparent. Pons The facial motor nucleus (...) is located in the lower third of the pons, beneath the fourth ventricle. The neurons leaving the nucleus pass around the abducens nucleus as they emerge from the brainstem. Involvement of the facial nerve nucleus and VI nerve nucleus are suggestive of a lesion near the fourth ventricle. A lesion near the ventricle at the level of the superior salivatory nucleus may result in a dry eye in addition to a peripheral facial paralysis and abducens paresis. Many syndromes are known to result from pontine

2014 eMedicine Surgery

70. A Rodent Model of Dynamic Facial Reanimation Using Functional Electrical Stimulation (PubMed)

A Rodent Model of Dynamic Facial Reanimation Using Functional Electrical Stimulation Facial paralysis can be a devastating condition, causing disfiguring facial droop, slurred speech, eye dryness, scarring and blindness. This study investigated the utility of closed-loop functional electric stimulation (FES) for reanimating paralyzed facial muscles in a quantitative rodent model. The right buccal and marginal mandibular branches of the rat facial nerve were transected for selective, unilateral (...) paralysis of whisker muscles. Microwire electrodes were implanted bilaterally into the facial musculature for FES and electromyographic (EMG) recording. With the rats awake and head-fixed, whisker trajectories were tracked bilaterally with optical micrometers. First, the relationship between EMG and volitional whisker movement was quantified on the intact side of the face. Second, the effect of FES on whisker trajectories was quantified on the paralyzed side. Third, closed-loop experiments were

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2017 Frontiers in neuroscience

71. Five-Year Experience with Fifth-to-Seventh Nerve Transfer for Smile. (PubMed)

that are predictive of outcome.The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients who underwent five-to-seven nerve transfer for smile reanimation from 2012 to 2017. Age, sex, cause of facial paralysis, onset and duration of paralysis, history of adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, donor nerve used, adjunctive procedures, and final excursion were recorded. Standard photographs and videos, and data regarding clinical facial nerve function and patient-reported quality of life, were (...) obtained preoperatively and postoperatively.Sixty patients were identified. Forty-seven had flaccid facial paralysis and 13 had postparalysis facial palsy. Among flaccid facial paralysis patients, masseteric nerve transfer was successful in 30 patients (88 percent) and deep temporal nerve transfer was successful in three cases (60 percent). Among postparalysis facial palsy patients, five-to-seven nerve transfer was successful in two patients (20 percent). Average quality-of-life scores improved

2019 Plastic and reconstructive surgery

72. Literature study on clinical treatment of facial paralysis in the last 20 years using Web of Science: Comparison between rehabilitation, physiotherapy and acupuncture (PubMed)

, letter, editorial material, discussion, book chapter. (4) Publication year: 1992-2011 inclusive.(1) Articles on the causes and diagnosis on facial paralysis; (2) Type of articles: correction; (3) Articles from following databases: all databases related to social science and chemical databases in Web of Science.(1) Overall number of publications; (2) number of publications annually; (3) number of citations received annually; (4) top cited paper; (5) subject categories of publication; (6) the number (...) Literature study on clinical treatment of facial paralysis in the last 20 years using Web of Science: Comparison between rehabilitation, physiotherapy and acupuncture Facial paralysis is defined as severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function.The study was undertaken to explore a bibliometric approach to quantitatively assess the research on clinical treatment of facial paralysis using rehabilitation, physiotherapy and acupuncture using Web of Science from 1992 to 2011.Bibliometric

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2012 Neural Regeneration Research

73. Cranial and Cervical Muscular Weakness in Mitochondrial Myopathy Is Associated With Resolution of Migraine Headaches: Further Evidence That Muscular Compression of Cranial and Peripheral Nerves Is a Cause of Headache in a Subset of Patients With Migraine (PubMed)

Cranial and Cervical Muscular Weakness in Mitochondrial Myopathy Is Associated With Resolution of Migraine Headaches: Further Evidence That Muscular Compression of Cranial and Peripheral Nerves Is a Cause of Headache in a Subset of Patients With Migraine A significant subset of patients with migraine headaches has pain relief after neuroplasty/muscular decompression of select cranial and cervical nerves. In the majority of cases, compression occurs secondary to compression of the nerves (...) by adjacent muscles. Previous studies have shown that both surgical decompression and chemical denervation (eg, botulinum toxin) provide relief of migraine headaches; however, controversy remains. If some migraine headaches are caused by muscular compression, then paresis of the compressing muscles by underlying myopathic/metabolic disease should result in migraine relief in some patients.We report a case of mitochondrial myopathy causing weakness primarily of the muscles of facial expression and the neck

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2015 Eplasty

74. Experience with developmental facial paralysis: Part I. Diagnosis and associated stigmata. (PubMed)

Experience with developmental facial paralysis: Part I. Diagnosis and associated stigmata. This study is a thorough literature review of the clinical presentation and evaluation of developmental facial paralysis, with a systematic description of the various stigmata and associated anomalies. It is hoped that this approach will facilitate the differentiation of developmental facial paralysis from other causes of facial paralysis present at birth.Forty-two cases of developmental facial paralysis (...) the presence of developmental facial paralysis and amblyopia, hypoplastic facial nerve on imaging or surgical exploration, lower alar atresia, and skin changes (i.e., acne), but not the ear abnormalities.Early targeted screening and diagnosis, with prompt specialized treatment, improves the physical and emotional development of children with developmental facial paralysis and reduces the prevalence of amblyopia and other sequelae of the condition, thus facilitating reintegration among their peers. Given

2011 Plastic and reconstructive surgery

75. Role of nitric oxide in the onset of facial nerve palsy by HSV-1 infection. (PubMed)

Role of nitric oxide in the onset of facial nerve palsy by HSV-1 infection. Although herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a causative agent of Bell palsy, the precise mechanism of the paralysis remains unknown. It is necessary to investigate the pathogenesis and treatment of Bell palsy due to HSV-1 infection.This study elucidated the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the incidence of facial nerve paralysis caused by HSV-1 in mice and to evaluate the possible role of edaravone, a free radical (...) , the incidence of facial palsy decreased significantly.These findings suggest that NO produced by inducible NO synthase in the facial nerve plays an important role in the onset of facial palsy caused by HSV-1 infection, which is considered a causative virus of Bell palsy. Hato and colleagues elucidate the role of nitric oxide in HSV-1–related facial nerve paralysis in mice and evaluate the role of edaravone, a free radical scavenger, in preventing the paralysis.

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2013 JAMA otolaryngology-- head & neck surgery

76. MKSAP: 53-year-old man with right-sided facial weakness

isolated facial nerve paralysis, immediate brain imaging is unnecessary. Most of these patients have idiopathic Bell palsy, and 70% to 90% achieve complete recovery within 3 months. Severe residual weakness occurs in a minority of patients with Bell palsy, but the persistence of significant deficits at 3 months should prompt further investigation, including evaluation for alternative causes of facial nerve paralysis (such as diabetes mellitus, Lyme disease, vasculitis, HIV infection, sarcoidosis (...) is inconsistent. Evidence supporting the benefit of physical therapy for rehabilitation after facial nerve palsy is insufficient. In this patient, a structural cause of the deficits should first be excluded. Key Point MRI of the brain is an appropriate next step in management for patients with incomplete recovery 3 months after onset of facial nerve palsy despite appropriate initial treatment. This content is excerpted from with permission from the (ACP). Use is restricted in the same manner as that defined

2016 KevinMD blog

77. Facial Palsy, a Disorder Belonging to Influential Neurological Dynasty: Review of Literature (PubMed)

Facial Palsy, a Disorder Belonging to Influential Neurological Dynasty: Review of Literature Facial paralysis is one of the common problem leading to facial deformation. Bell's palsy (BP) is defined as a lower motor neuron palsy of acute onset and idiopathic origin. BP is regarded as a benign common neurological disorder of unknown cause. It has an acute onset and is almost always a mononeuritis. The facial nerve is a mixed cranial nerve with a predominant motor component, which supplies all (...) muscles concerned with unilateral facial expression. Knowledge of its course is vital for anatomic localization and clinical correlation. BP accounts for approximately 72% of facial palsies. Almost a century later, the management and etiology of BP is still a subject of controversy. Here, we present a review of literature on this neurologically significant entity.

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2016 North American journal of medical sciences

78. Treatment of Ramsay-Hunt's syndrome with multiple cranial nerve involvement and severe dysphagia: A case report. (PubMed)

Treatment of Ramsay-Hunt's syndrome with multiple cranial nerve involvement and severe dysphagia: A case report. Ramsay-Hunt's syndrome (RHS) is a disorder characterized by facial paralysis, herpetic eruptions on the auricle, and otic pain due to the reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus in the geniculate ganglion. A few cases of multiple cranial nerve invasion including the vestibulocochlear nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve and vagus nerve have been reported. However, there has been (...) no report about RHS with delayed onset multiple cranial nerve involvement causing severe aspiration, and a clinical course that improved after more than one year of dysphagia rehabilitation and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). Here, we report on a 67-year old male with delayed onset swallowing difficulty after 16 days of RHS development.Severe aspiration during swallowing.Severe dysphagia caused by RHS with multiple cranial nerve involvement.Application of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy

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2018 Medicine

79. RYR1 mutations as a cause of ophthalmoplegia, facial weakness, and malignant hyperthermia. (PubMed)

RYR1 mutations as a cause of ophthalmoplegia, facial weakness, and malignant hyperthermia. Total ophthalmoplegia can result from ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) mutations without overt associated skeletal myopathy. Patients carrying RYR1 mutations are at high risk of developing malignant hyperthermia. Ophthalmologists should be familiar with these important clinical associations.To determine the genetic cause of congenital ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, facial paralysis, and mild hypotonia segregating (...) causative mutations in affected family members. Histories, physical examinations, and clinical data were reviewed.Mutations in RYR1.Missense mutations resulting in 2 homozygous RYR1 amino acid substitutions (E989G and R3772W) and 2 compound heterozygous RYR1 substitutions (H283R and R3772W) were identified in a consanguineous and a nonconsanguineous pedigree, respectively. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging revealed marked hypoplasia of extraocular muscles and intraorbital cranial nerves. Skeletal

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2013 JAMA ophthalmology

80. Stapedial Synkinesis Causing Change in Hearing Threshold With Facial Motion. (PubMed)

pure-tone changes in hearing threshold with activation of the facial musculature.A single patient is presented who developed stapedial synkinesis after suboccipital resection of a unilateral acoustic neuroma.Despite facial nerve sparing, surgery resulted in House-Brackmann grade V/VI right facial nerve paralysis that improved to Grade III/VI after 7 months. Synkinesis developed that caused eye closure with puckering of the lips. Puckering of the lips likewise caused decreased hearing in the right (...) Stapedial Synkinesis Causing Change in Hearing Threshold With Facial Motion. Synkinetic facial movement after facial nerve regeneration is a well-documented phenomenon. Rarely, patients recovering from facial nerve injury report feelings of auditory ringing, fullness, and a sensation of ear tightness as a result of stapedial muscle involvement. It is exceedingly rare for such synkinesis to produce perceivable changes in hearing threshold. We report a unique case of stapedial synkinesis causing

2013 Otology and Neurotology

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