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Facial Nerve Injury from Birth Trauma

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1. Facial Nerve Injury from Birth Trauma

Facial Nerve Injury from Birth Trauma Facial Nerve Injury from Birth Trauma Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Facial (...) Nerve Injury from Birth Trauma Facial Nerve Injury from Birth Trauma Aka: Facial Nerve Injury from Birth Trauma From Related Chapters II. Pathophysiology ( ) injury III. Etiology No tic cause in most cases Postulated causes ( ) Forceps blade Molding Congenital Facial Palsy Mobius syndrome Cardiofacial syndrome IV. Signs Central Injury Asymmetrical face with crying Forehead and not affected Abnormal side Skin on abnormal side is smooth and swollen Nasolabial fold absent Corner of mouth droops

2018 FP Notebook

2. Facial Nerve Injury from Birth Trauma

Facial Nerve Injury from Birth Trauma Facial Nerve Injury from Birth Trauma Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Facial (...) Nerve Injury from Birth Trauma Facial Nerve Injury from Birth Trauma Aka: Facial Nerve Injury from Birth Trauma From Related Chapters II. Pathophysiology ( ) injury III. Etiology No tic cause in most cases Postulated causes ( ) Forceps blade Molding Congenital Facial Palsy Mobius syndrome Cardiofacial syndrome IV. Signs Central Injury Asymmetrical face with crying Forehead and not affected Abnormal side Skin on abnormal side is smooth and swollen Nasolabial fold absent Corner of mouth droops

2015 FP Notebook

3. Facial Nerve, Intratemporal Bone Trauma

trauma to the face is a rare cause of paralysis and can be delineated from intratemporal bone trauma because it often involves only specific branches of the facial nerve. Penetrating injuries (eg, lacerations, stab wounds) generally result in lesions to the facial nerve distal to the stylomastoid foramen. However, penetrating injuries from gunshot wounds can injure both the intratemporal and extratemporal portions of the facial nerve. Iatrogenic injury during otologic or parotid surgery and injury (...) caused by birth trauma represent rare but important causes of traumatic facial paralysis. Previous Next: Pathophysiology In a comprehensive review of the literature, Chang and Cass (1999) reported surgical findings of 4 types of facial nerve pathology after temporal bone trauma. [ ] The authors' review of 67 longitudinal fractures from 3 studies revealed that 76% of fractures had bony impingement or intraneural hematoma, and 15% had transection. The remainder had no visible pathology except neural

2014 eMedicine Surgery

4. Facial Nerve Paralysis Causes

. Causes: Birth See (forceps delivery) Molding Congenital Facial Palsy Mobius syndrome Cardiofacial syndrome IX. Causes: Toxic Thalidomide X. Causes: Idiopathic Familial XI. Causes: Iatrogenic Antitetanus serum treatment for Mandibular block anesthesia Head and neck surgery XII. References Zalvan (1999) Consultant 39(1):39-48 Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Facial Nerve Paralysis Causes." Click on the image (or right (...) Facial Nerve Paralysis Causes Facial Nerve Paralysis Causes Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Facial Nerve Paralysis

2018 FP Notebook

5. Facial Nerve Embryology

to its first turn. This explains the course of the nerve between the internal acoustic meatus and geniculate ganglion. [ ] The mastoid segment of the facial canal develops postnatally as mastoid growth ensues, although the mastoid begins to develop from the surrounding mesenchyme from around 15 weeks' gestation. [ ] The stylomastoid foramen is, however, much more superficially located at birth than in the adult. During 11 weeks' gestation, branches develop from the facial nerve between the stapedius (...) paresis or facial palsy must decide whether it is congenital or acquired. One in 2000 live births has a unilateral facial palsy, with a 90% spontaneous recovery rate. Approximately 75-80% of palsies in newborns are related to birth trauma. A history of forceps delivery, prolonged labor, ecchymosis over the mastoid, or hemotympanum raises suspicion for birth trauma. The presence of bilateral facial paralysis, other cranial nerve deficits, or other anomalies suggests a developmental etiology. Early

2014 eMedicine Surgery

6. Facial Nerve Paralysis

Review and Meta-analysis of 1- versus 2-stage Procedures. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open . 2017 Dec. 5 (12):e1621. . Media Gallery Treatment algorithm according to facial region involvement. Facial nerve anatomy. of 2 Tables ] Table 1. Causes of Facial Nerve Palsy in a Review of Medical Literature (1900-1990)* Birth Molding Forceps delivery Dystrophia myotonica Möbius syndrome (facial diplegia associated with other cranial nerve deficits) Trauma Basal skull fractures Facial injuries Penetrating injury (...) division provides platysma innervation. A "facial danger zone" is known to follow an imaginary line drawn from the lateral canthus to the lateral corner of the mouth and from the zygomatic arch down to the angle of the mandible. The plastic surgeon should keep in mind that the more distal the injury to the facial nerve, the better the chances for spontaneous recovery. Generally, good reconstructive results for were reportedly yielded by Terzis et al even when a comparatively small number of axons were

2014 eMedicine Surgery

7. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Communication and Swallowing Disorders following Paediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

of TBI • Cranial nerve involvement/palsy (speech and swallowing only) • Presence of seizures or other co-morbid medical conditions (e.g., loss of hearing or smell) • Extent of broader motor system involvement • Additional physical/facial injuries (speech and swallowing only) • Trajectory of recovery post-injury (i.e., rapid vs. slow recovery in early phases) • Cognition (including visual and auditory system integrity, memory, attention, initiation, level of insight) • Compliance to recommendations (...) following Paediatric Traumatic Brain Injury 6 Acquired brain injury Any type of brain damage occurring after birth (e.g., traumatic brain injury, stroke, tumour) Apraxia of speech A motor speech disorder that impairs the ability to voluntarily move and sequence speech movements (also known as dyspraxia) Articulation Ability to produce speech sounds using the articulators (e.g., tongue, lips, jaw) Augmentative and alternative communication All forms of communication other than oral speech (e.g., gesture

2017 Clinical Practice Guidelines Portal

8. Birth Trauma (Overview)

and result in temporary or permanent paralysis. Compression by the forceps blade has been implicated in some facial nerve injury, but most facial nerve palsy is unrelated to trauma from obstetric instrumentation (eg, forceps). The compression appears to occur as the head passes by the sacrum. Physical findings for central nerve injuries are asymmetrical facies with crying. The mouth is drawn towards the normal side, wrinkles are deeper on the normal side, and movement of the forehead and eyelid (...) , MD; Chief Editor: Ted Rosenkrantz, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Birth Trauma Overview Overview Injuries to the infant that result from mechanical forces (ie, compression, traction) during the birth process are categorized as birth trauma. Factors responsible for mechanical injury may coexist with hypoxic-ischemic insult; one may predispose the infant to the other. Lesions that are predominantly hypoxic in origin are not discussed in this article. Significant birth injury

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

9. Birth Trauma (Diagnosis)

and result in temporary or permanent paralysis. Compression by the forceps blade has been implicated in some facial nerve injury, but most facial nerve palsy is unrelated to trauma from obstetric instrumentation (eg, forceps). The compression appears to occur as the head passes by the sacrum. Physical findings for central nerve injuries are asymmetrical facies with crying. The mouth is drawn towards the normal side, wrinkles are deeper on the normal side, and movement of the forehead and eyelid (...) , MBBS, MD; Chief Editor: Ted Rosenkrantz, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Birth Trauma Overview Overview Injuries to the infant that result from mechanical forces (ie, compression, traction) during the birth process are categorized as birth trauma. Factors responsible for mechanical injury may coexist with hypoxic-ischemic insult; one may predispose the infant to the other. Lesions that are predominantly hypoxic in origin are not discussed in this article. Significant birth

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

10. Birth Trauma (Follow-up)

and result in temporary or permanent paralysis. Compression by the forceps blade has been implicated in some facial nerve injury, but most facial nerve palsy is unrelated to trauma from obstetric instrumentation (eg, forceps). The compression appears to occur as the head passes by the sacrum. Physical findings for central nerve injuries are asymmetrical facies with crying. The mouth is drawn towards the normal side, wrinkles are deeper on the normal side, and movement of the forehead and eyelid (...) , MBBS, MD; Chief Editor: Ted Rosenkrantz, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Birth Trauma Overview Overview Injuries to the infant that result from mechanical forces (ie, compression, traction) during the birth process are categorized as birth trauma. Factors responsible for mechanical injury may coexist with hypoxic-ischemic insult; one may predispose the infant to the other. Lesions that are predominantly hypoxic in origin are not discussed in this article. Significant birth

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

11. Birth Trauma (Treatment)

and result in temporary or permanent paralysis. Compression by the forceps blade has been implicated in some facial nerve injury, but most facial nerve palsy is unrelated to trauma from obstetric instrumentation (eg, forceps). The compression appears to occur as the head passes by the sacrum. Physical findings for central nerve injuries are asymmetrical facies with crying. The mouth is drawn towards the normal side, wrinkles are deeper on the normal side, and movement of the forehead and eyelid (...) , MBBS, MD; Chief Editor: Ted Rosenkrantz, MD Share Email Print Feedback Close Sections Sections Birth Trauma Overview Overview Injuries to the infant that result from mechanical forces (ie, compression, traction) during the birth process are categorized as birth trauma. Factors responsible for mechanical injury may coexist with hypoxic-ischemic insult; one may predispose the infant to the other. Lesions that are predominantly hypoxic in origin are not discussed in this article. Significant birth

2014 eMedicine Pediatrics

12. Abusive Head Trauma and the Eye in Infancy

, are involved in current research in child protection or in the writing of medical reports and appearing as expert witnesses in Court in cases of abusive head trauma in children. Input from the College lay advisory group was sought. The following clinical questions were developed: - What forces are needed to produce retinal haemorrhages and other signs of intraocular trauma in infants without direct ocular injury? (see section 3.1.1.) - Is additional impact necessary for the production of very severe ocular (...) . Forces Clinical question: What forces are needed to produce retinal haemorrhages and other signs of intraocular trauma in infants without direct ocular injury? Evidence from previous review 1999 Retinal injury can be produced by positive or negative acceleration without impact or direct ocular injury. It has been suggested that this retinal injury may be due to vitreous traction (5). Evidence for retinal haemorrhages caused by angular acceleration without impact comes from adults exposed to emergency

2013 Royal College of Ophthalmologists

13. Facial Nerve Paralysis Causes

. Causes: Birth See (forceps delivery) Molding Congenital Facial Palsy Mobius syndrome Cardiofacial syndrome IX. Causes: Toxic Thalidomide X. Causes: Idiopathic Familial XI. Causes: Iatrogenic Antitetanus serum treatment for Mandibular block anesthesia Head and neck surgery XII. References Zalvan (1999) Consultant 39(1):39-48 Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Facial Nerve Paralysis Causes." Click on the image (or right (...) Facial Nerve Paralysis Causes Facial Nerve Paralysis Causes Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Facial Nerve Paralysis

2015 FP Notebook

14. Brain injury rehabilitation in adults

strategies in the area of rehabilitation. 1.3 DEfINITIoNS 1.3.1 ACq UIRED BRAIN INj URy For the purposes of this guideline, the definition of acquired brain injury used is taken from the Scottish Needs Assessment Programme report (2000): 9 “ABI implies damage to the brain that was sudden in onset and occurred after birth and the neonatal period. It is thus differentiated from birth injuries, congenital abnormalities and progressive or degenerative diseases affecting the central nervous system (...) injuries, facial injuries or intubation), caused by other problems (eg psychological trauma, language barrier or coexisting medical conditions) or caused by penetrating craniocerebral injury” . Clinicians need to be aware that this imposes a categorical definition for convenience of clinical decision making on a dimension of severity. Whilst the vast majority of injuries will be easily classified within this definition there will be injuries which lie at the cusp of the definition which may require

2013 SIGN

15. Vagus Nerve Stimulation: Treatment for Gulf Veterans With Gulf War Illness

device to use for self administration of simulated vagus nerve stimulation. Outcome Measures Go to Primary Outcome Measures : Visual Analog Scale (VAS) to assess change of widespread pain [ Time Frame: baseline, at 10 and 20 weeks ] Visual analog scale, ranging from 0 [none] to 10 [most severe possible] for widespread pain Secondary Outcome Measures : Patient Global Improvement of Change (PGIC) [ Time Frame: at 10 and 20 weeks ] PGIC is a 7 point scale depicting a patient's rating of overall (...) hemorrhage, brain tumor or significant head trauma. Patient has in the opinion of the investigator a clinically relevant structural abnormality at the gammaCore-R treatment site (e.g., neoplasm, lymphadenopathy, previous surgery, neoplasm or abnormal anatomy). Patient has pain at the gammaCore treatment site (eg, dysesthesia, neuralgia, cervicalgia). Patient has other significant pain problem (e.g., cancer pain or other head or facial pain disorder) that in the opinion of the investigator may confound

2016 Clinical Trials

16. Clinical Trial of Wireless CranioFacial Nerve Stimulation (CFNS) for the Treatment of CranioFacial Neuropathic Pain

complications or coagulopathy issues; Pregnant/lactating or not using adequate birth control; A life expectancy of less than one year; Any active implanted device whether turned off or on; A previous peripheral nerve stimulator (PNS) experience for the treatment of facial pain including a failed trial or explanted device; Conditions requiring Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) evaluation or diathermy procedures; Subject is currently involved in litigation regarding injury, or is receiving worker's (...) of Medicine Prizm Pain Management, Canton, Michigan Information provided by (Responsible Party): StimRelieve, LLC Study Details Study Description Go to Brief Summary: The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of craniofacial nerve stimulation for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Facial Pain Device: Halo Craniofacial Nerve Stimulator System Not Applicable Detailed Description: Subjects will be randomized at enrollment into either a delayed

2016 Clinical Trials

17. Management of Pediatric Cervical Spine and Spinal Cord Injuries

cervical tenderness, have no painful distracting injury, are not intoxicated, do not have unexplained hypotension, and do not have motor vehicle collision (MVC), a fall from a height > 10 feet, or non-accidental trauma (NAT) as a known or suspected mechanism of injury. Cervical spine radiographs or high resolution CT is recommended for children who have experienced trauma and who do not meet either set of criteria above. Three-position CT with C1-C2 motion analysis to confirm and classify the diagnosis (...) are likely to be from a severe cervical cord injury. Therefore, they advocate suspicion for a cervical spinal cord injury in children with either multisystem trauma, or an isolated head injury presenting with hypotension or cardiopulmonary arrest. Viccellio et al evaluated the cervical spines in children < 18 years of age utilizing the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS Ref. ) decision instrument in a Class II prospective multicenter study. They employed 5 low-risk criteria

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2013 Congress of Neurological Surgeons

18. Static Suspension for Facial Paralysis

sclerosis (MS) Toxic - Diphtheria, tetanus, thalidomide Trauma - Altitude, facial injury, penetrating injury to middle ear, skull fracture Previous Next: Relevant Anatomy The mimetic muscles of the face are arranged in 4 layers. The muscles in the first 3 layers are innervated on their deep surfaces while the muscles of the fourth layer are innervated at their superficial surface. The main branches of the facial nerve are arranged consecutively deeper. The temporal branch is the most superficial while (...) either alone or in complementary combinations. Establishing a treatment plan depends on the mode of facial nerve injury, resultant deficit, prognosis for recovery, and wishes of the patient. Neural techniques Nerve repair is a dynamic reanimation technique. Within a distinct time frame, direct nerve repair by suture or graft can lead to good results. Rehabilitation of the facial nerve and subsequent reinnervation of the mimetic muscles is achieved. Direct suturing of the nerve endings can

2014 eMedicine Surgery

19. Congenital Facial Paralysis

The most frequent cause of unilateral congenital facial palsy is birth trauma related to a difficult delivery. Risk factors include forceps delivery, birth weight of more than 3500 g, and primiparity. [ ] The injury from forceps is induced by the pressure of the posterior blade that compresses the bone overlying the vertical segment of the facial canal. [ ] The facial nerve is also susceptible to trauma as it exits the stylomastoid foramen, where soft tissue compression can lead to a transient facial (...) unilateral lower lip palsy (CULLP), also known as neonatal asymmetric crying facies, that occurs in 1 out of 160 live births. [ ] The estimated prevalence of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSH MD) is between 1/20,000 and 1/8000, making it the world’s third-most-common inherited myopathy. [ ] Previous Next: Etiology The cause of congenital facial paralysis is associated with either a traumatic injury or developmental deformities of the brain or facial nerve (cranial nerve VII). [ ] Trauma

2014 eMedicine Surgery

20. Trauma and Pregnancy

surgery rather than the anesthetic agent or management may be the culprit in these neurologic deficits. Fetal assessment Fetal assessment in the recovery from trauma is always a concern for nonobstetricians. Severe traumatic injury increases fetal mortality and morbidity. However, minor injury in the first and second trimesters can also cause fetal demise, as well as premature delivery and low birth weight. [ ] At any gestational age, documentation of a live fetus by fetal heart auscultation (...) % Falls 4% Toxic exposure 4% Drowning 2% Iatrogenic injury 2% Records of the New York City Medical Examiner from 1987-1991 identified women aged 15-44 years who were pregnant at the time of traumatic death. Homicide (63%), suicide (13%), motor vehicle accidents (12%), and drug overdoses (7%) accounted for the deaths, and 48% of the injury-related deaths were associated with recent substance use. The cause of maternal death in the emergency department was reviewed in the level I trauma center in Miami

2014 eMedicine Surgery

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