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FACES Pain Rating Scale

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1. Pediatric Pain Assessment in the Emergency Department: Patient and Caregiver Agreement Using the Wong-Baker FACES and the Faces Pain Scale-Revised. (Abstract)

Pediatric Pain Assessment in the Emergency Department: Patient and Caregiver Agreement Using the Wong-Baker FACES and the Faces Pain Scale-Revised. This study aimed to assess the agreement between patients presenting to the pediatric emergency department (ED) with acute pain and their caregivers when using the Wong-Baker FACES (WBF) and Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R).This was a prospective, observational study examining patients 3 to 7.5 years old presenting to a pediatric ED with acute pain (...) . Participants completed the WBF and FPS-R twice during their ED evaluation. Caregivers rated their child's pain using both the WBF and FPS-R at the same time points. Intraclass correlations (ICCs) were calculated between caregiver and child reports at each time point, and Bland-Altman plots were created.Forty-six subjects were enrolled over 5 months. Mean age was 5.5 ± 1.2 years. Average initial child pain scores were 6.6 ± 2.8 (WBF) and 6.1 ± 3.3 (FPS-R), and repeat scores were 3.3 ± 3.4 (WBF) and 3.1

2019 Pediatric Emergency Care

2. Self-report of pain in young people and adults with spastic cerebral palsy: interrater reliability of the revised Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability (r-FLACC) scale ratings. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Self-report of pain in young people and adults with spastic cerebral palsy: interrater reliability of the revised Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability (r-FLACC) scale ratings. People with cerebral palsy (CP) are often unable to express pain owing to cognitive or speech impairments. Reports that rely on observation can be inaccurate, because behaviours such as grimacing, common in people with spastic CP, resemble pain expressions. We examined preliminary validity and reliability (...) of the revised Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability (r-FLACC) scale in people with spastic CP.Forty-eight young people and adults (35 females, 13 males; mean [SD] age 29y 2mo [13y]) were video-recorded during a standard examination, rating their pain (0-10) afterwards. Two raters completed the r-FLACC using the video recordings. Interrater reliability was assessed with an unconditional cross-classified random-effects model and item response theory approach; Pearson correlations measured agreement

2018 Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology

3. Psychometric Properties of a Modified Version of the Faces Pain Scale-Revised (Modified FPS-R) to Evaluate Worst Pain in Children and Adolescents With Sickle Cell Anemia. (Abstract)

Psychometric Properties of a Modified Version of the Faces Pain Scale-Revised (Modified FPS-R) to Evaluate Worst Pain in Children and Adolescents With Sickle Cell Anemia. We evaluated psychometric properties (validity, reliability, and responsiveness) of a modified Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R) in 257 patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) 7 to below 18 years old in a randomized, multinational clinical study. The modified FPS-R asks patients to report, by daily diary, their worst intraday (...) SCA-related pain. Intraclass correlation coefficient assessed test-retest reliability between month 1 and month 2. Pearson correlations between monthly mean SCA-related pain intensity, activity interference score, analgesic use, and opioid use assessed convergent validity. Responsiveness was assessed with correlations of changes of monthly pain rate or intensity and changes in analgesic use or activity interference score from month 1 to month 9. Intraclass correlation coefficients for pain

2019 Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

4. FACES Pain Rating Scale

FACES Pain Rating Scale FACES Pain Rating Scale Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 FACES Pain Rating Scale FACES Pain (...) Rating Scale Aka: FACES Pain Rating Scale , Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale From Related Chapters II. Indications Pain Assessment in children III. Scale Score 0: ?? - No Pain (Very happy face) Score 2: ?? - A Little Pain (Happy face) Score 4: ?? - A Little More Pain (Neutral face) Score 6: ?? - Even More Pain (Mildly sad face) Score 8: ?? - A Whole Lot of Pain (Very sad face) Score 10: ?? - Worst Pain (Crying face) IV. Resources Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images

2018 FP Notebook

5. Validity of the Korean Version of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability Scale for Assessment of Pain in Dementia Patients Full Text available with Trip Pro

FLACC. Eighty-eight patients with dementia who visited Konkuk University Medical Center were evaluated. The K-FLACC revealed good validity as compared to the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS; r = 0.617, P < 0.001) and the Face Pain Scale (FPS; r = 0.350, P = 0.001). All of the five domains of the K-FLACC were related to the NRS and FPS, in which the activity domain showed the highest correlation. Test-retest reliability was excellent, as the intra-class correlation coefficient comparing the retest to test (...) Validity of the Korean Version of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability Scale for Assessment of Pain in Dementia Patients Pain is often associated with a more rapid progression of cognitive and functional decline, and behavioral disturbance in dementia. Therefore, it is essential to accurately assesses pain for proper intervention in patients with dementia. The Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability (FLACC) scale is an excellent behaviour scale which includes most

2017 Journal of Korean medical science

6. Validity and Reliability of the Verbal Numerical Rating Scale for Children Aged 4 to 17 Years With Acute Pain. Full Text available with Trip Pro

of children aged 4 to 17 years. Children self-reported their pain intensity, using the Verbal Numerical Rating Scale and Faces Pain Scale-Revised at 2 serial assessments. We evaluated convergent validity (strong validity defined as correlation coefficient ≥0.60), agreement (difference between concurrent Verbal Numerical Rating Scale and Faces Pain Scale-Revised scores), known-groups validity (difference in score between children with painful versus nonpainful conditions), responsivity (decrease in score (...) Validity and Reliability of the Verbal Numerical Rating Scale for Children Aged 4 to 17 Years With Acute Pain. The Verbal Numerical Rating Scale is the most commonly used self-report measure of pain intensity. It is unclear how the validity and reliability of the scale scores vary across children's ages. We aimed to determine the validity and reliability of the scale for children presenting to the emergency department across a comprehensive spectrum of age.This was a cross-sectional study

2017 Annals of Emergency Medicine

7. Validation of the pictorial Baxter Retching Faces scale for the measurement of the severity of postoperative nausea in Spanish-speaking children. Full Text available with Trip Pro

have not been validated.Healthy Spanish-speaking children aged 7-18 yr (n=184) undergoing elective ambulatory surgery rated perioperative pain and nausea using visual analogue (VAS) and pictorial Faces Pain Scale - Revised and BARF scales, along with a Likert scale measurement of symptom changes. Parents kept a post-discharge diary.Postoperative BARF scores were significantly higher in patients receiving anti-emetics {mean [standard deviation (sd)]: 4.6 (3.4) vs 0.9 (1.6); P<0.001}. Nausea scores (...) Validation of the pictorial Baxter Retching Faces scale for the measurement of the severity of postoperative nausea in Spanish-speaking children. As the intensity of nausea, a subjective symptom, is difficult to estimate in children, vomiting is used as the objective clinical endpoint in managing paediatric postoperative nausea and vomiting. The pictorial Baxter Retching Faces (BARF) scale is a validated quantitative measure of paediatric nausea, but versions in languages other than English

2018 British Journal of Anaesthesia

8. Relative and absolute reliability of a vertical numerical pain rating scale supplemented with a faces pain scale after stroke. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Relative and absolute reliability of a vertical numerical pain rating scale supplemented with a faces pain scale after stroke. Pain is a serious adverse complication after stroke. The combination of a vertical numerical pain rating scale (NPRS) and a faces pain scale (FPS) has been advocated to measure pain after stroke.This study was conducted to investigate whether an NPRS supplemented with an FPS (NPRS-FPS) would show good test-retest reliability in people with stroke. The relative (...) and absolute reliability of the NPRS-FPS were examined.A test-retest design was used for this study.Fifty people (>3 months after stroke) participating in an outpatient occupational therapy program were recruited through medical centers to rate current pain intensity twice, at a 1-week interval, with the NPRS-FPS (on a scale from 0 to 10). The relative reliability of the NPRS-FPS was analyzed with the intraclass correlation coefficient for determining the degree of consistency and agreement between 2

2014 Physical therapy

9. A verbal descriptor incremental pain scale developed by South African Tswana-speaking patients with low back pain Full Text available with Trip Pro

other non-verbal pain scales.All items on the final scale were approved by at least 70% of both male and female participants. The scores for the TVPDS correlated well with present pain perception (r = 0.729, p < 0.0001) measured on the numerical visual analogue scale. The TVPDS correlated well with the Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale (r = 0.695, p < 0.0001) and the Pakistani Coin Pain Scale (r = 0.717, p < 0.0001).The TVPDS has the potential to be a useful clinical scale but more testing in other (...) A verbal descriptor incremental pain scale developed by South African Tswana-speaking patients with low back pain Measuring pain in patients whose home language is not English can be difficult as there may not be a scale available in their home language. Scales devised in other countries may also not be accurate after translation.The aim of this study was to develop and test a new verbal pain descriptor scale in a Tswana-speaking population in South Africa with low back pain.Two separate Tswana

2018 The South African Journal of Physiotherapy

10. Psychometric Testing of the Defense and Veterans Pain Rating Scale (DVPRS): A New Pain Scale for Military Population. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Psychometric Testing of the Defense and Veterans Pain Rating Scale (DVPRS): A New Pain Scale for Military Population. The Defense and Veterans Pain Rating Scale (DVPRS 2.0) is a pain assessment tool that utilizes a numerical rating scale enhanced by functional word descriptors, color coding, and pictorial facial expressions matched to pain levels. Four supplemental questions measure how much pain interferes with usual activity and sleep, and affects mood and contributes to stress.Psychometric (...) intensity scale (Kendall's coefficient of concordance, W = 0.95 and 0.959, respectively). Construct validity was supported by an exploratory principal component factor analysis and known groups validity testing. Most participants, 70.9%, felt that the DVPRS was superior to other pain rating scales.The DVPRS 2.0 is a reliable and valid instrument that provides standard language and metrics to communicate pain and related outcomes.Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Academy

2016 Pain Medicine

11. Pain Comparison Whit Visual Analog Scale (EVA) Between Four Analgesic Methods During Trans Rectal Prostatic Biopsy

of the discomfort or pain in the introduction of the trans rectal ultrasound transducer determined at the end of the procedure with Visual Analog Scale for Pain, which is a psychometric measuring instrument designed to assess the pain intensity experienced by each patient individually. Was employ for first time in 1921 and referred as a "graphical rating method", which has the characteristic of being able to achieve a rapid classification (statistically measurable and reproducible) of the severity of pain (...) experience. The analogous visual scale used for this study measures from 0-10 the intensity of the pain with a series of "faces" that show the intensity in the pain experimentation with categories like "No pain" approximately 0-1, mild, annoying in number 2, nagging in number 4, distressing in number 6, intense in number 8 and worst possible in number 10. Secondary Outcome Measures : Biopsy [ Time Frame: Interview 15 to 30 minutes at the end of the procedure ] Evaluation of the discomfort or pain

2018 Clinical Trials

12. FACES Pain Rating Scale

FACES Pain Rating Scale FACES Pain Rating Scale Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 FACES Pain Rating Scale FACES Pain (...) Rating Scale Aka: FACES Pain Rating Scale , Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale From Related Chapters II. Indications Pain Assessment in children III. Scale Score 0: ?? - No Pain (Very happy face) Score 2: ?? - A Little Pain (Happy face) Score 4: ?? - A Little More Pain (Neutral face) Score 6: ?? - Even More Pain (Mildly sad face) Score 8: ?? - A Whole Lot of Pain (Very sad face) Score 10: ?? - Worst Pain (Crying face) IV. Resources Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images

2016 FP Notebook

13. Glasgow Coma Scale for Field Triage of Trauma: A Systematic Review

Databases (January 1995 through June 2016), and reference lists. Study selection. Studies on predictive utility of the tGCS versus the mGCS or Simplified Motor Scale (SMS), randomized trials and cohort studies on effects of the tGCS versus the mGCS on rates of over- or under-triage, and studies on interrater reliability and ease of use. Data extraction. One investigator abstracted study characteristics and results; a second checked data for accuracy. Two investigators independently applied prespecified (...) Scale; NTDB= National Trauma Data Bank; SMS= Simplified Motor Score; TBI=traumatic brain injury; tGCS= total Glasgow Coma Scale *When multiple studies published from the same trauma center, analysis restricted to the most recent study using out-of-hospital GCS scores (excluded Gill 2005, 20 Haukoos 2007, 40 Acker 2014 30 ) Key Question 2. Over- and Under-Triage Rates No study evaluated comparative effects of the tGCS versus the mGCS or SMS on over- or under-triage rates. Key Question 3

2017 Effective Health Care Program (AHRQ)

14. The use of the FLACC pain scale in pediatric patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy. (Abstract)

The use of the FLACC pain scale in pediatric patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy. 1) Determine the usage rate of opioid pain medication after adenotonsillectomy (T&A). 2) Review the use of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability (FLACC) pain scale for T&A patients 3) Determine the rate of postoperative physician contacts for pain related complaints.A retrospective case series review was performed on 125 pediatric patients undergoing T&A and subsequent 23-hour postoperative observation (...) at an academic tertiary care center from June-August of 2015. Postoperative pain scores using the FLACC pain scale, the utilization of opioid pain medications, and the number of postoperative contacts for pain were recorded.Average age of patients was 5.7 years and 50% were female. 90% of T&A's were performed for adenotonsillar hypertrophy. The post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage rate was 4%. 70 (56%) patients required postoperative opioid pain medication, with (30) 43% of these patients requiring more than one

2017 International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology

15. The Royal College of Emergency Medicine composite pain scale for children: level of inter-rater agreement. (Abstract)

Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale (FACES Scale), a Behaviour scale and a numerical rating scale (Ladder). Comparisons were made between scores from individual scales and raters.117 children (26 aged 0-8 years (group 1) and 91 aged >8-16 years (group 2)) were enrolled in the study. Pain in group 1 was assessed by the nurse and doctor using the FACES Scale and the Behaviour scale. The FACES Scale demonstrated greater inter-rater agreement than the Behaviour scale. Pain in group 2 was assessed (...) The Royal College of Emergency Medicine composite pain scale for children: level of inter-rater agreement. To assess the inter-rater agreement of the Royal College of Emergency Medicine (RCEM) Composite Pain Scale.A prospective, observational study of 117 children who presented to the ED with pain due to a limb injury. Pain severity was assessed by the triage nurse, doctor and child (depending on their age) using indicators of the RCEM Composite Pain Scale. This pain scale comprises a modified

2017 Emergency Medicine Journal

16. Validity of three rating scales for measuring pain intensity in youths with physical disabilities. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Validity of three rating scales for measuring pain intensity in youths with physical disabilities. There is growing evidence confirming that youths with physical disabilities are at risk for chronic pain. Although many scales for assessing pain intensity exist, it is unclear whether they are all equally suitable for youths. The aim of this study was to address this knowledge gap by comparing the validity of the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS-11), the Wong Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale (FACES (...) ), and a 6-point categorical Verbal Rating Scale (VRS-6) for assessing pain intensity among youths (aged 8-20) with physical disabilities.One hundred and thirteen youths (mean age = 14.19 years; SD = 2.9) were interviewed and asked to rate their current pain intensity and recalled (in the past week) worst, least, and average pain with the NRS-11 and the FACES. Participants were also asked to rate their average pain intensity during the past 4 weeks using a VRS-6, and were administered measures assessing

2015 European Journal of Pain

17. Pain Scale

Assess patient's pain with a self rating Pain Scale Nonverbal 0-10 pain line Face scale Intensity descriptive scale Number Scale No pain: 0 Mild pain: 1-4 Moderate pain: 5-6 Severe pain: 7-10 Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Pain Scale." Click on the image (or right click) to open the source website in a new browser window. Related Studies (from Trip Database) Ontology: Pain scale (C1504479) Concepts Diagnostic (...) Pain Scale Pain Scale Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Pain Scale Pain Scale Aka: Pain Scale II. Symptoms: Self Rating

2018 FP Notebook

18. Beyond Pills: Acupressure Impact on Self-Rated Pain and Anxiety Scores. Full Text available with Trip Pro

scores (0-10) with the Wong-Baker Faces Scale and pre- and post-treatment self-rated anxiety scores (0-10) on a visual analog scale.Five hundred and nineteen acupressure treatments were retrospectively analyzed with pre- and post-treatment self-rated pain and anxiety scores, where 0 represented no pain or anxiety and 10 represented the worst pain and anxiety. Overall, participants demonstrated a two-point decrease in pain scores and a four-point decrease in anxiety scores post-treatment. Hospitalized (...) Beyond Pills: Acupressure Impact on Self-Rated Pain and Anxiety Scores. To determine impact of an acupressure protocol on self-rated pain and anxiety scores.Retrospective database analysis of self-rated pain and anxiety scores before and immediately after administration of stress release acupressure protocol.Participants include hospitalized patients, nurses, and public.Involves a 16-point stress release acupressure protocol.Outcome measures involve pre- and post-treatment self-rated pain

2019 Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine

19. Somatotopic effects of rTMS in neuropathic pain? A comparison between stimulation over hand and face motor areas. (Abstract)

target was defined by anatomical MRI and EMG responses in all patients, completed in 19 of them by functional MRI. Sessions were separated by at least 2 weeks and applied in random order. Pain relief was assessed using numerical rating scale (NRS).In terms of percentage of pain relief, rTMS over the hand motor area was significantly superior to both face rTMS and placebo. When comparing pre- and post-NRS scores, a significant decrease in pain was observed after hand area rTMS for the two pain (...) Somatotopic effects of rTMS in neuropathic pain? A comparison between stimulation over hand and face motor areas. The therapeutic influence of somatotopic matching between pain topography and motor cortex stimulation site for neuropathic pain (NP) remains controversial.Thirty-two patients suffering from NP involving the upper limb (n = 20) or the face (n = 12) received two high-frequency rTMS neuronavigated sessions targeting hand and face motor cortical areas, versus placebo. The cortical

2017 European Journal of Pain

20. The Wong-Baker Pain FACES Scale Measures Pain, Not Fear. (Abstract)

The Wong-Baker Pain FACES Scale Measures Pain, Not Fear. The Wong-Baker FACES pain rating scale (WBS) is preferred by parents and patients for reporting pain severity. However, it is speculated that the "no hurt" and "hurts worst" anchors confound pain measurement with nonnociceptive states. The objective of our study was to determine if fear confounds reporting of pain severity on the WBS. We hypothesized that the WBS would correlate with a psychometrically different pain severity scale (...) (the visual analog scale [VAS]) and not correlate with a fear measure, the Child Medical Fear Scale (CMFS).This was a prospective observational study of children 7 to 12 years presenting to a university-based suburban pediatric ED with acute pain. Patients rated pain severity on the WBS ordinal scale and a 100-mm unhatched VAS with marked end points of "no pain" and "worse pain ever." Patients also completed a 26-item CMFS. Correlations between the WBS and VAS with the CMFS total score were assessed

2013 Pediatric Emergency Care

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