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Eye Foreign Body

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2341. The effects of topical ketorolac and indomethacin on measles conjunctivitis: randomized controlled trial. (Abstract)

. Conjunctival hyperemia, burning sensations, foreign-body sensations, and photophobia scores were conducted at baseline and at days seven and 14. A satisfaction score was evaluated at the end of the study.The conjunctival injection score of the control eyes was significantly higher than those of the ketorolac- and indomethacin-treated eyes at day seven (P < .05). The conjunctival injection score of the ketorolac-treated eyes was lower than that of the indomethacin-treated eyes at days seven and 14 (...) , but this did not reach statistical significance. There was no significant difference in the burning and foreign-body sensations and in the photophobia scores among the study eyes at baseline, day seven, and day 14 (P > .05). There was no significant difference in the satisfaction score among the study eyes at the end of the study (P > .05).In patients with measles during the first two weeks of infection, ketorolac and indomethacin were more effective than artificial tears in decreasing conjunctival

2006 American journal of ophthalmology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2342. Evaluation of 0.4% ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution versus 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. (Abstract)

for 3 weeks, when drops were discontinued. Slit-lamp examination, intraocular pressure (IOP), laser cell and flare measurements, and subjective patient tolerance were evaluated postoperatively at 1, 7, and 30 d. Comparisons between the 2 groups were made at each visit, as well as comparisons to baseline. A P=value less than .05 was considered statistically significant.At day 1, a higher percentage of patients (70% vs. 40%) reported symptoms (mainly foreign body sensation and stinging/burning (...) Evaluation of 0.4% ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution versus 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and patient tolerance of 0.4% ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution and 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution after routine phacoemulsification and lens implantation.The setting for this study was the Storm Eye Institute and Magill Research Center

2006 Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics : the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2343. Topical cyclosporine 0.5 per cent and preservative-free ketorolac tromethamine 0.5 per cent in vernal keratoconjunctivitis. (Abstract)

of their conjunctivitis. In cyclosporine-treated patients, medication was discontinued 1 week before evaluation, then the medication was started for I month, and washed out 1 week before the other drug was started. Symptoms of itching, foreign body sensation, tearing, photophobia, discharge, burning, conjunctival injection, chemosis, giant papilla, keratopathy and intraocular pressure were evaluated weekly. There was a statistically significant decrease in all symptoms of cyclosporine-treated eyes at day 7, 14 and 30 (...) and all signs at day 21 and 30. In ketorolac-treated eyes, there was a significant difference in itching, foreign body sensation, photophobia, tearing, mucous discharge, all symptoms, chemosis, giant papillae and conjunctival injection at day 7, and overall symptoms at day 14. Compared to cyclosporine-treated eyes at day 7, kotorolac-treated eyes had significantly fewer symptoms. Topical cyclosporine 0.5 per cent reduces symptoms and signs slower than preservative-free ketorolac tromethamine 0.5 per

2004 Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2344. Comparison between the role of intraoperative mitomycin C and doxorubicin in preventing the recurrence of primary pterygium. (Abstract)

of cornea. The side effects experienced by our patients from the use of these agents were conjunctival hyperemia, conjunctival necrosis, corneal epithelial defect, subconjunctival hemorrhage, episcleritis, increased pain, foreign body sensation, lacrimation, irritation, diminution of vision and photophobia. Recurrence was seen in 4 patients of MMC group (14.3%) and 3 patients of doxorubicin group (10.7%) (difference statistically not significant; chi(2) = 0.16, p = 0.68). The recurrence of pterygium (...) was not associated with age of patients, laterality of eye involved, amount of encroachment of pterygium over cornea, width of pterygium, preoperative complaints and postoperative adverse events.The two antimitotic agents, MMC and doxorubicin, when used intraoperatively along with primary pterygium excision, had a comparable role both in terms of adverse events and prevention of recurrence of pterygium.Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

2005 Ophthalmic research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2345. Ketorolac tromethamine LS 0.4% versus nepafenac 0.1% in patients having cataract surgery. Prospective randomized double-masked clinical trial. (Abstract)

cataract were recruited for the study. Consenting patients were randomized to a standard regimen of Acular, gatifloxacin 0.3% (Zymar), and prednisolone acetate 1% (Pred Forte) (ketorolac group) or Nevanac, moxifloxacin hydrochloride 0.5% (Vigamox), and prednisolone acetate (Econopred) (nepafenac group). Analysis included subjective complaints (burning, itching, foreign-body sensation, pain level after surgery) and objective findings (visual function, degree of inflammation in the anterior segment (...) Ketorolac tromethamine LS 0.4% versus nepafenac 0.1% in patients having cataract surgery. Prospective randomized double-masked clinical trial. To compare the clinical, subjective, and objective outcomes of the use of 2 topical nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs--ketorolac tromethamine LS 0.4% (Acular) and nepafenac 0.1% (Nevanac)--in patients having cataract surgery.Single-center private practice, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA.One hundred eighty-three patients (193 eyes) with visually significant

2007 Journal of cataract and refractive surgery Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2346. [Traumatic Endophthalmitis Prevention Trial (TEPT)]. (Abstract)

was designed. Patients with penetrating or perforating eye injuries will be included up to the year 2010. The wound closure and IOFB (intraocular foreign body) removal must be performed within 24 hours after the trauma. After grouping into low risk (e. g., metallic IOFB) or high risk patients (e. g., agricultural trauma, organic IOFB) each patient will be randomised for 1) intravenous moxifloxacin only or 2) intravenous moxifloxacin plus intravitreal 1 mg Vancomycin plus 2.25 mg [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED

2008 Klinische Monatsblatter fur Augenheilkunde

2347. A comparative study of tissue glue and vicryl suture for closing limbal-conjunctival autografts and histologic evaluation after pterygium excision. (Abstract)

the follow-up period. No recurrence was observed during the 6-month follow-up in both groups. Foreign-body granulation tissue was not seen in any histopathologic studies in eyes with tissue glue, whereas it was observed in eyes with vicryl sutures from day 15 to day 45. The tissue glue was seen under the conjunctiva on the first postoperative day and was not seen on days 15 and 45.Our results showed that limbal conjunctival autografting is an effective surgical technique for the treatment of pterygium (...) A comparative study of tissue glue and vicryl suture for closing limbal-conjunctival autografts and histologic evaluation after pterygium excision. To compare clinical and histopathologic outcomes of tissue glue and vicryl suture to attach limbal conjunctival autografts in pterygium surgery.Twenty-four eyes of 24 patients were included in this study. All eyes had primary pterygia and were treated with limbal conjunctival autograft transplantation after pterygium resection. Tissue glue (Tisseel

2008 Cornea Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2348. [Observation on therapeutic effect of moxibustion with thunder-fire herbal moxa stick on xerophthalmia of oligodacrya]. (Abstract)

(ST 2), Jingming (BL 1), etc. and massage of acupoints and lacrimal gland around the eye. The control group (n=34) were treated with local dripping Leiran Diyanye. Changes of the main symptoms, tears secretion test, lacrimal membrane breaking time and corneal fluorescent staining before and after treatment were observed in the two groups.After treatment, sensation of dryness and foreign body sensation in the eye, asthenopia and gross symptoms significantly improved (P<0.01) in the two groups (...) , and the observation group in the improvement of the sensation of dryness and foreign body sensation in the eye and the gross symptoms was better than the control group (P<0.05); tears secretion test significantly improved and was better in the observation group than that in the control group (P<0.05); lacrimal membrane breaking time and corneal fluorescent staining were improved in the two groups (P<0.05), and the improvement of lacrimal membrane breaking time in the observation group was more obvious than

2008 Zhongguo zhen jiu = Chinese acupuncture & moxibustion Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2349. Tolerability of loteprednol/tobramycin versus dexamethasone/tobramycin in healthy volunteers: results of a 4-week, randomized, double-masked, parallel-group study. (Abstract)

(pain, stinging/burning, irritation, itchiness, foreign-body sensation, dryness, and light sensitivity). Secondary analysis revealed small but significant within-treatment differences in pain favoring LE/T over tears and in light sensitivity favoring tears over DM/T (p < 0.01). Small between-treatment differences in the changes from baseline tear ratings to individual study visits favored LE/T for pain, stinging/burning, irritation, itchiness, foreign-body sensation, and light sensitivity at visit 4 (...) Tolerability of loteprednol/tobramycin versus dexamethasone/tobramycin in healthy volunteers: results of a 4-week, randomized, double-masked, parallel-group study. To compare the ocular comfort and tolerability of loteprednol etabonate 0.5%/tobramycin 0.3% (LE/T; Zylet) with dexamethasone 0.1%/tobramycin 0.3% (DM/T; TobraDex) in healthy volunteers.In this multicenter, randomized, double-masked, parallel-group study, healthy volunteers (n = 306) were randomized to receive LE/T or DM/T four times

2008 Current medical research and opinion Controlled trial quality: predicted high

2350. Fibrin glue versus sutures for conjunctival autografting in pterygium surgery: a prospective comparative study. Full Text available with Trip Pro

were postoperative patient comfort, duration of surgery and recurrence of pterygium.In the fibrin glue group, the mean operation time was 15.7 (SD 2.4) min (range 12-18 min) and in the suture group (p<0.001) it was 32.5 (6.7) min (range 25-40 min). The intensity of the postoperative pain, foreign-body sensation, irritation and epiphora were significantly lower in the fibrin glue group than in the suture group (p<0.001). The intensity of itchy sensation at the first two postoperative visits (...) Fibrin glue versus sutures for conjunctival autografting in pterygium surgery: a prospective comparative study. To compare the use of fibrin glue versus sutures for fixating conjunctival autografts in patients undergoing pterygium excision.Fifty patients (50 eyes) with primary pterygium were randomised to undergo pterygium surgery using either fibrin glue (25 eyes) or 8-0 Vicryl sutures (25 eyes) to attach the conjunctival autograft. The patients were followed up for 12 months. Outcome measures

2008 British Journal of Ophthalmology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

2351. Iritis and Uveitis Full Text available with Trip Pro

separate and articles for additional detail on posterior uveitis. Anatomy of the uveal tract The uveal tract is the pigmented middle layer of the three concentric layers that make up the eye, lying between the sclera (superficial to it) and the retina (deep to it). It consists of the iris, ciliary body and choroid. The name comes from the Latin uva , meaning grape; it is possibly a reference to its purplish colour, wrinkled appearance and grape-like size and shape. Attribution: by Rhcastilhos, via (...) , sarcoidosis is the most common systemic disease that presents as chronic uveitis. In Japan, Behçet's disease is the most common systemic disease associated with chronic uveitis and, in other parts of the world, it may be tuberculosis. Some ocular syndromes can give rise to anterior or posterior uveitis. [ ] Pathophysiology [ , ] Uveitis is the eye's response to a wide range of intraocular inflammatory diseases of infectious, traumatic, genetic or autoimmune aetiology. The end pathology results from

2008 Mentor

2352. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

for long periods, which can prove difficult. Therefore, CT scanning is preferred in these situations. MRI scanning cannot be performed in the presence of foreign bodies or metallic implants - eg, pacemakers, aneurysm clips and some cardiac stents (even if distant from the site of the image). However, stainless steel objects, such as those in hip prostheses, may be OK. It is relatively expensive compared with other forms of imaging. It may not be available 'out of hours'. Interference from foreign (...) metallic bodies and cardiac pacemakers in MRI scanning This varies somewhat according to the type of implant and will usually be checked by the MRI department by contacting the manufacturers. It is important to bear in mind that there are no trials comparing MRI scans in patients with or without implants - these could possibly be too risky to perform. However, there is some evidence available in patients where the benefits of having the MRI scan outweighed the risks. Cardiac pacemakers

2008 Mentor

2353. Keratoplasty

acuity and the patient should take the team's advice before starting up again. It may take months or even longer to recover useful vision. Complications [ , ] If any of the complications listed below are suspected, same-day referral is mandatory. Persistent epithelial defects (>2 weeks in duration): symptoms and signs are as for a . Irritation by protruding sutures: presents with a with associated foreign body sensation. Do not evert the eyelids when examining the eye. Wound leak: look for a shallow (...) of the total refractive power of the eye, so disruption of this surface can reduce acuity. The corneal epithelium is continuous with the conjunctival epithelium. It regenerates constantly, from the bottom layer. Bowman's layer (also called the anterior limiting membrane) : this is a protective acellular collagen layer. Corneal stroma (or substantia propria) : a thicker, transparent layer of collagen and keratocytes which makes up around 90% of corneal thickness. Descemet's membrane (posterior limiting

2008 Mentor

2354. Ethnic Matters

is present, using hands-free speaker mode will enable a telephone-translated consultation to proceed more easily. If a patient calls NHS Direct and is able to state (in English) the name of the language they wish to use, a consultation in that language is available. Depending on the ethnic mix of your patient population there may be services provided by the council, local hospitals, refugee support groups and other bodies. These services are often free if arranged by the patient themselves. Patient (...) confidentiality issues, embarrassment, potential conflicts and lack of good translating skills. You should avoid using children to interpret - this may embarrass the adults and give the child inappropriate responsibilities. When working with an interpreter: Allow extra time. Discuss how you will work together before you start. Focus on and try to maintain eye contact with the patient, not the interpreter. Emphasise confidentiality and address the patient as 'you' not 'he/she'. Speak slowly and clearly 1-2

2008 Mentor

2355. Gait Abnormalities in Children

). Gastrointestinal upset (possibly following foreign travel) may predate reactive arthritis. Sexual history may be relevant in the older child/adolescent with a presentation suggestive of reactive arthritis. Rashes such as psoriasis may associate with psoriatic arthritis. Photosensitive rash in the presence of arthralgia and malaise, especially in an adolescent girl, may indicate systemic lupus erythematosus but is less likely to present with limp. A maculopapular rash, often occurring at times of high fever (...) , is characteristic of systemic-onset JIA. Prior history of red eye is typical of acute uveitis in HLA-B27-associated arthritis in children. How to examine gait and stability First, observe the child entering the room - speed, stride, balance. Ask them to walk across the room, turn, and come back. Ask them to walk heel-to-toe in a straight line. Ask them to walk on their toes in a straight line, and then to walk on their heels in a straight line. Ask them to hop in place on each foot. Ask them to do a shallow

2008 Mentor

2356. Fasciola Hepatica

infection is asymptomatic. However, with maturation there may be an obstructive phase causing hepatitis, cholangitis, or pancreatitis. Fasciola spp. are not adapted to using man as a definitive host and so the flukes may cause ectopic infections, especially in the lungs and subcutaneous tissues where they may form cysts. Halzoun is one such type of infection following consumption of raw liver. There is severe pharyngitis, dysphagia, sensation of a foreign body in the throat, and possibly airways (...) Guidelines. You may find one of our more useful. In this article In This Article Fasciola Hepatica In this article Synonyms: liver fluke, liver rot Description Fascioliasis is caused by two species of parasitic flatworms or trematodes that mainly affect the liver. The two species of trematodes that cause fascioliasis ( Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica ) are leaf-shaped worms, large enough to be visible to the naked eye (adult F. hepatica measure 20-30 mm x 13 mm; adult F. gigantica measure 25-75

2008 Mentor

2357. Facial Pain

infection or, much less frequently, a more serious cause of facial pain. Causes [ ] Sinus: sinusitis, trauma, carcinoma. Nose: upper respiratory tract infection, nasal injury and foreign bodies. Ear: otitis media, otitis externa. Mastoid: mastoiditis. Teeth: dental abscess. Local soft tissue infection: cellulitis, erysipelas. Neurological: trigeminal neuralgia, herpes zoster, post-herpetic neuralgia. Parotid gland: mumps, other causes of parotitis, abscess, duct obstruction, calculi, tumour. Eye (...) and touching or washing the face. Even the slightest touch of the skin can cause intense pain. Associated symptoms: Obstruction of the lacrimal duct by nasopharyngeal carcinoma may cause watering of the eyes. Otorrhoea and/or hearing loss suggest an ear or mastoid cause. Nasal obstruction and rhinorrhoea may be due to maxillary sinusitis or carcinoma of the maxillary antrum. Carcinoma of the maxillary antrum may also present with unilateral epistaxis. Proximal muscle weakness and pain may be due

2008 Mentor

2358. Encephalitis and Meningoencephalitis

, following a viral infection elsewhere in the body. Most viral infections in childhood are able to cause encephalitis. Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is recognised worldwide as the most frequent infectious encephalitis. [ ] In children older than 3 months and in adults: HSE is usually caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and is localised to the temporal and frontal lobes. In neonates: HSE is usually caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) acquired at the time of delivery, and brain (...) encephalitis present with the symptoms of meningitis (fever, headache, neck stiffness, vomiting) followed by altered consciousness, convulsions, and sometimes focal neurological signs, signs of raised intracranial pressure, or psychiatric symptoms. There may be an association with a history of infection elsewhere in the body. Encephalitis may begin with a flu-like illness or with a headache, followed by a rapid development of altered consciousness, with confusion, drowsiness, seizures and coma. Symptoms

2008 Mentor

2359. Endophthalmitis

Guidelines. You may find one of our more useful. In this article In This Article Endophthalmitis In this article Description Endophthalmitis is severe inflammation of the anterior and/or posterior chambers of the eye. Whilst it may be sterile, usually it is bacterial or fungal, with infection involving the vitreous and/or aqueous humours. Most cases are exogenous and occur after eye surgery (including cataract surgery) or penetrating ocular trauma, or as an extension of corneal infection. An increasing (...) number of cases are occurring after intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) medications. Endophthalmitis may also be endogenous, arising from bacteraemic or fungaemic seeding of the eye. [ ] Acute bacterial endophthalmitis is a medical emergency, because delay in treatment may result in vision loss. [ ] When inflammation spreads throughout the globe and involves all the layers ± the peri-ocular tissues, the condition is known as panophthalmitis, a devastating

2008 Mentor

2360. Conjunctival Problems

to conditions affecting the conjunctiva: Red eye. Epiphora (watering eye). Irritation - this may be a foreign body sensation due to the presence of follicles or papillae. Itching is the hallmark of allergic conjunctivitis but may also occur in blepharitis or kerato-conjunctivitis sicca. Pain - this is generally mild. Unless there is obvious trauma, significant pain is unusual and should trigger suspicion of corneal involvement. Discharge. Assessment of the conjunctiva There are three components (...) , it is not worrying as long as it settles. It can also occur if there is infection or irritation, including that caused by retrobulbar masses or thyroid orbitopathy. Scarring - this may occur as a result of trachoma, ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, atopic conjunctivitis or prolonged use of topical medication. The lid may be difficult to pull down or to evert. Look for what you can't see Evert the lids - foreign bodies and lesions may be completely concealed within the conjunctival fornices. Stain with fluorescein

2008 Mentor

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