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Eye Examination in Children

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1. Findings from an opt-in eye examination service in English special schools. Is vision screening effective for this population? (PubMed)

Findings from an opt-in eye examination service in English special schools. Is vision screening effective for this population? Our objective was to present the findings of an opt-in, school-based eye care service for children attending 11 special schools in England and use these findings to determine whether a vision screening programme would be appropriate for this population. Data from eye examinations provided to 949 pupils (mean age 10.7 years) was analysed to determine the prevalence (...) and aetiology of visual deficiencies and reported eye care history. For 46.2% (n = 438) of pupils, a visual deficiency was recorded. 12.5% of all the children seen (n = 119) had a visual deficiency that was previously undiagnosed. Referral for a medical opinion was made for 3.1% (n = 29) of pupils seen by the service. Spectacle correction was needed for 31.5% (n = 299) of pupils; for 12.9% (122) these were prescribed for the first time. 3.7% (n = 11) of parents/carers of pupils needing spectacles chose

2019 PLoS ONE

2. Developmental Eye Movement test and dyslexic children: A pilot study with eye movement recordings. (PubMed)

Developmental Eye Movement test and dyslexic children: A pilot study with eye movement recordings. The goal of this study is to explore eye movement recordings during the Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test in dyslexic and non-dyslexic children. Thirteen children with dyslexia, 13 non-dyslexic chronological age- and IQ-matched children and 13 non-dyslexic reading age- and IQ-matched children were examined. Test C of the DEM test was performed with and without eye movement recordings (eye (...) tracker by SuriCog). The results of the three groups were compared. Children with dyslexia and non-dyslexic children of equivalent reading age have significant longer fixation time and take longer to read Test C of the DEM test than non-dyslexic children of similar chronological age. A significant correlation was also found between the fixation time and the number of words read in one minute with the total time to read Test C of the DEM test. DEM test is a useful test for exploring the oculomotor

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2018 PLoS ONE

3. Eye Examination in Children

Eye Examination in Children Eye Examination in Children Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Eye Examination in Children (...) Eye Examination in Children Aka: Eye Examination in Children , Pediatric Eye Exam , Pediatric Vision Screening II. Epidemiology Only 20% of U.S. Children screened for eye disease III. Risk Factors: High risk children (may require eye specialist screening) Difficulty testing child on 2 separate attempts Age 3: Repeat attempt in 6 months Age 4 and older: Repeat attempt in 1 month s or neurologic disorder Systemic disease of eye disorder s Metabolic disorder Childhood IV. Evaluation: Well Child Exam

2018 FP Notebook

4. An Examination of Recording Accuracy and Precision From Eye Tracking Data From Toddlerhood to Adulthood (PubMed)

An Examination of Recording Accuracy and Precision From Eye Tracking Data From Toddlerhood to Adulthood The quantitative assessment of eye tracking data quality is critical for ensuring accuracy and precision of gaze position measurements. However, researchers often report the eye tracker's optimal manufacturer's specifications rather than empirical data about the accuracy and precision of the eye tracking data being presented. Indeed, a recent report indicates that less than half of eye (...) tracking researchers surveyed take the eye tracker's accuracy into account when determining areas of interest for analysis, an oversight that could impact the validity of reported results and conclusions. Accordingly, we designed a calibration verification protocol to augment independent quality assessment of eye tracking data and examined whether accuracy and precision varied between three age groups of participants. We also examined the degree to which our externally quantified quality assurance

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2018 Frontiers in psychology

5. The Eye Examination in the Evaluation of Child Abuse. (PubMed)

The Eye Examination in the Evaluation of Child Abuse. Child abuse can cause injury to any part of the eye. The most common manifestations are retinal hemorrhages (RHs) in infants and young children with abusive head trauma (AHT). Although RHs are an important indicator of possible AHT, they are also found in other conditions. Distinguishing the number, type, location, and pattern of RHs is important in evaluating a differential diagnosis. Eye trauma can be seen in cases of physical abuse or AHT (...) and may prompt referral for ophthalmologic assessment. Physicians have a responsibility to consider abuse in the differential diagnosis of pediatric eye trauma. Identification and documentation of inflicted ocular trauma requires a thorough examination by an ophthalmologist, including indirect ophthalmoscopy, most optimally through a dilated pupil, especially for the evaluation of possible RHs. An eye examination is helpful in detecting abnormalities that can help identify a medical or traumatic

2018 Pediatrics

6. Choroidal thickness in school children: The Gobi Desert Children Eye Study. (PubMed)

Choroidal thickness in school children: The Gobi Desert Children Eye Study. To investigate choroidal thickness (CT) and its associations in children in a school-based study.The cross-sectional school-based Gobi Desert Children Eye Study included 1565 out of 1911 (81.9%) eligible children from all schools in the oasis region of Ejina in the Gobi Desert. A detailed ophthalmic examination was performed, including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging for CT (...) ) increased with older age (both P<0.001). Time spent outdoors or indoors was not significantly associated with CT-related parameter in multivariate analysis.In contrast to SFCT in adults and despite elongating axial length, SFCT in children increased in cross-sectional analysis with older age (up to 11 years of age) and then started to decrease with further ageing. It suggests an increase in choroidal volume up to the age of 11 years. In children, the choroid was thickest at 1000μm temporal to the fovea

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2017 PLoS ONE

7. Parapapillary Gamma Zone and Progression of Myopia in School Children: The Beijing Children Eye Study. (PubMed)

Parapapillary Gamma Zone and Progression of Myopia in School Children: The Beijing Children Eye Study. To assess the development and enlargement of the parapapillary gamma zone in school children.This school-based prospective longitudinal study included Chinese children attending grade 1 in 2011 and returning for yearly follow-up examinations until 2016. These examinations consisted of a comprehensive ocular examination with biometry and color fundus photographs. The parents underwent (...) a standardized interview. The parapapillary gamma zone was defined as the area with visible sclera at the temporal optic disc margin, and the optic disc itself was measured on fundus photographs.The study included 294 children (mean age in 2016, 11.4 ± 0.5 years [range, 10-13 years]; mean axial length, 24.1 ± 1.1 mm [range, 21.13-27.29 mm]). In multivariate analysis, larger increases in the gamma zone area during the study period were correlated (coefficient of determination for bivariate analysis [r2], r2

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2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

8. Optic disc-fovea distance and myopia progression in school children: the Beijing Children Eye Study. (PubMed)

Optic disc-fovea distance and myopia progression in school children: the Beijing Children Eye Study. To assess changes in the optic disc-fovea distance (DFD) with progressing myopia in school children.The school-based, prospective, longitudinal study included grade-1 children in 2011 who were yearly re-examined until 2016. We measured DFD, optic disc diameters and width of parapapillary gamma zone (parapapillary region without Bruch's membrane (BM)) on fundus photographs.Of 382 grade-1 children (...) examined in 2011, 294 (77.0%) children (mean age in 2011: 6.4 ± 0.5 years) returned to be examined in 2016. In relative terms, the increase in DFD (1.15 ± 0.33 mm) was more due to an increase in gamma zone width (+300% or 0.29 ± 0.30 mm) than an increase in macular BM length (+18% or 0.74 ± 0.21 mm). In multivariate regression analysis, longer increase in DFD was correlated (regression coefficient r2  = 0.79) with longer axial elongation during the study period (p < 0.001; standardized regression

2018 Acta ophthalmologica

9. Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Children: The Gobi Desert Children Eye Study. (PubMed)

Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Children: The Gobi Desert Children Eye Study. Because there is a paucity of population-based data on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) for children, we measured the RNFLT and its associations in schoolchildren.The population-based Gobi Desert Children Eye Study included all schoolchildren aged 6 to 21 years living in Ejina, Inner Mongolia. The children underwent a comprehensive ocular examination with cycloplegic refractometry and spectral-domain (...) optical coherence tomography of the optic nerve head. The peripapillary RNFLT was measured on the optical coherence tomography images of a circular scan with a diameter of 3.4 mm.Out of 1565 participants, RNFLT data were available for 1440 (92.5%) children. The mean global RNFLT was 101.3 ± 9.2 μm in right eyes. The RNFLT was thickest in the temporal inferior sector (157.3 μm), followed by the temporal superior sector (143.8 μm), the nasal inferior sector (109.7 μm), the nasal superior sector (106.9

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2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

10. Prevalence and Factors Associated with the Use of Eye Care Services in South Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012 (PubMed)

Prevalence and Factors Associated with the Use of Eye Care Services in South Korea: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012 To estimate the factors and prevalence of eye care service utilization in the South Korean population.This cross-sectional, population-based study included data from 22,550 Koreans aged ≥5 years who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012. For people aged 5 to 11 years (young children (...) their lifetime was 73.5%. Subjects aged 7 to 11 years were more likely to have had an eye examination in the past year than subjects aged 5 to 6 years (odds ratio, 3.83; 95% confidence interval, 2.37-6.19). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that higher monthly household income, being a National Health Insurance holder, and having private health insurance were related to more frequent use of eye care services in young children. For the older population and women, those living in an urban

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2017 Korean journal of ophthalmology : KJO

11. Prevalence of Ocular Pathology on Initial Screening and Incidence of new findings on Follow up Examinations in Children with Trisomy 21. (PubMed)

in Trisomy 21 at a much higher prevalence than the general population; thus these children initially should have a comprehensive eye examination. While the development of new ocular pathology in a child with Trisomy 21 and a previously normal exam is not unusual, most of these new abnormalities are detectable with automated vision screening techniques or direct visual inspection of the eyes and ocular adnexa; thus once a child has a normal examination, a formal vision screening could replace a formal (...) Prevalence of Ocular Pathology on Initial Screening and Incidence of new findings on Follow up Examinations in Children with Trisomy 21. Various ophthalmologic findings have been associated with Trisomy 21. However, prior studies on this topic are limited by their sample size and the lack of follow-up regarding the incidence of new pathology after an initially normal exam. We determined whether children who have a normal first examination need to have formal re-evaluation

2019 American Journal of Ophthalmology

12. Eye movements and postural control in dyslexic children performing different visual tasks. (PubMed)

Eye movements and postural control in dyslexic children performing different visual tasks. The aim of this study was to examine eye movements and postural control performance among dyslexic children while reading a text and performing the Landolt reading task. Fifteen dyslexic and 15 non-dyslexic children were asked to stand upright while performing two experimental visual tasks: text reading and Landolt reading. In the text reading task, children were asked to silently read a text displayed (...) on a monitor, while in the Landolt reading task, the letters in the text were replaced by closed circles and Landolt rings, and children were asked to scan each circle/ring in a reading-like fashion, from left to right, and to count the number of Landolt rings. Eye movements (Mobile T2®, SuriCog) and center of pressure excursions (Framiral®, Grasse, France) were recorded. Visual performance variables were total reading time, mean duration of fixation, number of pro- and retro-saccades, and amplitude of pro

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2018 PLoS ONE

13. Looking at paintings in the Vincent Van Gogh Museum: Eye movement patterns of children and adults. (PubMed)

Looking at paintings in the Vincent Van Gogh Museum: Eye movement patterns of children and adults. In the present study, we examined the eye movement behaviour of children and adults looking at five Van Gogh paintings in the Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam. The goal of the study was to determine the role of top-down and bottom-up attentional processes in the first stages of participants' aesthetic experience. Bottom-up processes were quantified by determining a salience map for each painting. Top (...) -down processing was manipulated by first allowing participants to view the paintings freely, then providing background information about each painting, and then allowing them to view the paintings a second time. The salience analysis showed differences between the eye movement behaviour of children and adults, and differences between the two phases. In the children, the first five fixations during the free viewing phase were strongly related to visually salient features of the paintings-indicating

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2017 PLoS ONE

14. Video Diversion Improves Success Rate of Fundoscopic Examination in Children: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial. (PubMed)

Video Diversion Improves Success Rate of Fundoscopic Examination in Children: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial. Fundoscopy is an important component of the neurological examination as it can detect pathologies such as high intracranial pressure. However, the examination can be challenging in young children. This study evaluated whether playing a video during eye examination improves the success, duration, and ease of pediatric fundoscopy.This was a prospective, multipractitioner (...) , multiclinic, randomized controlled trial. Patients aged one to four years were recruited in the emergency department, neurology clinic, spinal cord clinic, and general pediatric clinic. Eye examination was randomized to video or non-video-assisted fundoscopy. Successful examinations were defined as visualizing the fundus within 60 seconds. Time to visualize optic disc was recorded and difficulty of examination was assessed using a 10-point Likert scale.We recruited 101 subjects with a mean age of 2.8

2018 Pediatric Neurology

15. Examining the Efficacy of a Mobile Therapy for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Examining the Efficacy of a Mobile Therapy for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Examining the Efficacy of a Mobile Therapy for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov Hide glossary Glossary Study record managers: refer to the if submitting registration or results information. Search for terms x × Study Record Detail Saved Studies Save this study Warning You have reached the maximum number of saved studies (100). Please remove one or more studies before (...) adding more. Examining the Efficacy of a Mobile Therapy for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our for details. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03569176 Recruitment Status : Completed First Posted : June 26, 2018 Last Update Posted : July 17, 2018 Sponsor: Dennis Paul Wall Information provided

2018 Clinical Trials

16. The Tribal Odisha Eye Disease Study (TOES) 1: prevalence and causes of visual impairment among tribal children in an urban school in Eastern India. (PubMed)

, and examination data, including unaided and pinhole visual acuity, external eye examination with a flashlight, slit-lamp examination, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, and undilated fundus photography, were collected. Children with visual acuity of less than 20/20, abnormal anterior or posterior segment findings, and IOP of >21 mm Hg were referred for further evaluation.Of 10,038 children (5,840 males [58.2%]) screened, 335 (median age, 9 years; range, 6-17 years) were referred. Refractive error (...) The Tribal Odisha Eye Disease Study (TOES) 1: prevalence and causes of visual impairment among tribal children in an urban school in Eastern India. To estimate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and other ocular comorbidities among tribal children in an urban school population in eastern India.In this cross-sectional study, vision screening tests were administered to tribal school children. Demographic data, including name, age, sex, home district, height, and weight of each child

2018 JAAPOS - Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

17. Fluorescein Angiographic Abnormalities in the Contralateral Eye with Normal Fundus in Children with Unilateral Coats' Disease (PubMed)

Fluorescein Angiographic Abnormalities in the Contralateral Eye with Normal Fundus in Children with Unilateral Coats' Disease We report the detection of peripheral retinal vascular abnormalities in the fellow eye with normal fundus in children with unilateral Coats' disease.The clinical records of patients diagnosed with Coats' disease were retrospectively reviewed. We recorded the subjects' characteristics and obtained fundus photography and fluorescein angiography (FA) images. The main (...) outcome measure was peripheral vascular abnormalities in the contralateral eye with normal fundus in children with unilateral Coats' disease, observed with FA.Out of 47 patients with Coats' disease, two (4.3%) were diagnosed with clinically bilateral Coats' disease. Of the 45 patients with presumed unilateral Coats' disease, four (8.9%) had bilateral abnormal peripheral vasculature in FA. The mean age of these four patients was 6.4 ± 5.4 years (range, 1 to 14 years), and three patients were male (75

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2018 Korean journal of ophthalmology : KJO

18. Analogical Reasoning in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence From an Eye-Tracking Approach (PubMed)

Analogical Reasoning in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence From an Eye-Tracking Approach The present study examined analogical reasoning in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and its relationship with cognitive and executive functioning and processing strategies. Our findings showed that although children with ASD were less competent in solving analogical problems than typically developing children, this inferior performance was attributable to general cognitive (...) impairments. Eye-movement analyses revealed that children with ASD paid less attention to relational items and showed fewer gaze shifts between relational locations. Nevertheless, these eye-movement patterns did not predict autistic children's behavioral performance. Together, our findings suggest that ASD per se does not entail impairments in analogical reasoning. The inferior performance of autistic children on analogical reasoning tasks is attributable to deficits in general cognitive and executive

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2018 Frontiers in psychology

19. Early Reputation Management: Three-Year-Old Children Are More Generous Following Exposure to Eyes (PubMed)

eyes effect. Finally, no study to date has examined whether cues of human presence other than the eyes also influence prosociality. We found that children in the Mouth condition were prosocial at an intermediate level between the Eyes and Flowers conditions. Overall, the findings point to the remarkably early emergence of reputation management in human ontogeny. (...) Early Reputation Management: Three-Year-Old Children Are More Generous Following Exposure to Eyes To enhance their reputations, adults and even 5-year-old children behave more prosocially when being observed by others. However, it remains unknown whether children younger than five also manage their reputations. One established paradigm for assessing reputation management is the 'watching eyes paradigm,' in which adults have been found to be more prosocial in the presence of eyes versus control

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2018 Frontiers in psychology

20. Reading Independently and Reading With a Narrator: Eye Movement Patterns of Children With Different Receptive Vocabularies (PubMed)

Reading Independently and Reading With a Narrator: Eye Movement Patterns of Children With Different Receptive Vocabularies This study examined the effects of two reading styles (i.e., reading with a narrator and reading independently), receptive vocabulary and literacy on children's eye movement patterns. The sample included 46 Chinese children (aged 4-6 years) who were randomly assigned to two reading styles and read the same picture book on a screen. The results indicated that the higher (...) the children's receptive vocabulary was, the sooner they fixated on the text. Overall, the children's fixation probability (i.e., the time spent viewing the text zones as a proportion of full-page viewing time during each period) decreased with time when reading independently but increased with time when reading with a narrator. For children in senior kindergarten, reading with a narrator is thought to help establish and consolidate the links between speech and text and thus promote reading acquisition.

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2018 Frontiers in psychology

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