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Extraocular Movement

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1. Isolated complete unilateral ptosis with intact extraocular eye movements. (PubMed)

Isolated complete unilateral ptosis with intact extraocular eye movements. An 88-year-old woman presented with a 2-day history of inability to open her left eye with no ocular discomfort or blurred vision. She had a long-standing history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and stroke disease. Examination revealed an isolated complete left eye ptosis with no pupillary involvement and intact extraocular movements. There were no other neurological deficits and fatigability was not elicited

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2019 Age and ageing

2. MRI Evidence of Cerebellar and Extraocular Muscle Atrophy Differently Contributing to Eye Movement Abnormalities in SCA2 and SCA28 Diseases. (PubMed)

MRI Evidence of Cerebellar and Extraocular Muscle Atrophy Differently Contributing to Eye Movement Abnormalities in SCA2 and SCA28 Diseases. Spinocerebellar ataxias type 2 and 28 (SCA2, SCA28) are autosomal dominant disorders characterized by progressive cerebellar and oculomotor abnormalities. We aimed to investigate cerebellar, brainstem, and extraocular muscle involvement in the mitochondrial SCA28 disease compared with SCA2.We obtained orbital and brain 1.5 T-magnetic resonance images (MRI (...) ) in eight SCA28 subjects, nine SCA2, and nine age-matched healthy subjects. Automated segmentation of cerebellum and frontal lobe was performed using Freesurfer software. Manual segmentations for midbrain, pons, and extraocular muscles were performed using OsiriX.Eye movement abnormalities in SCA2 subjects were characterized by slow horizontal saccades. Subjects with SCA28 variably presented hypometric saccades, saccadic horizontal pursuit, impaired horizontal gaze holding, and superior eyelid ptosis

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2016 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

3. Extraocular Movement

Extraocular Movement Extraocular Movement Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Extraocular Movement Extraocular Movement (...) Aka: Extraocular Movement , Oculomotor Nerve Structure , Conjugate Gaze , Pontine Paramedian Reticular Formation , Lateral Gaze Center , Paraabducens Nucleus , Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus II. Definitions Conjugate Gaze Movement of both eyes in the same direction at the same time III. Anatomy: Innervation Cerebral Cortex Voluntary Conjugate Gaze (Brodmann's Area 8) Involuntary Conjugate Gaze (Areas 17-19) s (nucleus in ) (nucleus in ) (nucleus in pons) Nucleii and Pathways Lateral Gaze Center

2018 FP Notebook

4. Extraocular muscle damage from dental implant penetration to the orbit (PubMed)

Extraocular muscle damage from dental implant penetration to the orbit To demonstrate an unusual case of orbital trauma due to dental surgery complication.An elderly patient who underwent dental implantation to the zygomatic bone was hospitalized in the ophthalmology department with impaired abduction of her right eye, also evident on ocular examination. Head computed tomography demonstrated damage to the lateral rectus and to the inferior oblique muscles. Clinical assessment determined (...) these muscles could not be repaired and reattached. The extent of irreversible damage in the patient was permanent limitation in movement of her affected eye with subsequent strabismus.Accurate pre-operative planning of dental zygomatic implant insertion, as well as selecting the size and direction of the implant, are imperative. Moreover, performing surgery in multidisciplinary centers with oculofacial plastic surgeons in such cases, may reduce risk of this complication, make it a safer procedure

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2016 American journal of ophthalmology case reports

5. The predictive factors of diplopia and extraocular movement limitations in isolated pure blow-out fracture (PubMed)

The predictive factors of diplopia and extraocular movement limitations in isolated pure blow-out fracture To evaluate the predictive factors for development of diplopia and extraocular muscle movement (EOM) limitations in the patients with isolated pure blow-out fracture.One hundred thirty-two patients with isolated pure blow-out fracture were included. The diagnosis was done with computed tomography scan. Possible predictive factors were analyzed with logistic regression. The cases

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2016 Journal of current ophthalmology

6. Composition, Architecture, and Functional Implications of the Connective Tissue Network of the Extraocular Muscles. (PubMed)

Composition, Architecture, and Functional Implications of the Connective Tissue Network of the Extraocular Muscles. We examined the pattern and extent of connective tissue distribution in the extraocular muscles (EOMs) and determined the ability of the interconnected connective tissues to disseminate force laterally.Human EOMs were examined for collagens I, III, IV, and VI; fibronectin; laminin; and elastin using immunohistochemistry. Connective tissue distribution was examined with scanning (...) perimysial connections, to the epimysium. These interconnections are significant and allow measurable force transmission laterally as well as longitudinally, suggesting that they may contribute to the nonlinear force summation seen in motor unit recording studies. This provides strong evidence that separate compartmental movements are unlikely as no region is independent of the rest of the muscle.

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2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

7. Changes in Myosin Heavy Chain Isoforms Along the Length of Orbital Fibers in Rabbit Extraocular Muscle. (PubMed)

Changes in Myosin Heavy Chain Isoforms Along the Length of Orbital Fibers in Rabbit Extraocular Muscle. Extraocular muscles express 10 myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms that cater for a wide range of contractile speeds. We aim to characterize the variations in MyHC expression along the length of singly (SIFs) and multiply innervated fibers (MIFs) in the orbital layer of rabbit superior rectus muscle.Monospecific antibodies to nine MyHCs, including an anti-slow-tonic antibody characterized here (...) in an antagonistic manner during a saccade: the fast phases facilitate acceleration of eyeball rotation during agonist contraction, while the slow phases help its deceleration toward the visual target, thereby linearizing the saccade. These properties also facilitate pulley movements to implement Listing's law.

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2018 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

8. Clinical and ocular motor complications of extraocular muscle extirpation for infantile nystagmus syndrome. (PubMed)

Clinical and ocular motor complications of extraocular muscle extirpation for infantile nystagmus syndrome. To describe the effects of extraocular muscle extirpation performed after previous eye muscle surgery in a 20-year-old woman with infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) for whom we have 19 years of follow-up data.Clinical examinations were performed. Eye movement data analysis was carried out using the eXpanded Nystagmus Acuity Function (NAFX) and longest foveation domain (LFD).The patient re

2018 JAAPOS - Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

9. Palisade Endings of Extraocular Muscles Develop Postnatally Following Different Time Courses. (PubMed)

Palisade Endings of Extraocular Muscles Develop Postnatally Following Different Time Courses. To analyze in a frontal-eyed mammal (cat) the postnatal development of palisade endings in extraocular muscles (EOMs) and to compare the spatiotemporal and quantitative patterns of palisade endings among individual rectus muscles.Cats of different ages ranging from birth to adult stage were studied. EOM whole-mount preparations were fluorescently labeled using six combinations of triple staining (...) values for the inferior and superior rectus were in between. Palisade endings expressed high levels of growth associated protein 43 during development and were supplied by axons that established motor terminals.Cats open their eyes 7 to 10 days after birth and later develop a complex three-dimensional visuomotor climbing and jumping behavior depending on accurate binocular vision and fine tuning of the ocular movements. Our findings indicate that palisade ending development correlates with important

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2017 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

10. Extraocular Muscle Repair and Regeneration (PubMed)

Extraocular Muscle Repair and Regeneration The goal of this review is to summarize the unique regenerative milieu within mature mammalian extraocular muscles (EOMs). This will aid in understanding disease propensity for and sparing of EOMs in skeletal muscle diseases as well as the recalcitrance of the EOM to injury.The EOMs continually remodel throughout life and contain an extremely enriched number of myogenic precursor cells that differ in number and functional characteristics from those (...) in the same plane.These data will inform Ophthalmologists as they work toward developing new treatments for eye movement disorders, new approaches for repair after nerve or direct EOMs injury, as well as suggest potential explanations for the unusual disease propensity and disease sparing characteristics of human EOM.

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2017 Current ophthalmology reports

11. Management of a case of divergent strabismus fixus secondary to a congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 2 (PubMed)

Management of a case of divergent strabismus fixus secondary to a congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 2 A 17-year-old boy presented with a large exotropia with both eyes fixed in an abduction and upgaze, pupillary involvement since childhood. He had mild optic nerve hypoplasia in the right eye and situs inversus of the retinal vessels in the left optic disc. His ocular motility showed restriction of eye movements in all gazes. He was diagnosed with congenital fibrosis of extraocular

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2017 Indian journal of ophthalmology

12. Gaze-Stabilizing Central Vestibular Neurons Project Asymmetrically to Extraocular Motoneuron Pools (PubMed)

Gaze-Stabilizing Central Vestibular Neurons Project Asymmetrically to Extraocular Motoneuron Pools Within reflex circuits, specific anatomical projections allow central neurons to relay sensations to effectors that generate movements. A major challenge is to relate anatomical features of central neural populations, such as asymmetric connectivity, to the computations the populations perform. To address this problem, we mapped the anatomy, modeled the function, and discovered a new behavioral

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2017 The Journal of Neuroscience

13. KIF21A mutation in two Chinese families with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 1 and 3 (PubMed)

KIF21A mutation in two Chinese families with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 1 and 3 Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) is a hereditary ocular disease and can be classified into three subtypes. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic basis and describe the clinical phenotype of CFEOM type 1 and 3. Two Chinese families with CFEOM type 1 and 3 were identified. The patients and their family members were subjected to comprehensive ophthalmic (...) . The detected mutations were further analyzed in all available family members and the unrelated control subjects. A heterozygous mutation, c.2860C>T (p.R954W), in KIF21A was identified in the two families, and this was cosegregated with the presence of the diseases in the two families, however, it was absent in the 200 normal control subjects. Among the three affected family members with CFEOM1, differences were observed with regard to the presence of aberrant eye movement. The results indicated

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2016 Molecular medicine reports

14. Intra-operative electrooculographic monitoring to prevent post-operative extraocular motor nerve dysfunction during skull base surgeries (PubMed)

Intra-operative electrooculographic monitoring to prevent post-operative extraocular motor nerve dysfunction during skull base surgeries Intra-operative identification and preservation of extraocular motor nerves is one of the main goals of surgeries for skull base tumours and this is done by monitoring the extraocular movement (EOM). Intra-operative electromyographic monitoring has been reported, but it is a complex and skilful process. Electrooculography (EOG) is a simple and reliable (...) technique for monitoring EOMs. We aimed to assess the utility of EOG monitoring in preventing extraocular motor nerve dysfunction during skull base surgeries.In this retrospective cohort study, intra-operative EOG recordings were obtained using disposable needle electrodes placed on the periorbital skin and the polarity of the waves noted for interpretation. Triggered as well as continuous EOG responses were recorded after monopolar electrode stimulation of cranial nerve (CN) during tumour removal which

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2016 Indian journal of anaesthesia

15. Can a dermoid cyst lead to an abnormal origin of an extraocular muscle? (PubMed)

Can a dermoid cyst lead to an abnormal origin of an extraocular muscle? A 5-year-old boy presented with a large 5 cm × 5 cm cyst covering the left eye completely since birth. The cyst was excised in toto and was sent for histopathological examination. During the surgery, the inferior oblique (IO) muscle was seen originating from medial orbital wall, 10-12 mm behind the medial orbital margin, just posterior to the lacrimal bone and moving laterally, downward, and posteriorly from its origin (...) making a more acute angle - around 20° to its site of origin. The insertion of the IO to sclera was at its normal site. The abnormal origin of IO was confirmed later by magnetic resonance imaging. The ocular movements of the left eye were tested 2 weeks after the surgery and were found to be normal in all directions. However, the child was hypertrophic and amblyopic. The histopathological findings showed the orbital cyst to contain dermal elements, respiratory, and intestinal epithelium.

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2016 Indian journal of ophthalmology

16. Accessory Extraocular Muscle as a Cause of Restrictive Strabismus. (PubMed)

Accessory Extraocular Muscle as a Cause of Restrictive Strabismus. Restrictive strabismus resulting from the presence of an accessory extraocular muscle has rarely been reported in the literature. Most articles written on this topic are isolated case reports. The purpose of this paper is to describe a series of 7 similar patients presenting with atypical restrictive strabismus associated with enophthalmos in the affected eye, which was found to be caused by an accessory extraocular muscle (...) attached to the posterior globe near the optic nerve. The medical records of 7 patients who shared these clinical characteristics were retrospectively analyzed. Orbital imaging was obtained in the 7 cases, which were compared. Three of the patients were females and four were males. The left eye was affected in all 4 males and the right eye was affected in the 3 females. The 7 patients presented with the following clinical characteristics: enophthalmos, restriction to eye movements in most fields

2016 Strabismus

17. Abnormally Small Neuromuscular Junctions in the Extraocular Muscles From Subjects With Idiopathic Nystagmus and Nystagmus Associated With Albinism. (PubMed)

Abnormally Small Neuromuscular Junctions in the Extraocular Muscles From Subjects With Idiopathic Nystagmus and Nystagmus Associated With Albinism. Infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) is often associated with abnormalities of axonal outgrowth and connectivity. To determine if this manifests in extraocular muscle innervation, specimens from children with idiopathic INS or INS and albinism were examined and compared to normal age-matched control extraocular muscles.Extraocular muscles removed (...) and slow myosin heavy chain isoform-expressing myofibers (all P < 0.015). Muscles from subjects with INS and albinism showed a 7-fold increase in neuromuscular junction numbers on fast myofibers expressing the immature gamma subunit of the acetylcholine receptor. The extraocular muscles from both INS subgroups showed a significant increase in the number and size of slow myofibers compared to age-matched controls. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor was expressed in control muscle but was virtually absent

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2016 Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

18. A noninvasive electromagnetic perturbation approach to probe extraocular proprioception. (PubMed)

to the eye.This method circumvented the constraints of conventional physiological manipulation of extraocular proprioception, such as manually or mechanically tugging on the eye ball. It can be applied to produce the discrepancy between the intended and the executed eye movements, so that proprioceptive reafference signals are dissociated from corollary motor discharges and other visuomotor events.Copyright © 2016 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All (...) A noninvasive electromagnetic perturbation approach to probe extraocular proprioception. Extraocular proprioception has been shown to participate in spatial perception and binocular alignment. Yet the physiological approaches used to study this sensory signal are limited because proprioceptive signaling takes place at the same time as visuomotor signaling. It is critical to dissociate this sensory signal from other visuomotor events that accompany eye movements.We present a novel noninvasive

2016 JAAPOS - Journal of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

19. Loss of MAFB Function in Humans and Mice Causes Duane Syndrome, Aberrant Extraocular Muscle Innervation, and Inner-Ear Defects. (PubMed)

Loss of MAFB Function in Humans and Mice Causes Duane Syndrome, Aberrant Extraocular Muscle Innervation, and Inner-Ear Defects. Duane retraction syndrome (DRS) is a congenital eye-movement disorder defined by limited outward gaze and retraction of the eye on attempted inward gaze. Here, we report on three heterozygous loss-of-function MAFB mutations causing DRS and a dominant-negative MAFB mutation causing DRS and deafness. Using genotype-phenotype correlations in humans and Mafb-knockout mice (...) regions close to target extraocular muscles. Thus, we present evidence that the primary cause of DRS is failure of the abducens nerve to fully innervate the lateral rectus muscle in early development.Copyright © 2016 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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2016 American Journal of Human Genetics

20. Structural Functional Associations of the Orbit in Thyroid Eye Disease: Kalman Filters to Track Extraocular Rectal Muscles (PubMed)

structures, but challenges arise in the identification of the individual extraocular rectus muscles that control eye movement. This is increasingly problematic in diseased eyes, where these muscles often appear to fuse at the back of the orbit (at the resolution of clinical computed tomography imaging) due to inflammation or crowding. We propose the use of Kalman filters to track the muscles in three-dimensions to refine multi-atlas segmentation and resolve ambiguity due to imaging resolution, noise (...) Structural Functional Associations of the Orbit in Thyroid Eye Disease: Kalman Filters to Track Extraocular Rectal Muscles Pathologies of the optic nerve and orbit impact millions of Americans and quantitative assessment of the orbital structures on 3-D imaging would provide objective markers to enhance diagnostic accuracy, improve timely intervention and eventually preserve visual function. Recent studies have shown that the multi-atlas methodology is suitable for identifying orbital

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2016 Proceedings of SPIE--the International Society for Optical Engineering

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