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Expressing Empathy

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1. Measuring empathy in schizophrenia: The Empathic Accuracy Task and its correlation with other empathy measures. (PubMed)

performance, with the comparison group outperforming patients. A moderating effect was found for emotional expressivity of the target: while both patients and the comparison group scored low when judging targets with low expressivity, the comparison group performed better than patients with more expressive targets. Though there were also group differences on the empathy questionnaires, EAT performance did not correlate with questionnaire scores.Individuals with schizophrenia benefit less from (...) the emotional expressivity of other people than the comparison group, which contributes to their impaired empathic accuracy. The lack of correlation between the EAT and the questionnaires suggests a distinction between self-report empathy and actual empathy performance. To explore empathic difficulties in real life, it is important to use instruments that take the interpersonal perspective into account.Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.

2019 Schizophrenia Research

2. Human Empathy, Personality and Experience Affect the Emotion Ratings of Dog and Human Facial Expressions. (PubMed)

Human Empathy, Personality and Experience Affect the Emotion Ratings of Dog and Human Facial Expressions. Facial expressions are important for humans in communicating emotions to the conspecifics and enhancing interpersonal understanding. Many muscles producing facial expressions in humans are also found in domestic dogs, but little is known about how humans perceive dog facial expressions, and which psychological factors influence people's perceptions. Here, we asked 34 observers to rate (...) the valence, arousal, and the six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, and anger/aggressiveness) from images of human and dog faces with Pleasant, Neutral and Threatening expressions. We investigated how the subjects' personality (the Big Five Inventory), empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index) and experience of dog behavior affect the ratings of dog and human faces. Ratings of both species followed similar general patterns: human subjects classified dog facial expressions from

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2017 PLoS ONE

3. Tales of Survival: Preserving Empathy for the Caretaker Who Can?t Let Go

Tales of Survival: Preserving Empathy for the Caretaker Who Can?t Let Go Tales of Survival: Preserving Empathy for the Caretaker Who Can’t Let Go – Clinical Correlations Search Tales of Survival: Preserving Empathy for the Caretaker Who Can’t Let Go January 26, 2018 6 min read By Scarlett Olivia Murphy, MD Peer Reviewed During my recent ICU rotation, I witnessed complicated acts of love between patients and their caretakers as they navigated end-of-life decisions. I observed many individuals (...) a mixture of hope and possible naiveté to something more sinister or uninformed. There were numerous moments during my ICU month where team members expressed frustration on rounds about feeling as if we were treating the patient’s [spouse, sister, child] rather than the patient. Rabbi Abraham Twerski touches on the complicated intersection between serving the self and the needs of a loved one, and how many fail at attaining true selflessness in relationships. He describes a concept he refers to as “fish

2018 Clinical Correlations

4. The interaction between embodiment and empathy in facial expression recognition (PubMed)

The interaction between embodiment and empathy in facial expression recognition Previous research has demonstrated that the Action-Observation Network (AON) is involved in both emotional-embodiment (empathy) and action-embodiment mechanisms. In this study, we hypothesized that interfering with the AON will impair action recognition and that this impairment will be modulated by empathy levels. In Experiment 1 (n = 90), participants were asked to recognize facial expressions while their facial (...) motion was restricted. In Experiment 2 (n = 50), we interfered with the AON by applying transcranial Direct Current Stimulation to the motor cortex. In both experiments, we found that interfering with the AON impaired the performance of participants with high empathy levels; however, for the first time, we demonstrated that the interference enhanced the performance of participants with low empathy. This novel finding suggests that the embodiment module may be flexible, and that it can be enhanced

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2018 Social cognitive and affective neuroscience

5. Validating Rat Model of Empathy for Pain: Effects of Pain Expressions in Social Partners (PubMed)

Validating Rat Model of Empathy for Pain: Effects of Pain Expressions in Social Partners Pain can be socially transferred between familiar rats due to empathic responses. To validate rat model of empathy for pain, effects of pain expressions in a cagemate demonstrator (CD) in pain on empathic pain responses in a naïve cagemate observer (CO) after 30 min priming dyadic social interactions (PDSI) were evaluated. The CD rats were prepared with four pain models: bee venom (BV), formalin, complete (...) of pain between familiar rats is dependent upon not only expressions of pain in social partners but also the time that dyads spent in social communications. The rat model of empathy for pain is a highly stable, reproducible and valid model for studying the neural mechanisms of empathy in lower animals.

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2018 Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience

6. Empathy is proprioceptive: the bodily fundament of empathy – a philosophical contribution to medical education (PubMed)

and behaviour of others. The philosophical respectively phenomenological account of Fuchs instead opposes by focusing personal interaction within a 1st or 2nd person perspective claiming that the emotions of others are experienceable through bodily expression and bodily resonance. Fuchs offers an account of embodied affectivity that emphasizes the role of the (subjective) body for emotion and empathy. By experiencing the bodily expressed emotions of a vis-à-vis with and through the own body empathy (...) Empathy is proprioceptive: the bodily fundament of empathy – a philosophical contribution to medical education The current philosophical debate on empathy entails accounts of theory of mind and simulation as well as a phenomenological opposition. The first focuses on a detached observation of others from a 3rd person perspective and formulates the common claim that there is no direct access to the mental and emotional life of others, only simulation or analogy can grant access to the emotions

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2018 BMC medical education

7. Empathy and Facial Expression Recognition in Children With and Without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Effects of Stimulant Medication on Empathic Skills in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. (PubMed)

Empathy and Facial Expression Recognition in Children With and Without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Effects of Stimulant Medication on Empathic Skills in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. The aim of this study was to compare children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to healthy children and adolescents in terms of state and trait empathy and emotion expression recognition skills. The goal was also to determine whether (...) on children's empathy skills with the Child Behavior Checklist. Self-reported (Bryant Index of Empathy, BEI) and parent-reported (Griffith Empathy Measurement-Parent Rating, GEM-PR) scales were used to evaluate trait empathy. The Empathy Response Task (ERT) was used to evaluate state empathy, and the Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy-2 (DANVA-2) was used to evaluate facial expression recognition skills. The scales and tests were repeated after 12 weeks of MPH treatment in the ADHD group.There were

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2017 Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

8. Children’s Empathy and Their Perception and Evaluation of Facial Pain Expression: An Eye Tracking Study (PubMed)

Children’s Empathy and Their Perception and Evaluation of Facial Pain Expression: An Eye Tracking Study The function of empathic concern to process pain is a product of evolutionary adaptation. Focusing on 5- to 6-year old children, the current study employed eye-tracking in an odd-one-out task (searching for the emotional facial expression among neutral expressions, N = 47) and a pain evaluation task (evaluating the pain intensity of a facial expression, N = 42) to investigate (...) the relationship between children's empathy and their behavioral and perceptual response to facial pain expression. We found children detected painful expression faster than others (angry, sad, and happy), children high in empathy performed better on searching facial expression of pain, and gave higher evaluation of pain intensity; and rating for pain in painful expressions was best predicted by a self-reported empathy score. As for eye-tracking in pain detection, children fixated on pain more quickly, less

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2017 Frontiers in psychology

9. Conversational agents for mental health apps: now with added artificial empathy

Conversational agents for mental health apps: now with added artificial empathy Conversational agents for mental health apps Search National Elf Service Search National Elf Service » » » » Conversational agents for mental health apps: now with added artificial empathy Aug 2 2018 Posted by For those new to the area, a conversational agent is a software application in which users have a conversation with a computer via natural language (spoken or written dialogue) . This type of agent (...) on the fence as to whether this type of intervention is beneficial and await to see what further advancements appear. “Why?” you may ask. The big problem I have with conversational agents is how we get them to show appropriate empathy . I don’t believe we’re at a stage where Artificial Intelligence (A.I) can be easily applied to enable an agent to read a person’s emotional state and respond in an appropriate manner under all circumstances, particularly in those that involve discussing mental health

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2018 The Mental Elf

10. Culture and nonverbal expressions of empathy in clinical settings: A systematic review. (PubMed)

Culture and nonverbal expressions of empathy in clinical settings: A systematic review. To conduct a systematic review of studies examining how culture mediates nonverbal expressions of empathy with the aim to improve clinician cross-cultural competency.We searched three databases for studies of nonverbal expressions of empathy and communication in cross-cultural clinical settings, yielding 16,143 articles. We examined peer-reviewed, experimental or observational articles. Sixteen studies met (...) inclusion criteria.Nonverbal expressions of empathy varied across cultural groups and impacted the quality of communication and care. Some nonverbal behaviors appeared universally desired and others, culturally specific. Findings revealed the impact of nonverbal communication on patient satisfaction, affective tone, information exchange, visit length, and expression decoding during cross-cultural clinical encounters. Racial discordance, patients' perception of physician racism, and physician implicit

2016 Patient education and counseling

11. Patient Perceptions of Expression of Empathy From Chinese Medicine Clinicians in a Chinese Population: A Cross-Sectional Study. (PubMed)

Patient Perceptions of Expression of Empathy From Chinese Medicine Clinicians in a Chinese Population: A Cross-Sectional Study. This study aims to examine the level of empathy perceived by patients receiving care from herbalists, acupuncturists and massage therapists and to investigate the factors that influence levels of perceived empathy.Participants who were 18 years or above; able to provide written informed consent; and able to read and write in Chinese without assistance were included (...) . A total of 514 participants sampled from charity and semipublic Chinese medicine (CM) clinics in Hong Kong were recruited to assess levels of empathy perceived during various length of consultations (1-20 minutes) by the Chinese Consultation and Relational Empathy Measure (Chinese CARE). Multiple linear regressions were conducted to evaluate the associations between perceived levels of empathy and the type of CM practitioner consulted and participants' demographic and health characteristics.The

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2016 Medicine

12. Expressing Empathy

Expressing Empathy Expressing Empathy Toggle navigation Brain Head & Neck Chest Endocrine Abdomen Musculoskeletal Skin Infectious Disease Hematology & Oncology Cohorts Diagnostics Emergency Findings Procedures Prevention & Management Pharmacy Resuscitation Trauma Emergency Procedures Ultrasound Cardiovascular Emergencies Lung Emergencies Infectious Disease Pediatrics Neurologic Emergencies Skin Exposure Miscellaneous Abuse Cancer Administration 4 Expressing Empathy Expressing Empathy Aka (...) : Expressing Empathy , NURSE Mnemonic II. Protocol Naming "I hear that you are worried about..." Understanding "If I understand, you are worried about how your treatments will affect your job" Respecting "I am impressed with how well you have withstood treatment" Supporting "Please let me know how I might help you" Exploring "Tell me more about your worries about treatment side effects" III. References Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing) These images are a random sampling from a Bing search

2018 FP Notebook

13. Emotional Empathy and Facial Mimicry for Static and Dynamic Facial Expressions of Fear and Disgust (PubMed)

Emotional Empathy and Facial Mimicry for Static and Dynamic Facial Expressions of Fear and Disgust Facial mimicry is the tendency to imitate the emotional facial expressions of others. Increasing evidence suggests that the perception of dynamic displays leads to enhanced facial mimicry, especially for happiness and anger. However, little is known about the impact of dynamic stimuli on facial mimicry for fear and disgust. To investigate this issue, facial EMG responses were recorded (...) in the corrugator supercilii, levator labii, and lateral frontalis muscles, while participants viewed static (photos) and dynamic (videos) facial emotional expressions. Moreover, we tested whether emotional empathy modulated facial mimicry for emotional facial expressions. In accordance with our predictions, the highly empathic group responded with larger activity in the corrugator supercilii and levator labii muscles. Moreover, dynamic compared to static facial expressions of fear revealed enhanced mimicry

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2016 Frontiers in psychology

14. Measuring medical students’ empathy using direct verbal expressions (PubMed)

Measuring medical students’ empathy using direct verbal expressions Empathy is an important trait in physicians and a key element in the physician-patient relationship. Accordingly, one of the goals in medical education is developing empathy in students. We attempted to practically assess medical students' empathy through their direct verbal expressions.The medical students' empathy was measured using the modified Pencil-and-Paper Empathy Rating Test by Winefield and Chur-Hansen (2001 (...) ). The students took 15 minutes or so to complete the scale, and it was then scored by one of two trained evaluators (0 to 4 points for each item, for a total score of 40). The subjects were 605 medical students, and the data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, independent t-test, and one-way analysis of variance in SPSS version 21.0.The students' empathy scores were low (mean, 12.13; standard deviation, 2.55); their most common responses (78.6%) registered as non-empathetic. Differences in empathy were

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2016 Korean journal of medical education

15. Effect of Verbal Empathy and Touch on Anxiety Relief in Patients Undergoing Flexible Bronchoscopy: Can Empathy Reduce Patients' Anxiety? (PubMed)

. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: a control group, a verbal empathy group, or a verbal empathy and touch group. The staff pulmonologist performing bronchoscopy expressed verbal empathy and used touch by speaking to the patient (using predefined short statements) and making eye contact, and by laying his/her left hand on the patient's right shoulder. We assessed the level of patient anxiety with a visual analog scale before and after the intervention.Participants were 267 (...) Effect of Verbal Empathy and Touch on Anxiety Relief in Patients Undergoing Flexible Bronchoscopy: Can Empathy Reduce Patients' Anxiety? Patients undergoing flexible bronchoscopy usually experience anxiety before and during the procedure.We performed this study to investigate whether verbal empathy and intentional touch from a bronchoscopist could reduce anxiety in patients undergoing flexible bronchoscopy.We conducted a prospective randomized trial in a university-affiliated hospital

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2016 Respiration; international review of thoracic diseases

16. Relationship of trainee dentists' self-reported empathy and communication behaviors with simulated patients' assessment in medical interviews. (PubMed)

Relationship of trainee dentists' self-reported empathy and communication behaviors with simulated patients' assessment in medical interviews. We aimed to clarify the communication behaviors between trainee dentists and simulated patients (SPs), to examine how the level of trainee dentists' self-reported empathy influences assessment by SPs in medical interviews.The study involved 100 trainee dentists at Okayama University Hospital and eight SPs. The trainee dentists conducted initial (...) interviews with the SPs after completing the Japanese version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE). All interviews were recorded and analyzed using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). The SPs assessed the trainees' communication immediately after each interview. The trainee dentists were classified into two groups (more positive and less positive) according to SP assessment scores.Compared with less-positive trainees, the more-positive trainees scored higher in the RIAS category of emotional

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2018 PLoS ONE

17. Oxytocin increases attention to the eyes and selectively enhances self-reported affective empathy for fear. (PubMed)

affect empathy, or whether OXT selectively facilitates empathy for specific emotions. In the current study, we used eye-tracking to assess attention to socially relevant information while participants viewed dynamic, empathy-inducing video clips, in which protagonists expressed sadness, happiness, pain or fear. In a double-blind, within-subjects, randomized control trial, 40 healthy male participants received 24 IU intranasal OXT or placebo in two identical experimental sessions, separated by a 2 (...) Oxytocin increases attention to the eyes and selectively enhances self-reported affective empathy for fear. Oxytocin (OXT) has previously been implicated in a range of prosocial behaviors such as trust and emotion recognition. Nevertheless, recent studies have questioned the evidence for this link. In addition, there has been relatively little conclusive research on the effect of OXT on empathic ability and such studies as there are have not examined the mechanisms through which OXT might

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2018 Neuropsychologia

18. Developing professional caregivers' empathy and emotional competencies through mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR): results of two proof-of-concept studies. (PubMed)

Developing professional caregivers' empathy and emotional competencies through mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR): results of two proof-of-concept studies. To assess the feasibility and acceptability of a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR)-based intervention and determine if the intervention is associated with a significant signal on empathy and emotional competencies.Two pre-post proof-of-concept studies.Participants were recruited at the University of Montreal's Psychology (...) Department (Study 1) and the CHU Sainte-Justine Department of Hematology-Oncology (Study 2).Study 1: 12 students completed the 8-week programme (mean age 24, range 18-34). Study 2: 25 professionals completed the 8-week programme (mean age 48, range 27-63).Standard MBSR programme including 8-week mindfulness programme consisting of 8 consecutive weekly 2-hour sessions and a full-day silent retreat.Mindfulness as measured by the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale; empathy as measured by the Interpersonal

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2018 BMJ open

19. Medical students "taught how to practice empathy by following clever mnemonics" - NEJM

Medical students "taught how to practice empathy by following clever mnemonics" - NEJM CasesBlog - Medical and Health Blog: Medical students "taught how to practice empathy by following clever mnemonics" - NEJM Health News Updated Daily by Internist and Allergist at Cleveland Clinic Florida Pages Medical students "taught how to practice empathy by following clever mnemonics" - NEJM : "With every faux interaction I felt myself being forced to shed another layer of authenticity, and I quickly (...) grew to dread the whole tedious charade. PEARLS, it spelled out: Partnership, Empathy, Apology, Respect, Legitimization, and Support. With a smirk, I tossed it in the trash." Better understanding and educational approach are needed. -- Just as a side note, here is an overview of some empathy/communication mnemonics with the corresponding references: "PEARLS – which stands for partnership, empathy, apology/acknowledgment, respect, legitimation, and support" "The NURSE mnemonic is a useful memory aid

2018 CasesBlog - Medical and Health Blog

20. An Alternative View of Self-Discharge Against Medical Advice: An Opportunity to Demonstrate Empathy, Empowerment, and Care. (PubMed)

, and relatives frequently expressed empathy for each other during the interviews, and discharge against medical advice was presented as a way for patients to have control over their health. Contrary to predominantly negative framings that highlight increased mortality and morbidity, and portray people who discharge against medical advice as poor decision makers, we conclude discharge against medical advice can be framed positively. It can be an opportunity to empathize, empower, and care. We recommend (...) An Alternative View of Self-Discharge Against Medical Advice: An Opportunity to Demonstrate Empathy, Empowerment, and Care. In this article, we present the experiences of discharging against medical advice from the perspectives of 17 hospital and community-based health care practitioners, and 16 patients, and relatives from a range of medical and surgical wards. Semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted and thematically analyzed. We identified that practitioners, patients

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2018 Qualitative Health Research

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