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Exercise in the Elderly

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7161. Acute effects of exercise on neuropsychological function in elderly subjects. (Abstract)

Acute effects of exercise on neuropsychological function in elderly subjects. Fit elderly score higher on tests of fluid intelligence than aged-matched sedentary controls. Elderly patients who have taken part in exercise programs have shown improvement in mental function. We compared the effects of 45 minutes of exercise on memory, mood, and cognitive function in elderly subjects to a control intervention using a randomized control study design. Neuropsychological tests employed where the color (...) slide test, digit symbol test, digit span test, logical memory test, word fluency test, and the Mini-Mental State Examination. We measured mood using a mood test and geriatric depression scale. Each subject was tested before, and immediately after, control and exercise sessions. Fifteen elderly subjects [ten men and five women; mean age, 66 years, (range, 60 to 85 years)] completed the study. There was a greater improvement in six of the eight scores of cognitive function following exercise

1988 Journal of the American Geriatrics Society Controlled trial quality: uncertain

7162. The effects of a three-month exercise programme on neuropsychological function in elderly institutionalized women: a randomized controlled trial. (Abstract)

The effects of a three-month exercise programme on neuropsychological function in elderly institutionalized women: a randomized controlled trial. This randomized controlled trial examined the effect of a 3-month exercise programme on neuropsychological function in a population of very elderly institutionalized women. Baseline neuropsychological testing was performed, and following 3 months of exercise or control intervention, subjects were retested 3-7 days after the completion of the study (...) period. Apart from the Word Fluency Test, there was no significant improvement in any of the neuropsychological test scores. This study may not have shown any significant improvement in neuropsychological function because our exercise programme was too light to improve aerobic fitness, or because neuropsychological tests were repeated 3-7 days after exercise was completed and any acute effects of exercise may have disappeared by that time.

1988 Age and ageing Controlled trial quality: uncertain

7163. Effects of physical exercise for elderly patients with physical impairments. (Abstract)

Effects of physical exercise for elderly patients with physical impairments. Exercise is known to preserve many physiological responses in the healthy elderly, yet those with physical impairments are often discouraged from exercising. The authors studied the effects of a closely supervised exercise program designed specifically for elders with health problems and functional limitations. Tests, selected for their relevance to clinical patient management, included the Self Evaluation of Life (...) % of prescription HR). Though EG test responses showed a tendency to improve, none reached statistical significance. This result was affected by the small number completing the study and the variability inherent in such a sample. Though these impaired elderly subjects enthusiastically and safely participated with high attendance and at an exercise intensity adequate to expect benefit, measurable training effects were not demonstrated.

1988 Journal of the American Geriatrics Society Controlled trial quality: uncertain

7164. Effects of exercise training in the elderly on the occurrence and time to onset of cardiovascular diagnoses. (Abstract)

Effects of exercise training in the elderly on the occurrence and time to onset of cardiovascular diagnoses. To examine the long-term effects of aerobic exercise on the occurrence and time to onset of cardiovascular diagnoses, 184 initially healthy older subjects were randomized into either a long-term exercise group (Group A, n = 80), a short-term exercise group (Group B, n = 42), or a contract control group (Group C, n = 62). After completion of two years in the study, data on new (...) cardiovascular diagnoses and time to onset of these diagnoses in each of the three groups were compared. The occurrence rates for new onset diagnoses were as follows: Group A, 2.5%; Group B, 2%; and Group C, 13%; the average time to onset was greatest for the long-term exercisers and shortest for the contact control group (P less than or equal to .02). The results suggest that a regular program of exercise may have cardiovascular benefits for those over 60 years of age.

1990 Journal of the American Geriatrics Society Controlled trial quality: uncertain

7165. Effect of exercise on postural sway in the elderly. (Abstract)

Effect of exercise on postural sway in the elderly. Fifty female subjects, aged 72-92 (mean 82) years, were enrolled in a 12-week (36 classes) exercise program aimed at increasing postural stability. Subjects were residents of sheltered apartments, rest homes or nursing homes, well enough and mobile enough to participate in the classes. The subjects were randomized into an exercise or a control group. Their postural sway, standing at rest on a force platform, was measured with eyes open (...) and eyes closed. The groups were well matched in all respects. The results showed no improvement in the postural sway as a result of the exercise program. We hypothesize that increasing postural sway in the elderly represents a deterioration in, for the most part, the nervous system and may at this extreme of life indicate an irreversible loss of function. For this reason no improvement in postural sway may be possible.

1989 Gerontology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

7166. Acute effects of alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor blockade on plasma atrial natriuretic peptides during exercise in elderly patients with mild hypertension. (Abstract)

Acute effects of alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor blockade on plasma atrial natriuretic peptides during exercise in elderly patients with mild hypertension. In a randomized study in 26 elderly patients with mild essential hypertension, acute effects of alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor blockade on plasma ANP levels were examined at rest and during ergometric exercise. Plasma ANP level and LVEF were measured before and after administration of prazosin (an alpha 1-adrenergic blocker), atenolol (...) was the most significant predictor of the plasma ANP level at maximal exercise; the resting blood pressure and heart rate were not predictors of this value. The results showed that single administrations of an alpha-blocker and a nonselective beta-blocker had opposite effects on the plasma ANP level both at rest and during exercise in elderly patients with mild essential hypertension. The observed difference in the ANP response seems to be related to changes in left ventricular function rather than changes

1991 Chest Controlled trial quality: uncertain

7167. Adding purpose to the repetitive exercise of elderly women through imagery. (Abstract)

Adding purpose to the repetitive exercise of elderly women through imagery. Many studies have documented the effectiveness of verbally elicited imagery in the enhancement of motor skills in young, nondisabled populations. The present study examined the effects of verbally elicited imagery in the encouragement of two exercises (i.e., reaching up to pick apples and reaching down to pick up coins) in elderly women. The subjects were 27 women between 62 and 96 years of age who were selected from (...) a nursing home, a residential retirement home, and a foster care home. All of the subjects received imagery as well as control conditions, but in a counterbalanced fashion. The Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank tests indicated that the imagery condition elicited significantly more repetitions of the reaching-up exercise than did the control condition (z = 2.25, p [one-tailed] = .012). The results in the reaching-down exercise were generally in the same direction but difficult to interpret statistically

1990 The American journal of occupational therapy : official publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

7168. Pelvic muscle exercise for stress urinary incontinence in elderly women. (Abstract)

Pelvic muscle exercise for stress urinary incontinence in elderly women. To compare pelvic muscle exercise to pharmacologic treatment of stress urinary incontinence, the most common cause of urine leakage reported by community-living elderly women.Convenience sample of 157 community-living women, aged 55 to 90 years, after completion of a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation.Eighty-two subjects were randomly assigned to the exercise protocol (with a 34% attrition rate). Pelvic muscle exercises (...) were taught and monitored for 6 months. Phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride was given to the other group in a dose of 50 mg a day, increasing to 50 mg twice a day.Treatment outcomes (subjective improvement, self recorded frequency of wetting) were equally satisfactory in both groups. The response to exercises was as good in 5 months as in 6. It was also as good when the minimum recommended number of exercises per day was 80 as when it was 125.Among those completing the protocol, pelvic exercises were

1991 Journal of the American Geriatrics Society Controlled trial quality: uncertain

7169. Exercise training below and above the lactate threshold in the elderly. (Abstract)

Exercise training below and above the lactate threshold in the elderly. In this study we report the effects of training at intensities below and above the lactate threshold on parameters of aerobic function in elderly subjects (age range 65-75 yr). The subjects were randomized into high-intensity (HI, N = 8; 75% of heart rate reserve = approximately 82% VO2max = approximately 121% of lactate threshold) and low-intensity (LI, N = 9; 35% of heart rate reserve = approximately 53% VO2max (...) = approximately 72% of lactate threshold) training groups which trained 4 d.wk-1 for 30 min.session-1 for 8 wk. Before and after the training, subjects performed an incremental exercise test for determination of maximal aerobic power (VO2max) and lactate threshold (LT). In addition, the subjects performed a 6-min single-stage exercise test at greater than 75% of pre-training VO2max (SST-High) during which cardiorespiratory responses were evaluated each minute of the test. After training, the improvements

1991 Medicine and science in sports and exercise Controlled trial quality: uncertain

7170. The effect of exercise on depressive symptoms in the moderately depressed elderly. (Abstract)

The effect of exercise on depressive symptoms in the moderately depressed elderly. Thirty community-dwelling, moderately depressed elderly were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 interventions: experimenter-accompanied exercise in the form of walking, a social contact control condition, and a wait-list control. Exercise and social contact both resulted in significant reductions in both the total and the psychological subscale of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The exercise condition, however (...) , unlike the control conditions, resulted in decreased somatic symptoms of the BDI. These results indicate that, at least in the short term, exercise has a broader effect compared with control conditions in reducing depressive symptoms in the moderately depressed elderly.

1991 Psychology and aging Controlled trial quality: uncertain

7171. Randomised controlled trial of exercise in the elderly. (Abstract)

Randomised controlled trial of exercise in the elderly. Eighty-seven healthy volunteers aged 60-81 years were randomly allocated to either an aerobic exercise class or a health education group. Only 6 subjects dropped out during the 32-week study, and the average compliance with the interventions was 83% for exercise (on average 83/100 individual exercise sessions were attended) and 71% for health education. The health education group showed improvements from the baseline in physical activity (...) ) and maximal physical exertion (p = 0.01). This study has demonstrated the acceptability and effectiveness of an aerobic exercise class for the elderly, and the effectiveness of health education for this age group.

1992 Gerontology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

7172. Fall prevention exercise program for fall risk factor reduction of the community-dwelling elderly in Korea. Full Text available with Trip Pro

Fall prevention exercise program for fall risk factor reduction of the community-dwelling elderly in Korea. A randomized comparison of pre-and post-experimental design was used to examine the effects of a fall prevention exercise program (FPEP) on muscle strength, ankle flexibility, balance, instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), and depression for the community-dwelling elderly in Korea. Twenty-two subjects were assigned to an experimental group and twenty-three to a control group (...) . The experimental group participated in a 4-day-per week FPEP of 8 weeks duration, twice a week by direct instruction and twice a week with videotaped instruction by the program instructor at each senior center. The eight-week FPEP turned out to be significantly effective in enhancing muscle strength, ankle flexibility and balance, and in reducing depression, after intervention among community-dwelling elderly in Korea. IADLs, however, was not changed by the intervention. Further research with a larger sample

2003 Yonsei medical journal

7173. Effects of a 5-year exercise-centered health-promoting programme on mortality and ADL impairment in the elderly. (Abstract)

Effects of a 5-year exercise-centered health-promoting programme on mortality and ADL impairment in the elderly. the effects of regular exercise over 5 years on mortality and ADL impairment were evaluated in elderly people.intervention study.Tsuru City, Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan.the subjects of this study were 245 elderly people living at home. Of these individuals, 155 (56 males aged 76.5+/-4.2 years at the baseline level; 99 females aged 76.2+/-4.8 years) who voluntarily participated in our (...) original health-promoting programme were regarded as an intervention group. The remaining 90 (29 males aged 77.6+/-5.2 years at the baseline level; 61 females aged 77.3+/-5.1 years) were regarded as a control group. The programme was a 5-year intervention consisting of collective sessions given six times a year every 2 months. The intervention was a combination of an exercise programme based on theories of exercise physiology and a support programme based on health education theories. The relative

2003 Age and ageing

7174. Disparate effects of improving aerobic exercise capacity and quality of life after cardiac rehabilitation in young and elderly coronary patients. (Abstract)

Disparate effects of improving aerobic exercise capacity and quality of life after cardiac rehabilitation in young and elderly coronary patients. Although cardiopulmonary exercise variables predict prognosis, functional capacity, and quality of life (QoL) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), these variables have not been assessed fully before and after exercise training in elderly with CAD. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the impact of formal Phase II cardiac (...) rehabilitation and exercise training programs on cardiopulmonary variables and QoL in elderly and younger CAD patients.The authors analyzed consecutive patients before and after Phase II cardiac rehabilitation and exercise training programs, and compared exercise cardiopulmonary data and data from validated questionnaires assessing QoL (MOS SF-36) and function in 125 younger patients (< 55 years; mean 48 +/- 6 years) and 57 elderly (> 70 years; mean 78 +/- 3 years).At baseline, elderly patients had lower

2000 Journal of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation

7175. The effect of long-term aerobic exercise on maximal oxygen consumption, left ventricular function and serum lipids in elderly women. (Abstract)

The effect of long-term aerobic exercise on maximal oxygen consumption, left ventricular function and serum lipids in elderly women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of maximal oxygen consumption, left ventricular function and serum lipids after 36 weeks of aerobic exercise in elderly women without the influence of drugs. Eight elderly women were studied by M-mode and Doppler echocardiography to assess left ventricular size, mass and function. Maximal oxygen consumption (...) (VO(2)max) was determined for each subject by administering a treadmill exercise test. The training intensity was decided by heart rate reserve. Subjects performed exercise for 40 minutes a day, 3 days a week at 50-60% of the heart rate reserve during the 36 weeks. Exercise capacity was assessed by VO(2)max with a graded exercise test of the treadmill. Weight and % body fat decreased after training. Cardiorespiratory function improved because of the increase in VO(2)max and VO(2)max normalized

2003 Journal of Physiological Anthropology and Applied Human Science

7176. [Effect of aerobic endurance exercise on immune function in elderly athletes]. (Abstract)

[Effect of aerobic endurance exercise on immune function in elderly athletes]. Recently, there have been several reports on the influence of physical activity on immune function. Most of the studies were conducted using maximal exercise in young and middle-aged subjects. Since human immune function undergoes adverse changes with aging, we investigated in the present study whether submaximal, aerobic exercise induces changes in immune function in elderly subjects. Leukocytes, differential blood (...) count, subsets of lymphocytes, CD4/CD8 ratio and immunoglobulins were studied after submaximal aerobic exercise (mean lactate 2.57 + 0.3 mmol/l) in 15 elderly subjects (mean age 68 +/- 5.6 years). These parameters were measured before, immediately after and 4 hours after exercise. Mean hemoglobin was unchanged indicating no hemoconcentration. There was a small increase in mean total lymphocytes (p < 0.05 immediately after exercise), while there was a highly significant increase in leukocyte count

2002 Praxis

7177. Light resistance and stretching exercise in elderly women: effect upon strength. (Abstract)

Light resistance and stretching exercise in elderly women: effect upon strength. Forty-seven elderly women (63 to 88 years of age, mean = 71 years) were studied to determine the effect of a 25-week light resistance and aerobic exercise program upon arm and leg strength. Three groups were formed: nonexercising controls (C, n = 12), exercise (EN, n = 18) and exercise with light weights on on the wrists and ankles (EW, n = 17). Exercise was performed for one hour, three times/week. Subjects were (...) rotation (9%), and knee flexion (20%). No significant differences were found between EN and EW. These data indicate that elderly women can achieve substantial gains in the strength of arm and leg musculature as a result of regular light resistance and aerobic exercise, but that the use of light weights on the wrists and ankles for added resistance did not enhance this effect.

1988 Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation

7178. Effects of aerobic physical exercise in the elderly with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (Abstract)

Effects of aerobic physical exercise in the elderly with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of an aerobic physical exercise program in the treatment of a group of elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in relation to metabolic control, physical capacity, quality of life (QOL) and attitudes toward diabetes. Patients were randomly assigned to either an experimental (n=19) or a control (n=20) group. The following measurements were (...) ). An improvement in the attitudes toward DM was observed in the experimental group (P=0.01) but not in the control group. Female gender, higher body mass index and hbA1c were factors associated with a response to the intervention. This study suggests that physical exercise has significant effects on glucose excursion during an OGTT and exercise tolerance in elderly patients with type 2 DM.

2000 Archives of gerontology and geriatrics Controlled trial quality: uncertain

7179. Impact of an exercise and walking protocol on quality of life for elderly people with OA of the knee. (Abstract)

Impact of an exercise and walking protocol on quality of life for elderly people with OA of the knee. The knee is the weight-bearing joint most commonly affected by osteoarthritis (OA). The symptoms of pain, morning stiffness of short duration and physical dysfunction in the activities of daily living (ADL) can have an effect on many aspects of health, affecting quality of life. Regular and moderate physical activity adapted to individuals' life-styles and education, and joint protection (...) strategies have been advocated as conservative management. The purpose of the present study was to assess the impact of an exercise and walking protocol on the quality of life of elderly people with knee OA.The study design was a randomized controlled clinical trial. The subjects comprised 50 elderly people, aged 65 or more, with knee OA who had been referred to the geriatric outpatient unit for rehabilitation. Changes in severity of pain and quality of life were compared between a control group (CG

2003 Physiotherapy research international : the journal for researchers and clinicians in physical therapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

7180. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on exercise capacity and spontaneous physical activity in elderly subjects: a randomized controlled pilot trial. (Abstract)

Effects of inspiratory muscle training on exercise capacity and spontaneous physical activity in elderly subjects: a randomized controlled pilot trial. Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been shown to improve exercise capacity in diseased populations. We chose to examine the effects of eight weeks of IMT on exercise capacity and spontaneous physical activity in elderly individuals. Eighteen moderately active elderly subjects (68.1 +/- 6.8 years [mean +/- SD]; range 58 - 78 years) were (...) be a useful technique for positively influencing exercise capacity and physical activity in elderly individuals.

2007 International Journal of Sports Medicine Controlled trial quality: predicted high

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