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Exercise in the Elderly

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6981. Effects of vitamin D supplementation and exercise training on physical performance in Chilean vitamin D deficient elderly subjects. (PubMed)

Effects of vitamin D supplementation and exercise training on physical performance in Chilean vitamin D deficient elderly subjects. The aim was to assess the effects of resistance training and vitamin D supplementation on physical performance of healthy elderly subjects. Ninety-six subjects, aged 70 years or more with 25 OH vitamin D levels of 16 ng/ml or less, were randomized to a resistance training or control group. Trained and control groups were further randomized to receive in a double

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2006 Experimental gerontology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6982. Exercise-induced changes in insulin action and glycogen metabolism in elderly adults. (PubMed)

Exercise-induced changes in insulin action and glycogen metabolism in elderly adults. Although data suggest that physical activity is associated with decreased insulin resistance, recommendations for exercise training are not specific for age or level of obesity. Therefore, we examined the influence of moderate-intensity (50% of VO2max) exercise training (MI) versus high-intensity (75% of VO2max) exercise training (HI) on insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (ISGD) in elderly (...) individuals.Following medical examinations, 21 overweight (body mass index = 29 +/- 1 kg x m(-2)) elderly (74 +/- 1 yr) subjects were randomized to 1) HI, 2) MI, or a 3) nonexercising control group. Subjects enrolled in HI or MI completed a 12-wk exercise training regimen designed to expend 1000 kcal x wk. ISGD was assessed using a hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp pre- and postintervention. ISGD was corrected for hepatic glucose production (glucose Ra) using a constant rate infusion of [6,6-H2]glucose

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2006 Medicine and science in sports and exercise Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6983. A five-week exercise program can reduce falls and improve obstacle avoidance in the elderly. (PubMed)

A five-week exercise program can reduce falls and improve obstacle avoidance in the elderly. Falls in the elderly are a major health problem. Although exercise programs have been shown to reduce the risk of falls, the optimal exercise components, as well as the working mechanisms that underlie the effectiveness of these programs, have not yet been established.To test whether the Nijmegen Falls Prevention Program was effective in reducing falls and improving standing balance, balance confidence (...) , and obstacle avoidance performance in community-dwelling elderly people.A total of 113 elderly with a history of falls participated in this study (exercise group, n = 79; control group, n = 28; dropouts before randomization, n = 6). Exercise sessions were held twice weekly for 5 weeks. Pre- and post-intervention fall monitoring and quantitative motor control assessments were performed. The outcome measures were the number of falls, standing balance and obstacle avoidance performance, and balance confidence

2006 Gerontology Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6984. Balance, mobility, and falls among community-dwelling elderly persons: effects of a rehabilitation exercise program. (PubMed)

Balance, mobility, and falls among community-dwelling elderly persons: effects of a rehabilitation exercise program. To assess the short-term effect of an exercise-based rehabilitation intervention on balance, mobility, falls and injuries.This randomized, controlled trial with repeated measures was performed at an outpatient rehabilitation center. Elderly, ambulatory, community-dwelling volunteers underwent 6 wks of supervised stretching, balance, endurance, coordination, and strengthening (...) exercises. Controls attended seminars. Data were recorded for time and quality performance on a functional obstacle course and for self-reported falls and injuries.From baseline through 6-mo follow-up, participants in the exercise group (n = 122) significantly outperformed those in the control group (n = 83). The exercise group's functional obstacle course quality improved 2.3% postintervention and 1.57% at follow-up compared with 0.3% for the control group for each time period (P = 0.001). Functional

2005 American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation / Association of Academic Physiatrists Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6985. Can elderly patients who have had a hip fracture perform moderate- to high-intensity exercise at home? (PubMed)

Can elderly patients who have had a hip fracture perform moderate- to high-intensity exercise at home? The majority of patients after a hip fracture do not return to prefracture functional status. Depression has been shown to affect recovery. Although exercise can reduce impairments, access issues limit elderly people from participating in facility-based programs. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effects and feasibility of a home exercise program of moderate- or high (...) -intensity exercise. A secondary purpose was to explore the relationship of depression and physical recovery.Thirty-three elderly people (24 women, 9 men; mean = 78.6 years of age, SD = 6.8, range = 64-89) who had completed a regimen of physical therapy following hip fracture participated in the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to a resistance training group, an aerobic training group, or a control group.Subjects were tested before and upon completion of the exercise trial. Isometric lower

2005 Physical therapy Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6986. Moderate regular exercise increases basal production of nitric oxide in elderly women. (PubMed)

Moderate regular exercise increases basal production of nitric oxide in elderly women. Vascular endothelial cells produce nitric oxide (NO), which is a potent vasodilator substance and is thought to have antiatherosclerotic properties. Therefore, it has also been proposed that NO may be useful to regulate vascular tonus and prevent progression of atherosclerosis. On the other hand, NO activity reduces with aging. We previously reported that the plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx: the stable end (...) product of NO) concentration was significantly increased by intense aerobic exercise training in healthy young humans. We hypothesized that lifestyle modification (e.g., even mild regular exercise training) can increase NO production in previously sedentary older humans. We measured the plasma NOx concentration before and after a mild aerobic exercise training regimen (cycling on a leg ergometer at 80% ventilatory threshold for 30 min, 5 days/week) for 3 months in elderly women. In addition, we

2004 Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6987. Effect of impact exercise on bone mineral density in elderly women with low BMD: a population-based randomized controlled 30-month intervention. (PubMed)

Effect of impact exercise on bone mineral density in elderly women with low BMD: a population-based randomized controlled 30-month intervention. Evidence of the effect of exercise on bone loss comes mainly from studies in voluntary postmenopausal women, and no population-based, long-term interventions have been performed. The purpose of this population-based, randomized, controlled trial was to determine the effect of long-term impact exercise on bone mass at various skeletal sites in elderly (...) in both groups at the radius and calcaneum. In multivariate analysis, weight gain was associated with increased BMD and BMC at all femur sites both in the exercise group and in the pooled groups. In conclusion, impact exercise had no effect on BMD, while there was a positive effect on BMC at the trochanter. Exercise may prevent fall-related fractures in elderly women with low bone mass.

2006 Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA Controlled trial quality: predicted high

6988. Changes in pulmonary function response to a 10-week controlled exercise program in sedentary elderly adults. (PubMed)

Changes in pulmonary function response to a 10-week controlled exercise program in sedentary elderly adults. This randomized clinical trial was aimed to assess whether pulmonary function would change in sedentary elderly people after a controlled exercise program. 45 participants over 75 yr. of age (M age 83.7 +/- 3.0) were assigned randomly to a control and two aerobic exercise groups of moderate and high intensity. In 10 wk. the program sessions were 40 min. in duration 3 days per week (...) . Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec. (FEV1.0) were measured pre- and post-intervention. After the training, the Moderate intensity group experienced significant mean change in FVC. In the High intensity group, significant changes were observed in both FVC and FEV1.0, but no change was noted for the Control group. The 10-wk. aerobic training of moderate or high intensity showed positive effects on pulmonary function in these elderly individuals. These exercise-induced

2005 Perceptual and motor skills Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6989. A multi-component exercise regimen to prevent functional decline and bone fragility in home-dwelling elderly women: randomized, controlled trial. (PubMed)

A multi-component exercise regimen to prevent functional decline and bone fragility in home-dwelling elderly women: randomized, controlled trial. This study showed that combination of strength, balance, agility and jumping training prevented functional decline and bone fragility in home-dwelling elderly women. The finding supports the idea that it is possible to maintain good physical functioning by multi-component exercise program and thus postpone the age-related functional problems.This 1 (...) -year randomized, controlled exercise intervention trial assessed the effects of two different training programs and their combination on physical functioning and bone in home-dwelling elderly women.One hundred and forty-nine healthy women aged 70-78 years were randomly assigned into: group 1-resistance training (RES), group 2-balance-jumping training (BAL), group 3-combination of resistance and balance-jumping training (COMB), and group 4-controls (CON). Self-rated physical functioning, leg

2007 Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6990. Effect of additional functional exercises on balance in elderly people. (PubMed)

Effect of additional functional exercises on balance in elderly people. To evaluate the additional effect of functional exercises on balance and lower extremity function among hostel-dwelling elderly people partaking in strength,training.A randomized two-group parallel controlled trial.A senior resident's hostel in Switzerland.Thirty-two individuals randomized to either strength or strength and functional exercise groups.Both groups received machine-driven strength training for 45 min, twice (...) weeks' duration in hostel-dwelling elderly people only improves task-specific balance performance and lower extremity physical function when additional functional exercises are added.

2007 Clinical rehabilitation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6991. Effects of exercise and nutrition on postural balance and risk of falling in elderly people with decreased bone mineral density: randomized controlled trial pilot study. (PubMed)

Effects of exercise and nutrition on postural balance and risk of falling in elderly people with decreased bone mineral density: randomized controlled trial pilot study. To compare the effect of calcium/vitamin D supplements with a combination of calcium/vitamin D supplements and exercise/protein on risk of falling and postural balance.Randomized clinical trial.University hospital physiotherapy department.Twenty-four independently living elderly females aged 65 years and older with osteopenia (...) or osteoporosis and mean total hip T-score (SD) of -1.8 (0.8).A three-month programme consisting of exercise/protein including training of muscular strength, co-ordination, balance and endurance. Calcium/ vitamin D was supplemented in all participants for a 12-month period.Assessment took place prior to and following the months 3, 6, 9 and at the end of the study; primary dependent variables assessed were risk of falling (Berg Balance Test) and postural balance (forceplate). Secondary measures included body

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2007 Clinical rehabilitation Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6992. Too old to benefit from sports? The cardiovascular effects of exercise training in elderly subjects treated for isolated systolic hypertension. (PubMed)

Too old to benefit from sports? The cardiovascular effects of exercise training in elderly subjects treated for isolated systolic hypertension. Hypertension in the elderly is commonly characterized by an elevation of pulse pressure. With regard to advanced arteriosclerosis and limited physical fitness, doubt was casted whether elderly patients still achieve relevant cardiovascular benefits by physical exercise. The present work examines the impact of pulse pressure as a footprint of vascular (...) ageing on cardiovascular benefits of endurance training in elderly hypertensives.54 patients > or =60 years with systolic 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) >140 mm Hg and/or antihypertensive treatment and diastolic ABP < or =90 mm Hg were randomly assigned to sedentary activity or a 12-week treadmill exercise program (target lactate 2.5 +/- 0.5 mmol/l).Exercise significantly decreased systolic and diastolic ABP by 8.5 +/- 8.2 and 5.1 +/- 3.7 mm Hg (p < 0.001 each) and increased physical

2007 Kidney & blood pressure research Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6993. Effects of modest testosterone supplementation and exercise for 12 weeks on body composition and quality of life in elderly men. (PubMed)

Effects of modest testosterone supplementation and exercise for 12 weeks on body composition and quality of life in elderly men. One of the factors that may promote deterioration in quality of life and body composition in elderly men is the relative decline in serum testosterone levels with aging. In this study, we assessed the effects of modest doses of testosterone and a home-based strengthening program on quality of life and body composition in elderly men with relative testosterone (...) in the domains of physical functioning (P = 0.03), role physical (P = 0.01), general health (P = 0.049), and social functioning (P = 0.04). There were no effects of testosterone or exercise on quality of life alone, nor in body composition parameters.Modest testosterone supplementation to elderly men with relative testosterone insufficiency improved quality of life when accompanied by an exercise program. The combination of testosterone and exercise may be an important strategy in the elderly, though further

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2006 European journal of endocrinology / European Federation of Endocrine Societies Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6994. Prevention of disability by exercise among the elderly: a population-based, randomized, controlled trial. (PubMed)

Prevention of disability by exercise among the elderly: a population-based, randomized, controlled trial. To assess the effectiveness of an intervention planned and implemented by regional geriatric care teams in order to prevent disability in an elderly population.Randomized, controlled trial with intention-to-treat and subgroup analyses. Subjects and setting. All home-dwelling persons aged 85 years or older in the City of Oulu (n = 555, 67%), including 486 persons with a history of recurrent (...) falls or at least one risk factor for disability in the activities of daily living (ADL) or mobility.Programme consisting of home exercise, walking exercise, group exercise, and self-care exercise.Change in ADL and mobility during the intervention.Change in ADL performance did not differ (p = 0.462) but a positive change was found in mobility performance (p = 0.013) in the intervention subjects (n = 243) compared with the controls (n = 243). At the end of the intervention period, severe mobility

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2006 Scandinavian journal of primary health care Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6995. Pragmatic exercise-oriented prevention of falls among the elderly: a population-based, randomized, controlled trial. (PubMed)

Pragmatic exercise-oriented prevention of falls among the elderly: a population-based, randomized, controlled trial. To assess the effectiveness of an intervention planned and implemented by regional geriatric care teams in order to prevent falls in an elderly population.The study was conducted among 555 (67%) home-dwelling Finnish persons aged 85 years or older of a representative population sample (N=827) in 2000-2003. Altogether 486 subjects (88%) had a history of recurrent falls or at least (...) one risk factor for disability in the activities of daily living or mobility and were randomly assigned to receive suggestions for a programme consisting of home exercise, walking exercise, group activities or self-care exercise or alternatively routine care. Falls were monitored for a median of 16 months during the intervention.The time to first four falls and all falls did not significantly differ in the targeted intervention group (N=217); compared to controls (N=220), hazard ratio 0.88 (95% CI

2007 Preventive Medicine Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6996. A randomised controlled trial of Tai Chi and resistance exercise on bone health, muscle strength and balance in community-living elderly people. (PubMed)

A randomised controlled trial of Tai Chi and resistance exercise on bone health, muscle strength and balance in community-living elderly people. The beneficial role of exercise in improving bone mineral density, muscle strength and balance, has been documented predominantly in younger populations. These findings may not apply to elderly populations with limited ability to perform exercises of high intensity.To examine the effects of Tai Chi (TC) and resistance exercise (RTE) on bone mineral (...) density (BMD), muscle strength, balance and flexibility in community living elderly people.Randomised controlled trial, using blocked randomization with stratification by sex.A community in the New Territories Region of Hong Kong, China.One hundred eighty subjects (90 men, 90 women) aged 65-74, were recruited through advertisements in community centres.Subjects were assigned to participate in TC, RTE three times a week, or no intervention (C) for 12 months. Measurements were carried out at baseline, 6

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2007 Age and ageing Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6997. Exercise, oxidative stress and risk of cardiovascular disease in the elderly. Protective role of antioxidant functional foods. (PubMed)

Exercise, oxidative stress and risk of cardiovascular disease in the elderly. Protective role of antioxidant functional foods. Free radicals and oxidative stress are involved in the pathogenic mechanisms of cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes and cancer. Exercise is a useful strategy for preventing CVD but in elderly persons it can enhance oxidative stress, which is why some studies recommend antioxidant supplementation for exercising elderly subjects. This intervention study was performed (...) on 320 elderly subjects following a Geriatric Revitalization Program (GEREPRO) to maintain physical health and reduce CVD risk. GEREPRO was based on regular exercise concurrent with a nutritional antioxidant treatment based on daily intake of a functional antioxidant food, Biofrutas. Sustained exercise (10 months, 3 sessions/week) significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and plasma HDL-cholesterol; it reduced some predictors of cardiovascular risk (arterial pressure, LDL-cholesterol, total

2006 BioFactors (Oxford, England) Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6998. Effects of unipedal standing balance exercise on the prevention of falls and hip fracture among clinically defined high-risk elderly individuals: a randomized controlled trial. (PubMed)

Effects of unipedal standing balance exercise on the prevention of falls and hip fracture among clinically defined high-risk elderly individuals: a randomized controlled trial. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the unipedal standing balance exercise for 1 min to prevent falls and hip fractures in high-risk elderly individuals with a randomized controlled trial. This control study was designed as a 6-month intervention trial.Subjects included 553 clinically defined high (...) -risk adults who were living in residences or in the community. They were randomized to an exercise group and a control group.Randomization to the subjects was performed by a table of random numbers. A unipedal standing balance exercise with open eyes was performed by standing on each leg for 1 min three times per day. As a rule, subjects of the exercise group stood on one leg without holding onto any support, but unstable subjects were permitted to hold onto a bar during the exercise time. Falls

2006 Journal of orthopaedic science : official journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Controlled trial quality: uncertain

6999. Favourable effects of exercise training on N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide plasma levels in elderly patients after acute myocardial infarction. (PubMed)

Favourable effects of exercise training on N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide plasma levels in elderly patients after acute myocardial infarction. regional or global impairment of left ventricular (LV) systolic or diastolic function leading to increased LV wall stress results in increased circulating levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP).this study aims at evaluating the effect of exercise training (ET) on NT-pro-BNP plasma levels in older patients recovering (...) from acute myocardial infarction (AMI).prospective randomised study.Academic Medical Centre.forty older patients (33 males and 7 females) who experienced AMI.patients were randomised into two groups, each composed of 20 patients: Group A were enrolled in a 3-month exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programme and Group B were discharged home with generic instructions to continue physical activity. NT-pro-BNP, cardiopulmonary and Doppler-echocardiographic parameters were measured at baseline

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2006 Age and ageing Controlled trial quality: uncertain

7000. Effect of a qigong exercise programme on elderly with depression. (PubMed)

Effect of a qigong exercise programme on elderly with depression. This report released findings of a randomized controlled trial conducted in Hong Kong to further our understanding of the psychosocial effects of qigong on elderly persons with depression.Eighty-two participants with a diagnosis of depression or obvious features of depression were recruited and randomly assigned into the intervention and comparison group. The intervention group was given a 16-week period of Qigong practice while (...) depression, improve self-efficacy and personal well being among elderly persons with chronic physical illness and depression.Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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2006 International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Controlled trial quality: uncertain

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